• A comparison of text versus audio for information comprehension with future uses for smart speakers

      Leroy, G.; Kauchak, D.; University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2019)
      Objective: Audio is increasingly used to access information on the Internet through virtual assistants and smart speakers. Our objective is to evaluate the distribution of health information through audio. Materials and Methods: We conducted 2 studies to compare comprehension after reading or listening to information using a new corpus containing short text snippets from Cochrane (N=50) and Wikipedia (N=50). In study 1, the snippets were first presented as audio or text followed by a multiple-choice question. Then, the same information was presented as text and the question was repeated in addition to questions about perceived difficulty, severity and the likelihood of encountering the disease. In study 2, the first multiple-choice question was replaced with a free recall question. Results: Study 1 showed that information comprehension is very similar in both presentation modes (53% accuracy for text and 55% for audio). Study 2 showed that information retention is higher with text, but similar comprehension. Both studies show improvement in performance with repeated information presentation. Discussion: Audio presentation of information is effective and the format novel. Performance was slightly lower with audio when asked to repeat information, but comparable to text for answering questions. Additional studies are needed with different types of information and presentation combinations. Conclusion: The use of audio to provide health information is a promising field and will become increasingly important with the popularity of smart speakers and virtual assistants, particularly for consumers who do not use computers, for example minority groups, or those with limited sight or motor control. © The Author(s) 2019.
    • A high-contrast search for variability in HR 8799bc with VLT-SPHERE

      Biller, B.A.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Kasper, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lazzoni, C.; Mesa, D.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      The planets HR8799bc display nearly identical colours and spectra as variable young exoplanet analogs such as VHS 1256-1257ABb and PSO J318.5-22, and are likely to be similarly variable. Here we present results from a 5-epoch SPHERE IRDIS broadband-H search for variability in these two planets. HR 8799b aperture photometry and HR 8799bc negative simulated planet photometry share similar trends within uncertainties. Satellite spot lightcurves share the same trends as the planet lightcurves in the August 2018 epochs, but diverge in the October 2017 epochs. We consider Δ(mag)b-Δ(mag)c to trace non-shared variations between the two planets, and rule out non-shared variability in Δ(mag)b-Δ(mag)c to the 10-20 rm per\cent level over 4-5 h. To quantify our sensitivity to variability, we simulate variable lightcurves by inserting and retrieving a suite of simulated planets at similar radii from the star as HR 8799bc, but offset in position angle. For HR 8799b, for periods <10 h, we are sensitive to variability with amplitude > 5 per\cent. For HR 8799c, our sensitivity is limited to variability > 25 per\cent for similar periods. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A Planck-selected dusty proto-cluster at z = 2.16 associated with a strong overdensity of massive Hα-emitting galaxies

      Koyama, Y.; Polletta, M.D.C.; Tanaka, I.; Kodama, T.; Dole, H.; Soucail, G.; Frye, B.; Lehnert, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We have discovered an overdensity of Hα-emitting galaxies associated with a Planck compact source in the COSMOS field (PHz G237.0+42.5) through narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS). This Planck-selected dusty proto-cluster at z = 2.16 has 38 Hα emitters including six spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the observed MOIRCS 4 × 7 arcmin2 field (corresponding to ∼2.0 × 3.5 Mpc2 in the physical scale). We find that massive Hα emitters with log (M/M) >10.5 are strongly clustered in the core of the proto-cluster (within ∼300 kpc from the density peak of the Hα emitters). Most of the Hα emitters in this proto-cluster lie along the star-forming main sequence using Hα-based estimates of the star formation rate (SFR). Meanwhile, the cluster total SFRs derived by integrating the Hα-based SFRs is an order of magnitude smaller than those estimated from Planck/Herschel far-infrared photometry. Our results suggest that Hα is a good observable for detecting moderately star-forming galaxies and for tracing the large-scale environment in and around high-redshift dusty proto-clusters. However, there is a possibility that a large fraction of star formation could be obscured by dust and undetected in Hα observations. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A redefinition of the halo boundary leads to a simple yet accurate halo model of large-scale structure

      García, R.; Rozo, E.; Becker, M.R.; More, S.; Department of Physics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We present a model for the halo-mass correlation function that explicitly incorporates halo exclusion and allows for a redefinition of the halo boundary in a flexible way. We assume that haloes trace mass in a way that can be described using a single scale-independent bias parameter. However, our model exhibits scale-dependent biasing due to the impact of halo-exclusion, the use of a 'soft' (i.e. not infinitely sharp) halo boundary, and differences in the one halo term contributions to ζhm and ζmm. These features naturally lead us to a redefinition of the halo boundary that lies at the 'by eye' transition radius from the one-halo to the two-halo term in the halo-mass correlation function. When adopting our proposed definition, our model succeeds in describing the halo-mass correlation function with residuals over the radial range 0.1 h-1 Mpc < r < 80 h-1 Mpc, and for halo masses in the range 1013 h-1 M < M < 1015 h-1 M. Our proposed halo boundary is related to the splashback radius by a roughly constant multiplicative factor. Taking the 87 percentile as reference we find rt/Rsp ≈ 1.3. Surprisingly, our proposed definition results in halo abundances that are well described by the Press-Schechter mass function with δsc = 1.449 ± 0.004. The clustering bias parameter is offset from the standard background-split prediction by This level of agreement is comparable to that achieved with more standard halo definitions. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Age-growth relationships, temperature sensitivity and palaeoclimate-archive potential of the threatened Altiplano cactus Echinopsis atacamensis

      English, N B; Dettman, D L; Hua, Q; Mendoza, J M; Muir, D; Hultine, K R; Williams, D G; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021-01-27)
      The tall (>4 m), charismatic and threatened columnar cacti, pasacana [Echinopsis atacamensis (Vaupel) Friedrich & G.D. Rowley)], grows on the Bolivian Altiplano and provides environmental and economic value to these extremely cold, arid and high-elevation (∼4000 m) ecosystems. Yet very little is known about their growth rates, ages, demography and climate sensitivity. Using radiocarbon in spine dating time series, we quantitatively estimate the growth rate (5.8 and 8.3 cm yr-1) and age of these cacti (up to 430 years). These data and our field measurements yield a survivorship curve that suggests precipitation on the Altiplano is important for this species' recruitment. Our results also reveal a relationship between nighttime temperatures on the Altiplano and the variation in oxygen isotope values in spines (δ18O). The annual δ18O minimums from 58 years of in-series spine tissue from pasacana on the Altiplano provides at least decadal proxy records of temperature (r = 0.58; P < 0.0001), and evidence suggests that there are longer records connecting modern Altiplano temperatures to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean. While the role of Atlantic SSTs on the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and precipitation on the Bolivian Altiplano is well described, the impact of SSTs on Altiplano temperatures is disputed. Understanding the modern impact of SSTs on temperature on the Altiplano is important to both understand the impact of future climate change on pasacana cactus and to understand past climate changes on the Altiplano. This is the best quantitative evidence to date of one of the oldest known cactus in the world, although there are likely many older cacti on the Altiplano, or elsewhere, that have not been sampled yet. Together with growth, isotope and age data, this information should lead to better management and conservation outcomes for this threatened species and the Altiplano ecosystem. © 2021 The Author(s).
    • ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey: A strongly lensed multiply imaged dusty system at z ≥ 6

      Laporte, N.; Zitrin, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Fujimoto, S.; Brammer, G.; Richard, J.; Oguri, M.; Caminha, G.B.; Kohno, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We report the discovery of an intrinsically faint, quintuply-imaged, dusty galaxy MACS0600-z6 at a redshift z = 6.07 viewed through the cluster MACSJ0600.1–2008 (z = 0.46). A ≃ 4σ dust detection is seen at 1.2mm as part of the ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey (ALCS), an on-going ALMA Large programme, and the redshift is secured via [C II] 158 μm emission described in a companion paper. In addition, spectroscopic follow-up with GMOS/Gemini-North shows a break in the galaxy’s spectrum, consistent with the Lyman break at that redshift. We use a detailed mass model of the cluster and infer a magnification μ ≳ 30 for the most magnified image of this galaxy, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the physical properties of a sub-luminous galaxy at the end of cosmic reionization. Based on the spectral energy distribution, we infer lensing-corrected stellar and dust masses of 2.9-2.3+115 × 109 and 4.8-3.4+45 × 106 M☉, respectively, a star formation rate of 9.7-6.6+220 M☉ yr−1, an intrinsic size of 0.54-0.14+026 kpc, and a luminosity-weighted age of 200 ± 100 Myr. Strikingly, the dust production rate in this relatively young galaxy appears to be larger than that observed for equivalent, lower redshift sources. We discuss if this implies that early supernovae are more efficient dust producers and the consequences for using dust mass as a probe of earlier star formation. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society
    • Anxiety and Fear Avoidance Beliefs and Behavior May Be Significant Risk Factors for Chronic Opioid Analgesic Therapy Reliance for Patients with Chronic Pain-Results from a Preliminary Study

      Silva, Marcelina Jasmine; Coffee, Zhanette; Yu, Chong Ho; Martel, Marc O; College of Nursing, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021-02-17)
      OBJECTIVE: To describe differences between patients with chronic, non-cancer pain (CNCP) who were successfully able to cease full mu agonist chronic opioid analgesic therapy (COAT), and those who exhibited refractory COAT reliance, among those who participated in a multidisciplinary program designed for COAT cessation. DESIGN: A retrospective review of electronic medical records (EMR) data was organized for preliminary analysis. SETTING: A multicenter private practice specializing in CNCP, which received patient referrals from the surrounding geographical area of primary and specialty care offices in Northern California. SUBJECTS: Data from 109 patients with CNCP who participated in a multidisciplinary program to cease COAT between the dates of October 2017 to December 2019 were examined. METHODS: EMR data, pre-COAT cessation, of oral morphine milligram equivalence (MME) and validated questionnaire responses assessing anxiety and fear-based beliefs and behavior, as well as opioid misuse, were extracted and compared between those who successfully ceased COAT and those who did not. RESULTS: Patients who were unsuccessful at COAT cessation reported significantly higher Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FAB) scores. No significant differences were found based on incoming MME amounts, Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) or Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) scores. Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores showed a split pattern with unclear significance. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that fear avoidance beliefs and behavior, as measured by the FAB, play a significant role in refractory COAT reliance for patients with CNCP.
    • Assessing tension metrics with dark energy survey and Planck data

      Lemos, P.; Raveri, M.; Campos, A.; Park, Y.; Chang, C.; Weaverdyck, N.; Huterer, D.; Liddle, A.R.; Blazek, J.; Cawthon, R.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      Quantifying tensions – inconsistencies amongst measurements of cosmological parameters by different experiments – has emerged as a crucial part of modern cosmological data analysis. Statistically significant tensions between two experiments or cosmological probes may indicate new physics extending beyond the standard cosmological model and need to be promptly identified. We apply several tension estimators proposed in the literature to the dark energy survey (DES) large-scale structure measurement and Planck cosmic microwave background data. We first evaluate the responsiveness of these metrics to an input tension artificially introduced between the two, using synthetic DES data. We then apply the metrics to the comparison of Planck and actual DES Year 1 data. We find that the parameter differences, Eigentension, and Suspiciousness metrics all yield similar results on both simulated and real data, while the Bayes ratio is inconsistent with the rest due to its dependence on the prior volume. Using these metrics, we calculate the tension between DES Year 1 3 × 2pt and Planck, finding the surveys to be in ∼2.3σ tension under the ΔCDM paradigm. This suite of metrics provides a toolset for robustly testing tensions in the DES Year 3 data and beyond. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society
    • Associations of dwarf galaxies in a λCDM Universe

      Yaryura, C.Y.; Abadi, M.G.; Gottlober, S.; Libeskind, N.I.; Cora, S.A.; Ruiz, A.N.; Vega-Martinez, C.A.; Yepes, G.; Behroozi, P.; Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020)
      Associations of dwarf galaxies are loose systems composed exclusively of dwarf galaxies. These systems were identified in the Local Volume for the first time more than 30 yr ago. We study these systems in the cosmological framework of the λ cold dark matter (λCDM) model.We consider the Small MultiDark Planck simulation and populate its dark matter haloes by applying the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation SAG. We identify galaxy systems using a friends-of-friends algorithm with a linking length equal to b = 0.4Mpc h-1to reproduce the size of dwarf galaxy associations detected in the Local Volume. Our samples of dwarf systems are built up removing those systems that have one or more galaxies with stellar mass larger than a maximum thresholdMmax.We analyse three different samples defined by log10(Mmax[M⊙ h-1]) = 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5. On average, our systems have typical sizes of ∼ 0.2Mpc h-1, velocity dispersion of ∼ 30km s-1, and estimated total mass of ∼ 1011M⊙ h-1. Such large typical sizes suggest that individual members of a given dwarf association reside in different dark matter haloes and are generally not substructures of any other halo. Indeed, in more than 90 per cent of our dwarf systems their individual members inhabit different dark matter haloes, while only in the remaining 10 per cent members do reside in the same halo. Our results indicate that the λCDM model can naturally reproduce the existence and properties of dwarf galaxies' associations without much difficulty. © 2020 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
    • Bees learn preferences for plant species that offer only pollen as a reward

      Russell, Avery L.; Golden, Rebekah E.; Leonard, Anne S.; Papaj, Daniel R.; Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology and Insect Science, Entomology and Insect Science Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2016)
      The astonishing diversity of floral form in angiosperm plants is driven in large part by preferences of pollinators for various floral traits, including learned preferences. Remarkably, almost all of a vast literature on learning and memory in pollinators relates to nectar as a reward, even though bees and many flies, beetles, and butterflies must collect pollen. In this study, we asked if bees formed preferences for plant species from which pollen had been collected successfully. Using absolute conditioning, we gave pollen foraging bees experience with plant species that offered only pollen rewards. Naive bees generally showed modest preferences, whereas experienced bees adopted strong preferences for those species over alternative species not previously experienced. Learned preferences were retained for at least 24 h, consistent with preferences learned with nectar rewards. These experience-mediated changes in preference raised the possibility that bees formed associations between particular floral features and pollen rewards. We therefore asked if learned preferences required that bees successfully collect pollen. Using differential conditioning, we determined that learned preferences were strongly influenced by receipt of a pollen reward. In a final experiment, we characterized the importance of 2 floral features, the corolla and the anther, in the expression of learned preferences. Although experience altered responses to both floral parts, responses to anthers were influenced more strongly. We discuss recent evidence in the literature for associative learning with pollen rewards and propose that learned preferences in the context of pollen collection have played an important role in floral display evolution.
    • Caracal caracal (Carnivora: Felidae)

      Veals, Amanda M; Burnett, Alexandra D; Morandini, Marina; Drouilly, Marine; Koprowski, John L; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-02)
      Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) is a felid commonly called the caracal. It is a slender, medium-sized cat (5.8–22 kg) characterized by a short tail and long ear tufts. C. caracal has a wide distribution and is found throughout Africa, north to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, central and southwest Asia into India; its habitat includes arid woodlands, savanna, scrublands, hilly steppes, and arid mountainous regions. It is globally listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as “Least Concern” despite population trends unknown across most of its geographic distribution. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora lists Asian populations under Appendix I and African populations under Appendix II.
    • A Chronic Murine Disease Model of Coccidioidomycosis Using Coccidioides posadasii, Strain 1038

      Shubitz, Lisa F; Powell, Daniel A; Butkiewicz, Christine D; Lewis, M Lourdes; Trinh, Hien T; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Orbach, Marc J; Galgiani, John N; Valley Fever Center for Excellence, University of Arizona; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-07-13)
      Murine infections with most Coccidioides spp. strains are lethal by 3 weeks, limiting the study of immune responses. Coccidioides posadasii, strain 1038 (Cp1038), while slowly lethal, resulted in protracted survival of C57BL/6 (B6) mice. In resistant (B6D2)F1/J mice, lung fungal burdens stabilized by week 4 without progression through week 16, better modeling human coccidioidal infections after their immunologic control. Immunodeficient tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) α knockout (KO) and interferon (Ifn) γ receptor 1 (Ifn-γr1) KO mice survived a median of 22.5 and 34 days, compared with 70 days in B6 mice (P = .001 and P < .01, respectively), though 14-day lung fungal burden studies showed little difference between Ifn-γr1 KO and B6 mice. B6 mice showed peak concentrations of key inflammatory lung cytokines, including interleukin 6, 23, and 17A, Tnf-α, and Ifn-γ, only after 4 weeks of infection. The slower progression in B6 and the acquired fungal burden stability in B6D2 mice after Cp1038 infection greatly increases the array of possible immunologic studies. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
    • Circumbinary and circumstellar discs around the eccentric binary IRAS 04158+2805 - A testbed for binary-disc interaction

      Ragusa, E.; Fasano, D.; Toci, C.; Duchêne, G.; Cuello, N.; Villenave, M.; Van Der Plas, G.; Lodato, G.; Ménard, F.; Price, D.J.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      IRAS 04158+2805 has long been thought to be a very low mass T-Tauri star (VLMS) surrounded by a nearly edge-on, extremely large disc. Recent observations revealed that this source hosts a binary surrounded by an extended circumbinary disc with a central dust cavity. In this paper, we combine ALMA multiwavelength observations of continuum and 12CO line emission, with H α imaging and Keck astrometric measures of the binary to develop a coherent dynamical model of this system. The system features an azimuthal asymmetry detected at the western edge of the cavity in Band 7 observations and a wiggling outflow. Dust emission in ALMA Band 4 from the proximity of the individual stars suggests the presence of marginally resolved circumstellar discs. We estimate the binary orbital parameters from the measured arc of the orbit from Keck and ALMA astrometry. We further constrain these estimates using considerations from binary-disc interaction theory. We finally perform three SPH gas+dust simulations based on the theoretical constraints; we post-process the hydrodynamic output using radiative transfer Monte Carlo methods and directly compare the models with observations. Our results suggest that a highly eccentric e ∼0.5-0.7 equal mass binary, with a semimajor axis of ∼55 au, and small/moderate orbital plane versus circumbinary disc inclination θ ≤ 30° provides a good match with observations. A dust mass of ∼1.5 × 10-4, Modot best reproduces the flux in Band 7 continuum observations. Synthetic CO line emission maps qualitatively capture both the emission from the central region and the non-Keplerian nature of the gas motion in the binary proximity. © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Clinical and Economic Burden of Valley Fever in Arizona: An Incidence-Based Cost-of-Illness Analysis

      Grizzle, A.J.; Wilson, L.; Nix, D.E.; Galgiani, J.N.; Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy; Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson; Valley Fever Center for Excellence, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      Background: Coccidioidomycosis, ie, Valley fever, is an important fungal infection in the Southwest, with half to two thirds of all cases occurring in Arizona. This endemic respiratory disease can range from primary uncomplicated pneumonia to disseminated infection such as meningitis with chronic pulmonary complications. Valley fever diagnoses have risen over recent years and cause substantial morbidity and economic burden in Arizona. Methods: We estimated the lifetime cost-of-illness associated with all cases of Valley fever diagnosed in 2019 in Arizona. Natural history of the disease was determined from literature and expert opinion and assigned costs from national data sources to determine lifetime direct and indirect costs (work loss). Results: Total lifetime costs of 736 million were estimated for the 10 359 cases of Valley fever diagnosed in Arizona in 2019. Direct costs of 671 million accounted for over 90% of expenditures, with 65 million in indirect costs. Disseminated infection produces the highest economic burden at 1.26 million direct and 137 400 indirect costs per person. The lowest Valley fever lifetime costs were for cases of primary uncomplicated pneumonia with 23 200 in direct costs and 1300 in lost wages. The average lifetime direct costs across all Valley fever manifestations are 64 800 per person diagnosed in Arizona in 2019 and 6300 for indirect costs. Conclusions: Valley fever is responsible for substantial economic burden in Arizona. Our estimates underscore the value of supporting research into developing more rapid diagnostic tests, better therapies, and ultimately a preventative vaccine to address this important public health problem in Arizona. © 2020 The Author(s).
    • The cloudy shape of hot Jupiter thermal phase curves

      Parmentier, Vivien; Showman, Adam P; Fortney, Jonathan J; Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-11-12)
      Hot Jupiters have been predicted to have a strong day/night temperature contrast and a hotspot shifted eastward of the substellar point. This was confirmed by numerous phase curve observations probing the longitudinal brightness variation of the atmosphere. Global circulation models, however, systematically underestimate the phase curve amplitude and overestimate the shift of its maximum. We use a global circulation model including non-grey radiative transfer and realistic gas and cloud opacities to systematically investigate how the atmospheric circulation of hot Jupiters varies with equilibrium temperature from 1000 to 2200 K. We show that the heat transport is very efficient for cloudless planets cooler than 1600 K and becomes less efficient at higher temperatures. When nightside clouds are present, the day-to-night heat transport becomes extremely inefficient, leading to a good match to the observed low nightside temperatures. The constancy of this low temperature is, however, due to the strong dependence of the radiative time-scale with temperature. We further show that nightside clouds increase the phase curve amplitude and decrease the phase curve offset at the same time. This change is very sensitive to the cloud chemical composition and particle size, meaning that the diversity of observed phase curves can be explained by a diversity of nightside cloud properties. Finally, we show that phase curve parameters do not necessarily track the day/night contrast nor the shift of the hotspot on isobars, and propose solutions to to recover the true hotspot shift and day/night contrast. © 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • A complete search for redshift z ≳ 6.5 quasars in the VIKING survey

      Barnett, R; Warren, S J; Cross, N J G; Mortlock, D J; Fan, X; Wang, F; Hewett, P C; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-10)
      We present the results of a new, deeper, and complete search for high-redshift 6.5 < z < 9.3 quasars over 977 deg2 of the VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey. This exploits a new list-driven data set providing photometry in all bands Z, Y, J, H, Ks, for all sources detected by VIKING in J. We use the Bayesian model comparison (BMC) selection method of Mortlock et al., producing a ranked list of just 21 candidates. The sources ranked 1, 2, 3, and 5 are the four known z > 6.5 quasars in this field. Additional observations of the other 17 candidates, primarily DESI Legacy Survey photometry and ESO FORS2 spectroscopy, confirm that none is a quasar. This is the first complete sample from the VIKING survey, and we provide the computed selection function. We include a detailed comparison of the BMC method against two other selection methods: colour cuts and minimum-χ2 SED fitting. We find that: (i) BMC produces eight times fewer false positives than colour cuts, while also reaching 0.3 mag deeper, (ii) the minimum-χ2 SED-fitting method is extremely efficient but reaches 0.7 mag less deep than the BMC method, and selects only one of the four known quasars. We show that BMC candidates, rejected because their photometric SEDs have high χ2 values, include bright examples of galaxies with very strong [O iii] λλ4959,5007 emission in the Y band, identified in fainter surveys by Matsuoka et al. This is a potential contaminant population in Euclid searches for faint z > 7 quasars, not previously accounted for, and that requires better characterization. © 2020 The Author(s).
    • Concordance cosmology?

      Park, Youngsoo; Rozo, Eduardo; Department of Physics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-09-01)
      We propose a new intuitive metric for evaluating the tension between two experiments, and apply it to several data sets. While our metric is non-optimal, if evidence of tension is detected, this evidence is robust and easy to interpret. Assuming a flat Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, we find that there is a modest 2.2σ tension between the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 results and the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background. This tension is driven by the difference between the amount of structure observed in the late-time Universe and that predicted from fitting the Planck data, and appears to be unrelated to the tension between Planck and local estimates of the Hubble rate. In particular, combining DES, baryon acoustic oscillations, big bang nucleosynthesis, and supernovae measurements recover a Hubble constant and sound horizon consistent with Planck, and in tension with local distance-ladder measurements. If the tension between these various data sets persists, it is likely that reconciling all current data will require breaking the flat ΛCDM model in at least two different ways: one involving new physics in the early Universe, and one involving new late-time Universe physics. © 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Cosmology with the Roman Space Telescope: Synergies with the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time

      Eifler, T.; Simet, M.; Krause, E.; Hirata, C.; Huang, H.-J.; Fang, X.; Miranda, V.; Mandelbaum, R.; Doux, C.; Heinrich, C.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We explore synergies between the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and the Vera Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST). Specifically, we consider scenarios where the currently envisioned survey strategy for the Roman Space Telescope's High Latitude Survey (HLS reference), i.e. 2000 deg2 in four narrow photometric bands is altered in favour of a strategy of rapid coverage of the LSST area (to full LSST depth) in one band. We find that in only five months, a survey in the W-band can cover the full LSST survey area providing high-resolution imaging for >95 per cent of the LSST Year 10 gold galaxy sample. We explore a second, more ambitious scenario where the Roman Space Telescope spends 1.5 yr covering the LSST area. For this second scenario, we quantify the constraining power on dark energy equation-of-state parameters from a joint weak lensing and galaxy clustering analysis. Our survey simulations are based on the Roman Space Telescope exposure-time calculator and redshift distributions from the CANDELS catalogue. Our statistical uncertainties account for higher order correlations of the density field, and we include a wide range of systematic effects, such as uncertainties in shape and redshift measurements, and modelling uncertainties of astrophysical systematics, such as galaxy bias, intrinsic galaxy alignment, and baryonic physics. We find a significant increase in constraining power for the joint LSST + HLS wide survey compared to LSST Y10 (FoMHLSwide = 2.4 FoMLSST) and compared to LSST + HLS (FoMHLSwide = 5.5 FoMHLSref). © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.
    • dadi.CUDA: Accelerating Population Genetics Inference with Graphics Processing Units

      Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      dadi is a popular but computationally intensive program for inferring models of demographic history and natural selection from population genetic data. I show that running dadi on a Graphics Processing Unit can dramatically speed computation compared with the CPU implementation, with minimal user burden. Motivated by this speed increase, I also extended dadi to four- and five-population models. This functionality is available in dadi version 2.1.0, https://bitbucket.org/gutenkunstlab/dadi/. © 2021 The Author(s).
    • A deep learning-based algorithm for detection of cortical arousal during sleep

      Li, Ao; Chen, Siteng; Quan, Stuart F; Powers, Linda S; Roveda, Janet M; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Arizona; Asthma and Airway Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, University of Arizona; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-06-17)
      STUDY OBJECTIVES: The frequency of cortical arousals is an indicator of sleep quality. Additionally, cortical arousals are used to identify hypopneic events. However, it is inconvenient to record electroencephalogram (EEG) data during home sleep testing. Fortunately, most cortical arousal events are associated with autonomic nervous system activity that could be observed on an electrocardiography (ECG) signal. ECG data have lower noise and are easier to record at home than EEG. In this study, we developed a deep learning-based cortical arousal detection algorithm that uses a single-lead ECG to detect arousal during sleep. METHODS: This study included 1,547 polysomnography records that met study inclusion criteria and were selected from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis database. We developed an end-to-end deep learning model consisting of convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks which: (1) accepted varying length physiological data; (2) directly extracted features from the raw ECG signal; (3) captured long-range dependencies in the physiological data; and (4) produced arousal probability in 1-s resolution. RESULTS: We evaluated the model on a test set (n = 311). The model achieved a gross area under precision-recall curve score of 0.62 and a gross area under receiver operating characteristic curve score of 0.93. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the end-to-end deep learning approach with a single-lead ECG has the potential to be used to accurately detect arousals in home sleep tests. © Sleep Research Society 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.