• The Design and Operation of Rules of Origin in Greater Arab Free Trade Area: Challenges of Implementation and Reform

      Malkawi, Bashar; El-Shafie, Mohammad; Ain shams University; Univ Arizona, James E Rogers Coll Law (Kluwer Law International, 2019-08-20)
      Rules of origin (ROO) are pivotal element of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA). ROO are basically established to ensure that only eligible products receive preferential tariff treatment. Taking into consideration the profound implications of ROO for enhancing trade flows and facilitating the success of regional integration, this article sheds light on the way that ROO in GAFTA are designed and implemented. Moreover, the article examines the extent to which ROO still represents an obstacle to the full implementation of GAFTA. In addition, the article provides ways to overcome the most important shortcomings of ROO text in the agreement and ultimately offering possible solutions to those issues.
    • Notification of the GCC to the WTO as a Customs Union: The Whys and Hows

      Malkawi, Bashar; Univ Arizona, James E Rogers Coll Law (Kluwer Law International, 2015)
      The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is generally regarded as a success story for economic integration in Arab countries. The idea of regional integration gained ground by signing the GCC Charter. It envisioned a closer economic relationship between Member States. Although economic integration among GCC Member States is an ambitious step in the right direction, there are challenges ahead. One of the GCC challenges has been in the context of "dual notifications’ leading to political and legal frictions among World Trade Organization (WTO) members. The issue of ‘dual notification’ is not only a transparency issue, but also substantive and legal in nature.