• How culture, institutions, and individuals shape the evolving gender gap in science and mathematics: An equity provocation for the scientific community

      Lozano, G.I.; Department of Mathematics, Center for University Education Scholarship, The University of Arizona (De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2021)
      This essay contextualizes recently measured global gender gaps in science and mathematics within three different themes relevant for enhancing equity in science: journal peer review policies, academic service at US higher education institutions, and parental leave policies and usage. The article aims to problematize potential approaches for reducing such gender gaps, and thus build capacity to advance evidence-grounded transformative change. Framed as an equity provocation for the science community, this piece hopes to elicit productive thought and evidence-based action through informed perspective taking. The vision is not just to enhance gender equity in science and mathematics, but also to ensure the continued quality and relevance of our scientific endeavors for today's diverse and global world. © 2021 IUPAC & De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. For more information, please visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2021.
    • An ultrabroadband 3D achromatic metalens

      Balli, Fatih; Sultan, Mansoor A.; Ozdemir, Aytekin; Hastings, Jeffrey Todd; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2021-01-25)
      We design and fabricate ultra-broadband achromatic metalenses operating from the visible into the short-wave infrared, 450-1700 nm, with diffraction-limited performance. A hybrid 3D architecture, which combines nanoholes with a phase plate, allows realization in low refractive index materials. As a result, two-photon lithography can be used for prototyping while molding can be used for mass production. Experimentally, a 0.27 numerical aperture (NA) metalens exhibits 60% average focusing efficiency and 6% maximum focal length error over the entire bandwidth. In addition, a 200 μm diameter, 0.04 NA metalens was used to demonstrate achromatic imaging over the same broad spectral range. These results show that 3D metalens architectures yield excellent performance even using low-refractive index materials, and that two-photon lithography can produce metalenses operating at visible wavelengths.