• A comparison of text versus audio for information comprehension with future uses for smart speakers

      Leroy, G.; Kauchak, D.; University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2019)
      Objective: Audio is increasingly used to access information on the Internet through virtual assistants and smart speakers. Our objective is to evaluate the distribution of health information through audio. Materials and Methods: We conducted 2 studies to compare comprehension after reading or listening to information using a new corpus containing short text snippets from Cochrane (N=50) and Wikipedia (N=50). In study 1, the snippets were first presented as audio or text followed by a multiple-choice question. Then, the same information was presented as text and the question was repeated in addition to questions about perceived difficulty, severity and the likelihood of encountering the disease. In study 2, the first multiple-choice question was replaced with a free recall question. Results: Study 1 showed that information comprehension is very similar in both presentation modes (53% accuracy for text and 55% for audio). Study 2 showed that information retention is higher with text, but similar comprehension. Both studies show improvement in performance with repeated information presentation. Discussion: Audio presentation of information is effective and the format novel. Performance was slightly lower with audio when asked to repeat information, but comparable to text for answering questions. Additional studies are needed with different types of information and presentation combinations. Conclusion: The use of audio to provide health information is a promising field and will become increasingly important with the popularity of smart speakers and virtual assistants, particularly for consumers who do not use computers, for example minority groups, or those with limited sight or motor control. © The Author(s) 2019.
    • A great mimic of left atrial appendage thrombus in a patient with atrial fibrillation

      Ajmal, M.; Janardhanan, R.; University of Arizona, Sarver Heart Center, College of Medicine (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    • A high-contrast search for variability in HR 8799bc with VLT-SPHERE

      Biller, B.A.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Kasper, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lazzoni, C.; Mesa, D.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      The planets HR8799bc display nearly identical colours and spectra as variable young exoplanet analogs such as VHS 1256-1257ABb and PSO J318.5-22, and are likely to be similarly variable. Here we present results from a 5-epoch SPHERE IRDIS broadband-H search for variability in these two planets. HR 8799b aperture photometry and HR 8799bc negative simulated planet photometry share similar trends within uncertainties. Satellite spot lightcurves share the same trends as the planet lightcurves in the August 2018 epochs, but diverge in the October 2017 epochs. We consider Δ(mag)b-Δ(mag)c to trace non-shared variations between the two planets, and rule out non-shared variability in Δ(mag)b-Δ(mag)c to the 10-20 rm per\cent level over 4-5 h. To quantify our sensitivity to variability, we simulate variable lightcurves by inserting and retrieving a suite of simulated planets at similar radii from the star as HR 8799bc, but offset in position angle. For HR 8799b, for periods <10 h, we are sensitive to variability with amplitude > 5 per\cent. For HR 8799c, our sensitivity is limited to variability > 25 per\cent for similar periods. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A Planck-selected dusty proto-cluster at z = 2.16 associated with a strong overdensity of massive Hα-emitting galaxies

      Koyama, Y.; Polletta, M.D.C.; Tanaka, I.; Kodama, T.; Dole, H.; Soucail, G.; Frye, B.; Lehnert, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We have discovered an overdensity of Hα-emitting galaxies associated with a Planck compact source in the COSMOS field (PHz G237.0+42.5) through narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS). This Planck-selected dusty proto-cluster at z = 2.16 has 38 Hα emitters including six spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the observed MOIRCS 4 × 7 arcmin2 field (corresponding to ∼2.0 × 3.5 Mpc2 in the physical scale). We find that massive Hα emitters with log (M/M) >10.5 are strongly clustered in the core of the proto-cluster (within ∼300 kpc from the density peak of the Hα emitters). Most of the Hα emitters in this proto-cluster lie along the star-forming main sequence using Hα-based estimates of the star formation rate (SFR). Meanwhile, the cluster total SFRs derived by integrating the Hα-based SFRs is an order of magnitude smaller than those estimated from Planck/Herschel far-infrared photometry. Our results suggest that Hα is a good observable for detecting moderately star-forming galaxies and for tracing the large-scale environment in and around high-redshift dusty proto-clusters. However, there is a possibility that a large fraction of star formation could be obscured by dust and undetected in Hα observations. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A redefinition of the halo boundary leads to a simple yet accurate halo model of large-scale structure

      García, R.; Rozo, E.; Becker, M.R.; More, S.; Department of Physics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We present a model for the halo-mass correlation function that explicitly incorporates halo exclusion and allows for a redefinition of the halo boundary in a flexible way. We assume that haloes trace mass in a way that can be described using a single scale-independent bias parameter. However, our model exhibits scale-dependent biasing due to the impact of halo-exclusion, the use of a 'soft' (i.e. not infinitely sharp) halo boundary, and differences in the one halo term contributions to ζhm and ζmm. These features naturally lead us to a redefinition of the halo boundary that lies at the 'by eye' transition radius from the one-halo to the two-halo term in the halo-mass correlation function. When adopting our proposed definition, our model succeeds in describing the halo-mass correlation function with residuals over the radial range 0.1 h-1 Mpc < r < 80 h-1 Mpc, and for halo masses in the range 1013 h-1 M < M < 1015 h-1 M. Our proposed halo boundary is related to the splashback radius by a roughly constant multiplicative factor. Taking the 87 percentile as reference we find rt/Rsp ≈ 1.3. Surprisingly, our proposed definition results in halo abundances that are well described by the Press-Schechter mass function with δsc = 1.449 ± 0.004. The clustering bias parameter is offset from the standard background-split prediction by This level of agreement is comparable to that achieved with more standard halo definitions. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A search for satellite galaxies of nearby star-forming galaxies with resolved stars in LBT-SONG

      Garling, C.T.; Peter, A.H.G.; Kochanek, C.S.; Sand, D.J.; Crnojević, D.; Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We present results from a resolved stellar population search for dwarf satellite galaxies of six nearby (D < 5 Mpc), sub-Milky Way mass hosts using deep (m ∼27 mag) optical imaging from the Large Binocular Telescope. We perform image simulations to quantify our detection efficiency for dwarfs over a large range in luminosity and size, and develop a fast catalogue-based emulator that includes a treatment of unresolved photometric blending. We discover no new dwarf satellites, but we recover two previously known dwarfs (DDO 113 and LV J1228+4358) with MV < -12 that lie in our survey volume. We preview a new theoretical framework to predict satellite luminosity functions using analytical probability distribution functions and apply it to our sample, finding that we predict one fewer classical dwarf and one more faint dwarf (MV ∼-7.5) than we find in our observational sample (i.e. the observational sample is slightly top-heavy). However, the overall number of dwarfs in the observational sample (2) is in good agreement with the theoretical expectations. Interestingly, DDO 113 shows signs of environmental quenching and LV J1228+4358 is tidally disrupting, suggesting that low-mass hosts may affect their satellites more severely than previously believed. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Age-growth relationships, temperature sensitivity and palaeoclimate-archive potential of the threatened Altiplano cactus Echinopsis atacamensis

      English, N B; Dettman, D L; Hua, Q; Mendoza, J M; Muir, D; Hultine, K R; Williams, D G; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021-01-27)
      The tall (>4 m), charismatic and threatened columnar cacti, pasacana [Echinopsis atacamensis (Vaupel) Friedrich & G.D. Rowley)], grows on the Bolivian Altiplano and provides environmental and economic value to these extremely cold, arid and high-elevation (∼4000 m) ecosystems. Yet very little is known about their growth rates, ages, demography and climate sensitivity. Using radiocarbon in spine dating time series, we quantitatively estimate the growth rate (5.8 and 8.3 cm yr-1) and age of these cacti (up to 430 years). These data and our field measurements yield a survivorship curve that suggests precipitation on the Altiplano is important for this species' recruitment. Our results also reveal a relationship between nighttime temperatures on the Altiplano and the variation in oxygen isotope values in spines (δ18O). The annual δ18O minimums from 58 years of in-series spine tissue from pasacana on the Altiplano provides at least decadal proxy records of temperature (r = 0.58; P < 0.0001), and evidence suggests that there are longer records connecting modern Altiplano temperatures to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean. While the role of Atlantic SSTs on the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and precipitation on the Bolivian Altiplano is well described, the impact of SSTs on Altiplano temperatures is disputed. Understanding the modern impact of SSTs on temperature on the Altiplano is important to both understand the impact of future climate change on pasacana cactus and to understand past climate changes on the Altiplano. This is the best quantitative evidence to date of one of the oldest known cactus in the world, although there are likely many older cacti on the Altiplano, or elsewhere, that have not been sampled yet. Together with growth, isotope and age data, this information should lead to better management and conservation outcomes for this threatened species and the Altiplano ecosystem. © 2021 The Author(s).
    • ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey: A strongly lensed multiply imaged dusty system at z ≥ 6

      Laporte, N.; Zitrin, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Fujimoto, S.; Brammer, G.; Richard, J.; Oguri, M.; Caminha, G.B.; Kohno, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We report the discovery of an intrinsically faint, quintuply-imaged, dusty galaxy MACS0600-z6 at a redshift z = 6.07 viewed through the cluster MACSJ0600.1–2008 (z = 0.46). A ≃ 4σ dust detection is seen at 1.2mm as part of the ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey (ALCS), an on-going ALMA Large programme, and the redshift is secured via [C II] 158 μm emission described in a companion paper. In addition, spectroscopic follow-up with GMOS/Gemini-North shows a break in the galaxy’s spectrum, consistent with the Lyman break at that redshift. We use a detailed mass model of the cluster and infer a magnification μ ≳ 30 for the most magnified image of this galaxy, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the physical properties of a sub-luminous galaxy at the end of cosmic reionization. Based on the spectral energy distribution, we infer lensing-corrected stellar and dust masses of 2.9-2.3+115 × 109 and 4.8-3.4+45 × 106 M☉, respectively, a star formation rate of 9.7-6.6+220 M☉ yr−1, an intrinsic size of 0.54-0.14+026 kpc, and a luminosity-weighted age of 200 ± 100 Myr. Strikingly, the dust production rate in this relatively young galaxy appears to be larger than that observed for equivalent, lower redshift sources. We discuss if this implies that early supernovae are more efficient dust producers and the consequences for using dust mass as a probe of earlier star formation. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society
    • ALMA reveals the aftermath of a white dwarf–brown dwarf merger in CK Vulpeculae

      Eyres, S.P.S.; Evans, A.; Zijlstra, A.; Avison, A.; Gehrz, R.D.; Hajduk, M.; Starrfield, S.; Mohamed, S.; Woodward, C.E.; Wagner, R.M.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020)
      We present Atacama Large Millimeter–Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CK Vulpeculae which is identified with ‘Nova Vulpeculae 1670’. They trace obscuring dust in the inner regions of the associated nebulosity. The dust forms two cocoons, each extending ∼5 arcsec north and south of the presumed location of the central star. Brighter emission is in a more compact east–west structure (2 arcsec × 1 arcsec) where the cocoons intersect. We detect line emission in NH2CHO, CN, four organic molecules, and C17O. CN lines trace bubbles within the dusty cocoons; CH3OH a north–south S-shaped jet; and other molecules a central cloud with a structure aligned with the innermost dust structure. The major axis of the overall dust and gas bubble structure has a projected inclination of ∼24◦ with respect to a 71 arcsec extended ‘hourglass’ nebulosity, previously seen in H α. Three cocoon limbs align with dark lanes in the inner regions of the same H α images. The central 2 arcsec × 1 arcsec dust is resolved into a structure consistent with a warped dusty disc. The velocity structure of the jets indicates an origin at the centre of this disc and precession with an unknown period. Deceleration regions at both the northern and southern tips of the jets are roughly coincident with additional diffuse dust emission over regions approximately 2 arcsec across. These structures are consistent with a bipolar outflow expanding into surrounding high-density material. We suggest that a white dwarf and brown dwarf merged between 1670 and 1672, with the observed structures and extraordinary isotopic abundances generated as a result. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
    • An ALMA study of hub-filament systems - I. On the clump mass concentration within the most massive cores

      Anderson, M.; Peretto, N.; Ragan, S.E.; Rigby, A.J.; Avison, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fuller, G.A.; Shirley, Y.L.; Traficante, A.; Williams, G.M.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      The physical processes behind the transfer of mass from parsec-scale clumps to massive star-forming cores remain elusive. We investigate the relation between the clump morphology and the mass fraction that ends up in its most massive core (MMC) as a function of infrared brightness, i.e. a clump evolutionary tracer. Using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 12 m and Atacama Compact Array, we surveyed six infrared dark hubs in 2.9 mm continuum at ∼3 arcsec resolution. To put our sample into context, we also re-analysed published ALMA data from a sample of 29 high-mass surface density ATLASGAL sources. We characterize the size, mass, morphology, and infrared brightness of the clumps using Herschel and Spitzer data. Within the six newly observed hubs, we identify 67 cores, and find that the MMCs have masses between 15 and 911 M⊙ within a radius of 0.018-0.156 pc. The MMC of each hub contains 3-24 per cent of the clump mass (fMMC), becoming 5-36 per cent once core masses are normalized to the median core radius. Across the 35 clumps, we find no significant difference in the median fMMC values of hub and non-hub systems, likely the consequence of a sample bias. However, we find that fMMC is ∼7.9 times larger for infrared dark clumps compared to infrared bright ones. This factor increases up to ∼14.5 when comparing our sample of six infrared dark hubs to infrared bright clumps. We speculate that hub-filament systems efficiently concentrate mass within their MMC early on during its evolution. As clumps evolve, they grow in mass, but such growth does not lead to the formation of more massive MMCs. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • An APEX search for carbon emission from NGC 1977 proplyds

      Haworth, T.J.; Kim, J.S.; Qiao, L.; Winter, A.J.; Williams, J.P.; Clarke, C.J.; Owen, J.E.; Facchini, S.; Ansdell, M.; Kama, M.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022)
      We used the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope to search for C I 1-0 (492.16 GHz) emission towards eight proplyds in NGC 1977, which is an FUV radiation environment two orders of magnitude weaker than that irradiating the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC) proplyds. C I is expected to enable us to probe the wind launching region of externally photo-evaporating discs. Of the eight targets observed, no 3σ detections of the C I line were made despite reaching sensitivities deeper than the anticipated requirement for detection from prior APEX CI observations of nearby discs and models of external photo-evaporation of quite massive discs. By comparing both the proplyd mass loss rates and C I flux constraints with a large grid of external photo-evaporation simulations, we determine that the non-detections are in fact fully consistent with the models if the proplyd discs are very low mass. Deeper observations in C I and probes of the disc mass with other tracers (e.g. in the continuum and CO) can test this. If such a test finds higher masses, this would imply carbon depletion in the outer disc, as has been proposed for other discs with surprisingly low C I fluxes, though more massive discs would also be incompatible with models that can explain the observed mass loss rates and C I non-detections. The expected remaining lifetimes of the proplyds are estimated to be similar to those of proplyds in the ONC at 0.1 Myr. Rapid destruction of discs is therefore also a feature of common, intermediate UV environments. © 2022 The Author(s).
    • An improved model for the spectra of discs of nova-like variables

      Hubeny, I.; Long, K.S.; The University of Arizona, Steward Observatory (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      The spectra arising from the discs of nova-like variables show many of the features seen in stellar atmospheres. They are typically modelled either from an appropriated weighted set of stellar atmospheres or a disc atmosphere with energy is dissipated near the disc plane, with the effective temperature distribution expected from a steady-state accretion disc. However, these models generally overpredict the depth of the Balmer jump and the slope of the spectrum in the ultraviolet. The problem is likely due to energy dissipation in the disc atmosphere, which produces a flatter vertical temperature profile than is observed in stars. Here, we provide validation for this hypothesis in the form of spectra generated using the stellar atmosphere code tlusty using a parametric prescription for energy dissipation as a function of depth and closely match the spectrum of the nova-like IX Vel over the wavelength range 1150-6000 A. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Anxiety and Fear Avoidance Beliefs and Behavior May Be Significant Risk Factors for Chronic Opioid Analgesic Therapy Reliance for Patients with Chronic Pain-Results from a Preliminary Study

      Silva, Marcelina Jasmine; Coffee, Zhanette; Yu, Chong Ho; Martel, Marc O; College of Nursing, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021-02-17)
      OBJECTIVE: To describe differences between patients with chronic, non-cancer pain (CNCP) who were successfully able to cease full mu agonist chronic opioid analgesic therapy (COAT), and those who exhibited refractory COAT reliance, among those who participated in a multidisciplinary program designed for COAT cessation. DESIGN: A retrospective review of electronic medical records (EMR) data was organized for preliminary analysis. SETTING: A multicenter private practice specializing in CNCP, which received patient referrals from the surrounding geographical area of primary and specialty care offices in Northern California. SUBJECTS: Data from 109 patients with CNCP who participated in a multidisciplinary program to cease COAT between the dates of October 2017 to December 2019 were examined. METHODS: EMR data, pre-COAT cessation, of oral morphine milligram equivalence (MME) and validated questionnaire responses assessing anxiety and fear-based beliefs and behavior, as well as opioid misuse, were extracted and compared between those who successfully ceased COAT and those who did not. RESULTS: Patients who were unsuccessful at COAT cessation reported significantly higher Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FAB) scores. No significant differences were found based on incoming MME amounts, Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) or Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) scores. Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores showed a split pattern with unclear significance. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that fear avoidance beliefs and behavior, as measured by the FAB, play a significant role in refractory COAT reliance for patients with CNCP.
    • Assessing tension metrics with dark energy survey and Planck data

      Lemos, P.; Raveri, M.; Campos, A.; Park, Y.; Chang, C.; Weaverdyck, N.; Huterer, D.; Liddle, A.R.; Blazek, J.; Cawthon, R.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      Quantifying tensions – inconsistencies amongst measurements of cosmological parameters by different experiments – has emerged as a crucial part of modern cosmological data analysis. Statistically significant tensions between two experiments or cosmological probes may indicate new physics extending beyond the standard cosmological model and need to be promptly identified. We apply several tension estimators proposed in the literature to the dark energy survey (DES) large-scale structure measurement and Planck cosmic microwave background data. We first evaluate the responsiveness of these metrics to an input tension artificially introduced between the two, using synthetic DES data. We then apply the metrics to the comparison of Planck and actual DES Year 1 data. We find that the parameter differences, Eigentension, and Suspiciousness metrics all yield similar results on both simulated and real data, while the Bayes ratio is inconsistent with the rest due to its dependence on the prior volume. Using these metrics, we calculate the tension between DES Year 1 3 × 2pt and Planck, finding the surveys to be in ∼2.3σ tension under the ΔCDM paradigm. This suite of metrics provides a toolset for robustly testing tensions in the DES Year 3 data and beyond. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society
    • Associations of dwarf galaxies in a λCDM Universe

      Yaryura, C.Y.; Abadi, M.G.; Gottlober, S.; Libeskind, N.I.; Cora, S.A.; Ruiz, A.N.; Vega-Martinez, C.A.; Yepes, G.; Behroozi, P.; Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020)
      Associations of dwarf galaxies are loose systems composed exclusively of dwarf galaxies. These systems were identified in the Local Volume for the first time more than 30 yr ago. We study these systems in the cosmological framework of the λ cold dark matter (λCDM) model.We consider the Small MultiDark Planck simulation and populate its dark matter haloes by applying the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation SAG. We identify galaxy systems using a friends-of-friends algorithm with a linking length equal to b = 0.4Mpc h-1to reproduce the size of dwarf galaxy associations detected in the Local Volume. Our samples of dwarf systems are built up removing those systems that have one or more galaxies with stellar mass larger than a maximum thresholdMmax.We analyse three different samples defined by log10(Mmax[M⊙ h-1]) = 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5. On average, our systems have typical sizes of ∼ 0.2Mpc h-1, velocity dispersion of ∼ 30km s-1, and estimated total mass of ∼ 1011M⊙ h-1. Such large typical sizes suggest that individual members of a given dwarf association reside in different dark matter haloes and are generally not substructures of any other halo. Indeed, in more than 90 per cent of our dwarf systems their individual members inhabit different dark matter haloes, while only in the remaining 10 per cent members do reside in the same halo. Our results indicate that the λCDM model can naturally reproduce the existence and properties of dwarf galaxies' associations without much difficulty. © 2020 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
    • BATCAVE: calling somatic mutations with a tumor- And site-specific prior

      Mannakee, B.K.; Gutenkunst, R.N.; Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020)
      Detecting somatic mutations withins tumors is key to understanding treatment resistance, patient prognosis and tumor evolution. Mutations at low allelic frequency, those present in only a small portion of tumor cells, are particularly difficult to detect. Many algorithms have been developed to detect such mutations, but none models a key aspect of tumor biology. Namely, every tumor has its own profile of mutation types that it tends to generate. We present BATCAVE (Bayesian Analysis Tools for Context-Aware Variant Evaluation), an algorithm that first learns the individual tumor mutational profile and mutation rate then uses them in a prior for evaluating potential mutations. We also present an R implementation of the algorithm, built on the popular caller MuTect. Using simulations, we show that adding the BATCAVE algorithm to MuTect improves variant detection. It also improves the calibration of posterior probabilities, enabling more principled tradeoff between precision and recall. We also show that BATCAVE performs well on real data. Our implementation is computationally inexpensive and straightforward to incorporate into existing MuTect pipelines. More broadly, the algorithm can be added to other variant callers, and it can be extended to include additional biological features that affect mutation generation. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of NAR Genomics and Bioinformatics.
    • Bees learn preferences for plant species that offer only pollen as a reward

      Russell, Avery L.; Golden, Rebekah E.; Leonard, Anne S.; Papaj, Daniel R.; Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology and Insect Science, Entomology and Insect Science Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2016)
      The astonishing diversity of floral form in angiosperm plants is driven in large part by preferences of pollinators for various floral traits, including learned preferences. Remarkably, almost all of a vast literature on learning and memory in pollinators relates to nectar as a reward, even though bees and many flies, beetles, and butterflies must collect pollen. In this study, we asked if bees formed preferences for plant species from which pollen had been collected successfully. Using absolute conditioning, we gave pollen foraging bees experience with plant species that offered only pollen rewards. Naive bees generally showed modest preferences, whereas experienced bees adopted strong preferences for those species over alternative species not previously experienced. Learned preferences were retained for at least 24 h, consistent with preferences learned with nectar rewards. These experience-mediated changes in preference raised the possibility that bees formed associations between particular floral features and pollen rewards. We therefore asked if learned preferences required that bees successfully collect pollen. Using differential conditioning, we determined that learned preferences were strongly influenced by receipt of a pollen reward. In a final experiment, we characterized the importance of 2 floral features, the corolla and the anther, in the expression of learned preferences. Although experience altered responses to both floral parts, responses to anthers were influenced more strongly. We discuss recent evidence in the literature for associative learning with pollen rewards and propose that learned preferences in the context of pollen collection have played an important role in floral display evolution.
    • Beta-adrenergic agonists and heat stress impact skeletal muscle gene expression and mitochondrial function in beef cattle

      Sieck, R.L.; Reith, R.R.; Fuller, A.M.; Grijalva, P.C.; Treffer, L.K.; Swanson, R.M.; Ponte Viana, M.; Khalimonchuk, O.; Diaz, D.E.; Schmidt, T.B.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    • Caracal caracal (Carnivora: Felidae)

      Veals, Amanda M; Burnett, Alexandra D; Morandini, Marina; Drouilly, Marine; Koprowski, John L; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-02)
      Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) is a felid commonly called the caracal. It is a slender, medium-sized cat (5.8–22 kg) characterized by a short tail and long ear tufts. C. caracal has a wide distribution and is found throughout Africa, north to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, central and southwest Asia into India; its habitat includes arid woodlands, savanna, scrublands, hilly steppes, and arid mountainous regions. It is globally listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as “Least Concern” despite population trends unknown across most of its geographic distribution. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora lists Asian populations under Appendix I and African populations under Appendix II.
    • CHANG-ES XXIII*influence of a galactic wind in NGC 5775

      Heald, G.H.; Heesen, V.; Sridhar, S.S.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D.J.; Brüggen, M.; Chyzy, K.T.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; English, J.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022)
      We present new radio continuum images of the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 5775, from LOFAR (140 MHz) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array CHANG-ES survey (1500 MHz). We trace the non-theal radio halo up to 13 kpc from the disc, measuring the non-theal spectral index and estimating the total equipartition magnetic field strength (13 $$G in the disc and 7 $$G above the plane). The radio halo has a similar extent at both frequencies, displays evidence for localized cosmic ray streaming coinciding with prominent H α filaments and vertical extensions of the regular magnetic field, and exhibits a boxy morphology especially at 140 MHz. In order to understand the nature of the disc-halo flow, we extend our previous model of cosmic ray propagation by implementing an iso-theal wind with a tunable 'flux tube' (approximately hyperboloidal) geometry. This updated model is successful in matching the vertical distribution of non-theal radio emission, and the vertical steepening of the associated spectral index, in a consistent conceptual framework with few free parameters. Our new model provides the opportunity to estimate the mass outflow driven by the star foation process, and we find an implied rate of ${M}approx 3$-$6, math{M_{o}, yr{-1}}$ (40-80of the star foation rate) if the escape velocity is reached, with substantial uncertainty arising from the poorly understood distribution of interstellar medium material entrained in the vertical flow. The wind may play a role in influencing the vertical gradient in rotational velocity. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.