• Dual versus triple therapy for uncomplicated brucellosis: A retrospective cohort study

      Al-Madfaa, R.O.; Alalawi, M.A.; Basudan, L.O.; Alhejaili, S.F.; Eljaaly, K.; Madani, T.A.; Thabit, A.K.; College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 2021)
      Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. affecting multiple body systems and may lead to complications. Saudi Arabia is a country where brucellosis is endemic. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of uncomplicated brucellosis and to assess outcomes of different antibiotic regimens. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study in a Saudi tertiary academic medical center. Adults with confirmed uncomplicated brucellosis between January 2008 and December 2018 who received antibiotics were included. The primary endpoint was clinical cure. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality and length of stay. Results: Fifty-four patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Twenty five patients received a combination of doxycycline, rifampin, and aminoglycoside (group 1), whereas 29 patients received doxycycline and rifampin (group 2). There was no significant difference between the two groups in clinical cure, all-cause mortality, length of stay, and end of therapy parameters, including temperature, white blood cells count, C-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates. Conclusions: Due to lack of differences in clinical outcomes, mortality, length of stay, and end of therapy parameters between the two groups, a regimen comprising two, rather than three, agents can be sufficient for uncomplicated brucellosis. This finding conforms to previous studies. Therefore, replacing rifampin with an aminoglycoside for its presumed superior efficacy as per the World Health Organization's guidelines is not substantiated by our study. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2020 Al-Madfaa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.