• Flexible network community organization during the encoding and retrieval of spatiotemporal episodic memories

      Schedlbauer, Amber M; Ekstrom, Arne D; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (MIT PRESS, 2019-09-23)
      Memory encoding and retrieval involve distinct interactions between multiple brain areas, yet the flexible structure of corresponding large-scale networks during such memory processing remains unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we employed a spatiotemporal encoding and retrieval task, detecting functional community structure across the multiple components of our task. Consistent with past work, we identified a set of stable subnetworks, mostly belonging to primary motor and sensory cortices but also identified a subset of flexible hubs, mostly belonging to higher association areas. These “mover” hubs changed connectivity patterns across spatial and temporal memory encoding and retrieval, engaging in an integrative role within the network. Global encoding network and subnetwork dissimilarity predicted retrieval performance. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of flexible network allegiance among some hubs and the importance of network reconfiguration to human episodic memory.
    • Framing QA as Building and Ranking Intersentence Answer Justifications

      Jansen, Peter; Sharp, Rebecca; Surdeanu, Mihai; Clark, Peter; Univ Arizona, Sch Informat; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci; University of Arizona; University of Arizona; University of Arizona; et al. (MIT PRESS, 2017-06)
      We propose a question answering (QA) approach for standardized science exams that both identifies correct answers and produces compelling human-readable justifications for why those answers are correct. Our method first identifies the actual information needed in a question using psycholinguistic concreteness norms, then uses this information need to construct answer justifications by aggregating multiple sentences from different knowledge bases using syntactic and lexical information. We then jointly rank answers and their justifications using a reranking perceptron that treats justification quality as a latent variable. We evaluate our method on 1,000 multiple-choice questions from elementary school science exams, and empirically demonstrate that it performs better than several strong baselines, including neural network approaches. Our best configuration answers 44% of the questions correctly, where the top justifications for 57% of these correct answers contain a compelling human-readable justification that explains the inference required to arrive at the correct answer. We include a detailed characterization of the justification quality for both our method and a strong baseline, and show that information aggregation is key to addressing the information need in complex questions.
    • Getting Caught: A Collaboration On- and Offstage between Theatre and Anthropology

      Giordano, Cristiana; Pierotti, Greg; Univ Arizona, Expt Dramaturgy (MIT PRESS, 2020-03)
      How does an ethnographer remain affected by worlds encountered after leaving the field of research? How does a theatrical deviser build theatrical worlds from empirical research that convey affective experience rather than just dramaturgically sound documentary-style narrative? Affect Theatre is a thinking and acting space for exploring these questions.
    • Green Expectations: Current Effects of Anticipated Carbon Pricing

      Lemoine, Derek; Univ Arizona; University of Arizona (MIT PRESS, 2017-07)
      I report evidence that an anticipated strengthening of environmental policy increased emissions. I find that the breakdown of the U.S. Senate's 2010 climate effort generated positive excess returns in coal futures markets. This response appears to be driven by an increase in coal storage. The proposed legislation aimed to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions after 2013, but the legislative process itself may have increased emissions by over 12 million tons of carbon dioxide leading up to April 2010.
    • A Head Movement Approach to Talmy’s Typology

      Folli, Raffaella; Harley, Heidi; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist (MIT PRESS, 2020-07-15)
      We propose that the well-known verb-framed/satellite-framed variation observed by Talmy (1975,1985,2000) is a true syntactic parameter of a well-understood type: a head movement parameter. We claim that it depends on an uninterpretable feature bundled with the particular v head used in change-of-state constructions that forces the head of the Res(ult)P complement of v to undergo head movement to v in Italian. The technical apparatus employed is a feature-driven head movement parameter, of the same kind that accounts for the familiar V-to-T or T-to-C movement variation crosslinguistically. We argue that in Talmy's class of verb-framed languages, head movement of the embedded Res head to change-of-state v is mandatory, just as head movement of v to finite T is mandatory in V-to-T movement languages. Unlike previous proposals, this approach does not ascribe a deficiency to verb-framed languages, either in their semantic composition inventory or in their inventory of structural operations, both deficiencies being prima facie implausible from a biolinguistic/Minimalist perspective.
    • Hear Our Languages, Hear Our Voices: Storywork as Theory and Praxis in Indigenous-Language Reclamation

      McCarty, Teresa L.; Nicholas, Sheilah E.; Chew, Kari A. B.; Diaz, Natalie G.; Leonard, Wesley Y.; White, Louellyn; Univ Arizona, Coll Educ, Teaching Learning & Sociocultural Studies; Univ Arizona, Coll Educ, Amer Indian Studies; Univ Arizona, Coll Educ, Indigenous Teacher Educ Project (MIT PRESS, 2018-03-16)
      Storywork provides an epistemic, pedagogical, and methodological lens through which to examine Indigenous language reclamation in practice. We theorize the meaning of language reclamation in diverse Indigenous communities based on firsthand narratives of Chickasaw, Mojave, Miami, Hopi, Mohawk, Navajo, and Native Hawaiian language reclamation. Language reclamation is not about preserving the abstract entity language, but is rather about voice, which encapsulates personal and communal agency and the expression of Indigenous identities, belonging, and responsibility to self and community. Storywork - firsthand narratives through which language reclamation is simultaneously described and practiced - shows that language reclamation simultaneously refuses the dispossession of Indigenous ways of knowing and refuses past, present, and future generations in projects of cultural continuance. Centering Indigenous experiences sheds light on Indigenous community concerns and offers larger lessons on the role of language in well-being, sustainable diversity, and social justice.
    • Short-Run Effects of Parental Job Loss on Child Health

      Schaller, Jessamyn; Zerpa, Mariana; Univ Arizona, Dept Econ (MIT PRESS, 2019-01)
      Recent research suggests that parental job loss has negative effects on children's outcomes, including their academic achievement and long-run educational and labor market outcomes. In this paper we turn our attention to the effects of parental job loss on children's health. We combine health data from 16 waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which allows us to use a fixed-effects specification and still have a large sample of parental job displacements. We find that paternal job loss is harmful to children's physical and mental health, particularly among children in low-socioeconomic status families. By contrast, we find that maternal job loss does not have detrimental effects on child health. Increases in public health insurance coverage compensate for close to half of the loss in private coverage that follows parental displacement, and we find no significant changes in medical-care utilization.