• 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis

      Galgiani, John N.; Ampel, Neil M.; Blair, Janis E.; Catanzaro, Antonino; Geertsma, Francesca; Hoover, Susan E.; Johnson, Royce H.; Kusne, Shimon; Lisse, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Joel D.; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-09-15)
      It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances. Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere. Residence in and recent travel to these areas are critical elements for the accurate recognition of patients who develop this infection. In this practice guideline, we have organized our recommendations to address actionable questions concerning the entire spectrum of clinical syndromes. These can range from initial pulmonary infection, which eventually resolves whether or not antifungal therapy is administered, to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. Additional recommendations address management of coccidioidomycosis occurring for special at-risk populations. Finally, preemptive management strategies are outlined in certain at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure.
    • Adult Exposure to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac Reduces Life Span and Reproduction of Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

      Li, Xianchun; Wang, Ling; Wan, Peng; Cong, Shengbo; Wang, Jintao; Huang, Minsong; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-06)
      Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely in sprays and transgenic plants to control insect pests. Although much research has elucidated the effects of Bt toxins on larvae, relatively little is known about their effects on adults. Here, we evaluated the effects of exposing adults to Bt toxin Cry1Ac on the life span and reproduction of two strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)). In larval diet bioassays, the concentration of Cry1Ac killing 50% of larvae (LC50) was 640 times higher for the laboratory-selected resistant strain (AZP-R) than the susceptible strain (APHIS-S). In experiments with adults, the highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested (160 and 640 mu g Cry1Ac per ml of 5% honey water) reduced life span for both strains. Treatments with 10, 40, and 160 mg Cry1Ac per ml reduced the duration of the oviposition period as well as the number of eggs laid by both strains, but did not affect the percentage of pairs producing eggs, the duration of the preoviposition period, or the percentage of eggs hatching for either strain. Adult life span did not differ between strains at low to moderate concentrations of Cry1Ac, but it was significantly greater for the resistant strain than the susceptible strain at the two highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested. The reduced susceptibility to high concentrations of Cry1Ac in adults of the AZP-R strain relative to the APHIS-S strain provides the first evidence of expression of resistance to a Bt toxin in adult Lepidoptera.
    • Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Model Improved With Relative Humidity and Precipitation-Driven Egg Hatching

      Lega, Joceline; Brown, Heidi E.; Barrera, Roberto; Univ Arizona, Dept Math; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017-09)
      We propose an improved Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance model that takes into account the effect of relative humidity (RH) on adult survival, as well as rainfall-triggered egg hatching. The model uses temperature-dependent development rates described in the literature as well as documented estimates for mosquito survival in environments with high RH, and for egg desiccation. We show that combining the two additional components leads to better agreement with surveillance trap data and with dengue incidence reports in various municipalities of Puerto Rico than incorporating either alone or neither. Capitalizing on the positive association between disease incidence and vector abundance, this improved model is therefore useful to estimate incidence of Ae. aegypti-borne diseases in locations where the vector is abundant year-round.
    • Apples, Oranges, and Erasers: The Effect of Considering Similar versus Dissimilar Alternatives on Purchase Decisions

      Friedman, Elizabeth M S; Savary, Jennifer; Dhar, Ravi; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, Mkt (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-12)
      When deciding whether to buy an item, consumers sometimes think about other ways they could spend their money. Past research has explored how increasing the salience of outside options (i.e., alternatives not immediately available in the choice set) influences purchase decisions, but whether the type of alternative considered systematically affects buying behavior remains an open question. Ten studies find that relative to considering alternatives that are similar to the target, considering dissimilar alternatives leads to a greater decrease in purchase intent for the target. When consumers consider a dissimilar alternative, a competing nonfocal goal is activated, which decreases the perceived importance of the focal goal served by the target option. Consistent with this proposed mechanism, the relative importance of the focal goal versus the nonfocal goal mediates the effect of alternative type on purchase intent, and the effect attenuates when the focal goal is shielded from activation of competing goals. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
    • Are Stocks Riskier over the Long Run? Taking Cues from Economic Theory

      Avramov, Doron; Cederburg, Scott; Lučivjanská, Katarína; Univ Arizona, McClelland Hall 315R (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-02)
      We study whether stocks are riskier or safer in the long run from the perspective of Bayesian investors who employ the long-run risk, habit formation, or prospect theory models to form prior beliefs about return dynamics. Economic theory delivers important guidance for long-run investment opportunities. Specifically, incorporating prior information from the habit formation or prospect theory models reinforces beliefs in mean reversion and inferences that stocks are safer over longer horizons. Conversely, investors with long-run risk priors perceive weaker mean reversion and riskier equities. Model-based information is particularly important for inferences about uncertainty in the dividend growth component of returns.
    • Assessing Compatibility of a Pesticide in an IPM Program

      Farrar, James J; Ellsworth, Peter C; Sisco, Rebecca; Baur, Matthew E; Crump, Amanda; Fournier, Al J; Murray, M Katie; Jepson, Paul C; Tarutani, Cathy M; Dorschner, Keith W; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-01-22)
      Judicious use of pesticides is generally accepted as an important pest-control tactic in integrated pest management programs, but not all pesticides are equally appropriate. When this project began, there was not an appropriate tool or set of criteria available to evaluate how well a proposed pesticide use fit within an IPM program. The Western Integrated Pest Management Center and Western Inter-Regional Project #4 (IR-4) collaborated to develop the IPM Compatibility Guidance Document-a set of criteria and instructions for evaluating the potential IPM fit of a proposed pesticide use. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document includes a set of instructions and examples to help IR-4 project requestors develop a ranking and a short narrative description (termed an IPM Fit Statement by the IR-4 Project) of a proposed pesticide use within an IPM program. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document lists 21 specific factors in eight categories-efficacy, economic benefit, nontarget effects, resistance concerns, environmental fate, worker risk, compatibility with monitoring, and utility as a preventative-with descriptors of affirmative, intermediate, and negative compatibility attributes. A survey of project requestors and their IPM Fit Statement submissions indicates that the IPM Criteria Guidance Document is helpful and its use increased the breadth of IPM factors addressed in IR-4 project requests. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document, as a model for formalizing pesticide 'fit' assessment, may have broader application in evaluating pest-management tools for their compatibility in IPM programs.
    • Brawls Bring Buzz: Male Size Influences Competition and Courtship in Diadasia rinconis (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

      Russell, Avery L; Buchmann, Stephen L; Sabino, William de O; Papaj, Daniel R; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol; Univ Arizona, Grad Interdisciplinary Program Entomol & Insect; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-08-29)
      Sexual selection on male body size in species with a female-biased sexual size dimorphism is common yet often poorly understood. In particular, in the majority of bee species, the relative contribution of intrasexual competition and female choice to patterns of male body size is unknown. In this field study, we examined two possible components of male mating success with respect to body size in the solitary bee Diadasia rinconis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apidae): 1) ability to procure a mate and 2) the duration of copulation. We found that larger males were better able to procure mates and copulated for shorter periods of time. Although consistent with sperm competition theory, differences in copulation duration were slight; possibly, the shorter copulations of larger males instead reflect in copulo female choice. Consistent with this notion, males engaged in complex courtship while mounted, characterized for the first time in any bee in such detail via audio recordings and high-speed, high-definition video. The number of pulses in male courtship behavior was also positively associated with copulation duration and may have stimulated females to continue copulating, thereby potentially allowing smaller males to transfer a full ejaculate. Females were shown to be potentially polyandrous and although we did not observe precopulatory rejection in the field, captive females frequently rejected copulation attempts by captive males. Our work indicates that intrasexual competition selects for increased body size in a solitary bee.
    • Breed Differences in Dog Cognition Associated with Brain-Expressed Genes and Neurological Functions

      Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Hare, Brian; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; MacLean, Evan L; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol; Univ Arizona, Cognit Sci Program; Univ Arizona, Psychol Dept; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-10)
      Given their remarkable phenotypic diversity, dogs present a unique opportunity for investigating the genetic bases of cognitive and behavioral traits. Our previous work demonstrated that genetic relatedness among breeds accounts for a substantial portion of variation in dog cognition. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of breed differences in cognition, seeking to identify genes that contribute to variation in cognitive phenotypes. To do so, we combined cognitive data from the citizen science project Dognition. com with published breed-average genetic polymorphism data, resulting in a dataset of 1654 individuals with cognitive phenotypes representing 49 breeds. We conducted a breedaverage genome-wide association study to identify specific polymorphisms associated with breed differences in inhibitory control, communication, memory, and physical reasoning. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that reached genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction, located in EML1, OR52E2, HS3ST5, a U6 spliceosomal RNA, and a long noncoding RNA. When we combined results across multiple SNPs within the same gene, we identified 188 genes implicated in breed differences in cognition. This gene set included more genes than expected by chance that were (1) differentially expressed in brain tissue and (2) involved in nervous system functions including peripheral nervous system development, Wnt signaling, presynapse assembly, and synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These results advance our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of complex cognitive phenotypes and identify specific genetic variants for further research.
    • Changes in myoblast responsiveness to TNFα and IL-6 contribute to decreased skeletal muscle mass in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep

      Posont, Robert J; Beede, Kristin A; Limesand, Sean W; Yates, Dustin T; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-09-01)
    • Clinical Outcomes Following the Use of Archived Proviral HIV-1 DNA Genotype to Guide Antiretroviral Therapy Adjustment

      Ellis, Kristen E; Nawas, George T; Chan, Connie; York, Lawrence; Fisher, Julia; Connick, Elizabeth; Zangeneh, Tirdad T; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med, Div Infect Dis; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharm Practice & Sci; Univ Arizona, Stat Consulting Lab, BIO5 Inst (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-01)
      Background. Evidence regarding the safety of using proviral HIV-1 DNA genotype (DNA GT) to guide antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited. We hypothesized that HIV RNA would not increase following ART adjustment guided by DNA G'I' in a university HIV clinic. Methods. Data were obtained from electronic medical records of adult persons living with HIV-1 (PWH) who underwent DNA GT testing and changed ART between October 2014 and November 2017. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of ART switch on HIV RNA over time. Results. Eighty-three PWH had DNA GT performed, 66 (80%) switched ART, and 59 had postswitch follow-up. Data were analyzed pre-/postswitch for these 59 PWH (median age, 54 years; 71% LWH >= 10 years; 46% >= 2 previous regimens; 36% recent low-level viremia; 34% unknown medication history). On DNA GT, 58% had >= 1-class ART resistance, 34% >= 2-class, and 10% 3-class. Median follow-up (range) was 337 (34-647) days. 'I here was no change in probability of HIV RNA 250 copies/mL over time (P > .05). At baseline, 76% had HIV RNA >= 50 vs 88% at last postswitch follow-up (P = .092). Protease inhibitor use decreased from 58% to 24% (P < .001). Average daily pills and dosing frequency decreased from 3.48 to 2.05 (P < .001) and 1.39 to 1.09 (P < .001), respectively; ART cost did not change. Conclusions. DNA GT facilitated changes in ART in a treatment-experienced population without increases in HIV RNA. Decreased pill burden occurred without increased ART cost. Further studies to identify optimal use of DNA GT are needed.
    • Coccidioidal Meningitis in New York Traced to Texas by Fungal Genomic Analysis

      Barker, Bridget M; Rajan, Sujatha; De Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Sewnarine, Michelle; Roe, Chandler; Engelthaler, David M; Galgiani, John N; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Valley Fever Ctr Excellence; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-09-15)
      A child developed hydrocephalus. Sixteen months later, it was discovered to be a complication of coccidioidal meningitis. The infection's source was uncertain until genomic analysis of the fungal isolate identified its origin to be a visit to Beeville, Texas. Improved national reporting of cases of coccidioidomycosis might reduce diagnostic delays.
    • Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults

      Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017-09-01)
      Objectives: Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Method: Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. Results: The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Discussion: Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.
    • DNA Methylation Across the Serotonin Transporter Gene Following Marital Separation: A Pilot Study

      Sbarra, David A; Cook, Chelsea C; Hasselmo, Karen; Noon, Muhammad S; Mehl, Matthias R; Univ Arizona, Data Sci Inst; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-12-12)
      Background Marital separation and divorce are stressful life transitions associated with increased risk for a range of poor mental and physical health outcomes. A key task for research in this area is to identify individual differences that may index risk for these adverse outcomes. Purpose To examine the association between DNA methylation across the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and self-reported emotional distress following marital separation. Methods Genomic DNA methylation (from buffy coat fractions of whole blood) was quantified in a sample of 47 adults following a recent marital separation; concurrent with the blood draw, participants completed questionnaires on their psychological adjustment to the separation experience. Results Relatively greater methylation of SLC6A4 was associated with less subjective separation-related psychological distress, and this association held after accounting for participants' age, length of the relationship, time since the separation, and SLC6A4 genotype, b = -211.99, SE = 94.91, p = .03, 95% CI: -402.22, -25.21. Significantly stronger negative associations were observed between methylation and psychological adjustment among participants who had more recently separated from their former partner. Conclusions Although results derived from small samples must be considered preliminary and hypothesis generating, the current study raises new questions about the role of DNA methylation and psychosocial adaptation to stressful life events such as divorce, and the findings can inform future studies in this research area.
    • Eating Pattern Response to a Low-Fat Diet Intervention and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Normotensive Women: The Women's Health Initiative

      Van Horn, Linda; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Howard, Barbara, V; Allison, Matthew A.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Vitolin, Mara Z.; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-03)
      Background: Women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypertension at baseline assigned to intervention in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) trial experienced 30% lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas results in women with hypertension or prior CVD could have been confounded by postrandomization use of statins. Objectives: Intervention participants reported various self-selected changes to achieve the 20% total fat goals. Reviewed are intervention compared with comparison group HRs for CHD, stroke, and total CVD in relation to specific dietary changes in normotensive participants. Methods: Dietary change was assessed by comparing baseline with year 1 FFQ data in women (n = 10,371) without hypertension or CVD at baseline with intake of total fat above the median to minimize biases due to use of the FFQ in trial eligibility screening. Results: Intervention participants self-reported compensating reduced energy intake from total fat by increasing carbohydrate and protein. Specifically they increased plant protein, with those in the upper quartile (increased total protein by >= 3.3% of energy) having a CHD HR of 0.39 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.71), compared with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.48) for those in the lower quartile of change (decreased total protein >= 0.6% of energy), with P-trend of 0.04. CHD HR did not vary significantly with change in percentage energy from carbohydrate, and stroke HR did not vary significantly with any macronutrient changes. Scores reflecting adherence to recommended dietary patterns including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial and the Healthy Eating Index showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: Intervention group total fat reduction replaced with increased carbohydrate and some protein, especially plant-based protein, was related to lower CHD risk in normotensive women without CVD who reported high baseline total fat intake.
    • Effects of Urbanization on the Diversity, Abundance, and Composition of Ant Assemblages in an Arid City

      Miguelena, Javier G; Baker, Paul B; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-06-15)
      Cities within arid regions make up a significant but understudied subset of the urban ecosystems of the world. To assess the effects of urbanization, fragmentation, and land-use change in an arid city, we sampled the ant assemblages in three habitat types in Tucson, Arizona: irrigated neighborhood parks, urban desert remnants, and preserved desert. We analyzed the abundance, species richness, evenness, as well as the species and functional group composition of ant assemblages. We found no significant differences in species richness or evenness. However, irrigated parks had significantly greater ant abundances. Although some exotic species were present in the urban habitats, they did not have significant effects on ant diversity. Ant assemblages from all three habitat types were distinct from each other in their composition. Irrigated parks included a significantly higher proportion of species typically found in cooler and wetter climates. The differences in abundance and species composition between irrigated parks and the other habitats are likely the effect of irrigation removing water as a limiting factor for colony growth and increasing resource availability, as well as producing a localized cooling effect. Our results show that arid urban ecosystems may include considerable biodiversity, in part thanks to increased landscape heterogeneity resulting from the irrigation of green areas.
    • Environmental chamber heat stress responses and adaptations in crossbred Hereford steers

      Diaz, Duarte; Vander Poel, Mathew; Xiao, Yao; Renquist, Benjamin; Wright, Ashley; Collier, Robert; Compart, Devan; Univ Arizona, CALS, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci; Univ Arizona, CALS, Cooperat Extens (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-09)
    • Environmentally relevant exposure to dibutyl phthalate disrupts DNA damage repair gene expression in the mouse ovary

      Liu, Xiaosong; Craig, Zelieann R; Univ Arizona, BIO5 Inst; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci, Shantz Room (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-10-04)
      Phthalates have a history of reproductive toxicity in animal models and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes in women. Human exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) occurs via consumer products (7-10 mu g/kg/day) and medications (1-233 mu g/kg/day). Most DBP toxicity studies have focused on high supraphysiological exposure levels; thus, very little is known about exposures occurring at environmentally relevant levels. CD-1 female mice (80 days old) were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DBP dissolved in oil at environmentally relevant (10 and 100 mu g/kg/day) or higher (1000 mu g/kg/day) levels for 30 days to evaluate effects on DNA damage response (DDR) pathway genes and folliculogenesis. DBP exposure caused dose-dependent effects on folliculogenesis and gene expression. Specifically, animals exposed to the high dose of DBP had more atretic follicles in their ovaries, while in those treated with environmentally relevant doses, follicle numbers were no different from vehicle-treated controls. DBP exposure significantly reduced the expression of DDR genes including those involved in homologous recombination (Atm, Brca1, Mre11a, Rad50), mismatch repair (Msh3, Msh6), and nucleotide excision repair (Xpc, Pcna) in a dose-specific manner. Interestingly, staining for the DNA damage marker, gamma H2AX, was similar between treatments. DBP exposure did not result in differential DNA methylation in the Brca1 promoter but significantly reduced transcript levels for the maintenance DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt1, in the ovary. Collectively, these findings show that oral exposure to environmentally relevant levels of DBP for 30 days does not significantly impact folliculogenesis in adult mice but leads to aberrant ovarian expression of DDR genes. Summary Sentence Exposure to human relevant doses of dibutyl phthalate results in significant disruption of DNA damage repair gene expression in the mouse ovary.
    • Executive Summary: 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis

      Galgiani, John N.; Ampel, Neil M.; Blair, Janis E.; Catanzaro, Antonino; Geertsma, Francesca; Hoover, Susan E.; Johnson, Royce H.; Kusne, Shimon; Lisse, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Joel D.; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-08-24)
      It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances. Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere. Residence in and recent travel to these areas are critical elements for the accurate recognition of patients who develop this infection. In this practice guideline, we have organized our recommendations to address actionable questions concerning the entire spectrum of clinical syndromes. These can range from initial pulmonary infection, which eventually resolves whether or not antifungal therapy is administered, to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. Additional recommendations address management of coccidioidomycosis occurring for special at-risk populations. Finally, preemptive management strategies are outlined in certain at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure.
    • Foreign Geographical Indications, Consumer Preferences, and the Domestic Market for Cheese

      Slade, Peter; Michler, Jeffrey D; Josephson, Anna; Univ Arizona, Dept Agr & Resource Econ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-08-07)
      The protection of geographical indications (GIs) is an important feature of modern trade agreements. In the Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), Canada agreed to stronger protections for GIs of European cheeses and other food products. Under this agreement, new Canadian producers can no longer label cheese as “feta” but instead must refer to it as “imitation feta,” “feta style,” or “feta type.” We use a choice experiment to determine the effect of this agreement on Canadian cheese producers. We find that the effect of GI recognition varies depending on the terms used to label Canadian cheese and the information given to consumers. The results imply that policies that give greater latitude to food marketers will weaken the impact of GI recognition.
    • Genetic Color Polymorphism of the Whitelined Sphinx Moth larva (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

      Francois, C. L.; Davidowitz, G.; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-08)
      For a trait to be considered polymorphic, it must fulfill both genetic and ecological criteria. Genetically, a polymorphic trait must have multiple heritable variants, potentially from the same female, in high-enough frequency as to not be due to mutation. Ecologically, in a single wild population, these variants must co-occur, and be capable of interbreeding. Polymorphism is frequently considered in the context of either geographical cause or genetic consequence. However, the incorporation of both in a single study can facilitate our understanding of the role that polymorphism may play in speciation. Here, we ask if the two color morphs (green and yellow) exhibited by larvae of the whitelined sphinx moth, Hyles lineata (Fabricius), co-occur in wild populations, in what frequencies, and whether they are genetically determined. Upon confirmation from field surveys that the two color morphs do co-occur in wild populations, we determined heritability. We conducted a series of outcrosses, intercrosses and backcrosses using individuals that had exhibited yellow or green as laboratory-reared larvae. Ratios of yellow:green color distribution from each familial cross were then compared with ratios one would expect from a single gene, yellow-recessive model using a two-sided binomial exact test.The offspring from several crosses indicate that the yellow and green coloration is a genetic polymorphism, primarily controlled by one gene in a single-locus, two-allele Mendelian-inheritance pattern. Results further suggest that while one gene primarily controls color, there may be several modifier genes interacting with it.