• Boosting the accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction through nearest neighbor search and method hybridization

      Krieger, Spencer; Kececioglu, John; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-07-13)
      Motivation: Protein secondary structure prediction is a fundamental precursor to many bioinformatics tasks. Nearly all state-of-the-art tools when computing their secondary structure prediction do not explicitly leverage the vast number of proteins whose structure is known. Leveraging this additional information in a so-called template-based method has the potential to significantly boost prediction accuracy. Method: We present a new hybrid approach to secondary structure prediction that gains the advantages of both template- and non-template-based methods. Our core template-based method is an algorithmic approach that uses metric-space nearest neighbor search over a template database of fixed-length amino acid words to determine estimated class-membership probabilities for each residue in the protein. These probabilities are then input to a dynamic programming algorithm that finds a physically valid maximum-likelihood prediction for the entire protein. Our hybrid approach exploits a novel accuracy estimator for our core method, which estimates the unknown true accuracy of its prediction, to discern when to switch between template- and non-template-based methods. Results: On challenging CASP benchmarks, the resulting hybrid approach boosts the state-of-the-art Q(8) accuracy by more than 2-10%, and Q(3) accuracy by more than 1-3%, yielding the most accurate method currently available for both 3- and 8-state secondary structure prediction.
    • Bounding Tangencies of Sections on Elliptic Surfaces

      Ulmer, Douglas; Urzúa, Giancarlo; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-09-02)
      Given an elliptic surface E→C over a field k of characteristic zero equipped with zero section O and another section P of infinite order, we give a simple and explicit upper bound on the number of points where O is tangent to a multiple of P⁠.
    • A construction of local points on elliptic curves over modular curves

      Ulmer, Douglas; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 1995)
    • COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity in a large survey of first responders and healthcare personnel, May-July 2020

      Akinbami, Lara J; Petersen, Lyle R; Sami, Samira; Vuong, Nga; Lukacs, Susan L; Mackey, Lisa; Atas, Jenny; LaFleur, Bonnie J; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-01-30)
      A SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey among first responder/healthcare personnel showed that loss of taste/smell was most predictive of seropositivity; percent seropositivity increased with number of COVID-19 symptoms. However, 22.9% with nine symptoms were seronegative, and 8.3% with no symptoms were seropositive. These findings demonstrate limitations of symptom-based surveillance and importance of testing.
    • Damage from intraspecific combat is costly

      Emberts, Zachary; Somjee, Ummat; Wiens, John J; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-08-06)
      When individuals engage in fights with conspecifics over access to resources, injuries can occur. Most theoretical models suggest that the costs associated with these injuries should influence an individual's decision to retreat from a fight. Thus, damage from intraspecific combat is frequently noted and quantified. However, the fitness-related costs associated with this damage are not. Quantifying the cost of fighting-related damage is important because most theoretical models assume that it is the cost associated with the damage (not the damage itself) that should influence an individual's decision to retreat. Here, we quantified the cost of fighting-related injuries in the giant mesquite bug, Thasus neocalifornicus. We demonstrate that experimentally simulated fighting injuries result in metabolic costs and costs to flight performance. We also show that flight costs are more severe when the injuries are larger. Overall, our results provide empirical support for the fundamental assumption that damage acquired during intraspecific combat is costly.
    • Effects of harvest date and growth stage on triticale forages in the southwest USA: Kinetics of in vitro disappearance of fiber and dry matter

      Coblentz, Wayne K; Ottman, Michael J; School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-02-05)
      Recently, there has been interest in including triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) within forage programs in the southwest USA. Our objectives were to evaluate in vitro disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter (DM) for cultivars identified during 2019 as positively or negatively deviant from typical cultivars, based specifically on regressions of 48-h in vitro disappearance of NDF on growth stage (GRST). All NDF analyses included the use of heat-stable α-amylase and sodium sulfite, as well as correction for residual ash (asNDFom). Seven triticale cultivars were established on December 18, 2019 at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, located near Maricopa, AZ. Forage plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three complete blocks (replications), and then harvested on seven dates the following late-winter and spring (February 26, March 17, April 1, April 14, April 28, May 12, and May 26). Based on a linear model, GRST was highly variable among cultivars on March 17 (44 ± 10.6), April 1 (57 ± 12.1), April 14 (67 ± 8.9), and April 28 (79 ± 7.2) compared with other harvest dates (SD ≤ 1.7). For concentrations of asNDFom, all cultivars exhibited linear (P ≤ 0.042) and quadratic (P < 0.001) polynomial contrasts in response to harvest date, and all cultivars except Merlin Max (P ≥ 0.063) exhibited at least one additional cubic or quartic effect (P ≤ 0.015). A contributing factor to the unique response by Merlin Max was the numerically greater maximum canopy height (145 ± 9.8 cm) compared with the mean of all cultivars (107 ± 17.7 cm), which also was associated with greater percentages of stem, as well as reduced percentages of DM partitioned within the grain head. Regressions of asNDFom disappearance after 30- or 48-h incubations on GRST indicated this was an effective independent variable (R2 ≥ 0.927), and responses were most often linear in nature. Generally, relationships for DM disappearance were quadratic, ostensibly due to the complicating effect of grain fill, but GRST was again an effective predictor variable with R2 statistics ≥ 0.852 for 12 of 14 combinations of cultivar and incubation time. Predicted percentages of digestible DM attributed to asNDFom disappearance were ≥50.3% through the fully flowered stage of growth, but digestible contributions from nonfiber components following the onset of grain fill profoundly affected overall DM digestibility among cultivars harvested at later GRST. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science 2022.Recently, there has been increased interest in including triticale within forage programs throughout the southwest USA. Unless there is an urgency for removing the triticale crop, such as those created by a feed shortage or need to establish a secondary crop, harvest management decisions should be based on plant growth stage, and not calendar date. Assuming a common growth stage, this work suggests that most triticale cultivars will differ only modestly with respect to digestibility before the onset of grain fill. However, producers should be cautious of cultivars with unique or atypical phenotypic traits, such as exceptional canopy height, which may cause exceptions to the previous generalization. If yield is a critical management objective, harvest should most likely be delayed until after the onset of grain fill, but cultivar selection can become more complicated at that time because varying contributions from the filling grain head can radically affect overall digestibility of dry matter (DM). In this respect, producers should carefully evaluate their nutritional and production goals to assess whether their needs prioritize digestible fiber or overall DM digestibility, the latter of which can have limited contributions from digestible fiber.
    • Emulating galaxy clustering and galaxy–galaxy lensing into the deeply non-linear regime: methodology, information, and forecasts

      Wibking, Benjamin D; Salcedo, Andrés N; Weinberg, David H; Garrison, Lehman H; Ferrer, Douglas; Tinker, Jeremy; Eisenstein, Daniel; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-03)
      The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) with galaxy clustering is one of the most promising routes to determining the amplitude of matter clustering at low redshifts. We show that extending clustering+GGL analyses from the linear regime down to similar to 0.5 h(-1) Mpc scales increases their constraining power considerably, even after marginalizing over a flexible model of non-linear galaxy bias. Using a grid of cosmological N-body simulations, we construct a Taylor-expansion emulator that predicts the galaxy autocorrelation xi(gg)(r) and galaxy-matter cross-correlation xi(gm) (r) as a function of sigma(8), Omega(m), and halo occupation distribution (HOD) parameters, which are allowed to vary with large-scale environment to represent possible effects of galaxy assembly bias. We present forecasts for a fiducial case that corresponds to BOSS LOWZ galaxy clustering and SDSS-depth weak lensing (effective source density similar to 0.3 arcmin(-2)). Using tangential shear and projected correlation function measurements over 0.5 <= r(p) <= 30h(-1) Mpc yields a 2 per cent constraint on the parameter combination sigma(8)Omega(0.6)(m), a factor of two better than a constraint that excludes non-linear scales (r(p) > 2 h(-1) Mpc, 4 h(-1) Mpc for gamma(t) , omega(p)). Much of this improvement comes from the non-linear clustering information, which breaks degeneracies among HOD parameters. Increasing the effective source density to 3 arcmin(-2) sharpens the constraint on sigma(8)Omega(0.6 )(m)by a further factor of two. With robust modelling into the non-linear regime, low-redshift measurements of matter clustering at the 1-per cent level with clustering+GGL alone are well within reach of current data sets such as those provided by the Dark Energy Survey.
    • Holistic insights from pollen omics: co-opting stress-responsive genes and ER-mediated proteostasis for male fertility

      Sze, Heven; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Harper, Jeffrey F; Johnson, Mark A; School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-10-02)
      Sexual reproduction in flowering plants takes place without an aqueous environment. Sperm are carried by pollen through air to reach the female gametophyte, though the molecular basis underlying the protective strategy of the male gametophyte is poorly understood. Here we compared the published transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen, and of heat-responsive genes, and uncovered insights into how mature pollen (MP) tolerates desiccation, while developing and germinating pollen are vulnerable to heat stress. Germinating pollen expresses molecular chaperones or “heat shock proteins” in the absence of heat stress. Furthermore, pollen tubes that grew through pistils at basal temperature showed induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, which is a characteristic of stressed vegetative tissues. Recent studies show MP contains mRNA-protein (mRNP) aggregates that resemble “stress” granules triggered by heat or other stresses to protect cells. Based on these observations, we postulate that mRNP particles are formed in maturing pollen in response to developmentally programmed dehydration. Dry pollen can withstand harsh conditions as it is dispersed in air. We propose that, when pollen lands on a compatible pistil and hydrates, mRNAs stored in particles are released, aided by molecular chaperones, to become translationally active. Pollen responds to osmotic, mechanical, oxidative, and peptide cues that promote ER-mediated proteostasis and membrane trafficking for tube growth and sperm discharge. Unlike vegetative tissues, pollen depends on stress-protection strategies for its normal development and function. Thus, heat stress during reproduction likely triggers changes that interfere with the normal pollen responses, thereby compromising male fertility. This holistic perspective provides a framework to understand the basis of heat-tolerant strains in the reproduction of crops.
    • Homeomorphisms of S1 and Factorization

      Dalthorp, Mark; Pickrell, Doug; Mathematics Department, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-12-04)
      For each n>0 there is a one complex parameter family of homeomorphisms of the circle consisting of linear fractional transformations "conjugated by z \to zn. We show that these families are free of relations, which determines the structure of "the group of homeomorphisms of finite type". We next consider factorization for more robust groups of homeomorphisms. We refer to this as root subgroup factorization (because the factors correspond to root subgroups). We are especially interested in how root subgroup factorization is related to triangular factorization (i.e., conformal welding) and correspondences between smoothness properties of the homeomorphisms and decay properties of the root subgroup parameters. This leads to interesting comparisons with Fourier series and the theory of Verblunsky coefficients.
    • Instantons and Bows for the Classical Groups

      Cherkis, Sergey A; Hurtubise, Jacques; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-11-26)
      The construction of Atiyah, Drinfeld, Hitchin and Manin provided complete description of all instantons on Euclidean four-space. It was extended by Kronheimer and Nakajima to instantons on ALE spaces, resolutions of orbifolds R4 Γ by a finite subgroup ΓSU(2). We consider a similar classification, in the holomorphic context, of instantons on some of the next spaces in the hierarchy, the ALF multi-Taub-NUT manifolds, showing how they tie in to the bow solutions to Nahm's equations via the Nahm correspondence. Recently Nakajima and Takayama constructed the Coulomb branch of the moduli space of vacua of a quiver gauge theory, tying them to the same space of bow solutions. One can view our construction as describing the same manifold as the Higgs branch of the mirror gauge theory as described by Cherkis, O'Hara and Saemann. Our construction also yields the monad construction of holomorphic instanton bundles on the multi-Taub-NUT space for any classical compact Lie structure group.
    • Is Phylogeographic Congruence Predicted by Historical Habitat Stability, or Ecological Co-associations?

      Garrick, Ryan C; Hyseni, Chaz; Arantes, Ísis C; Zachos, Louis G; Zee, Peter C; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Office of Digital Innovation and Stewardship, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-09-07)
      Comparative phylogeographic studies can distinguish between idiosyncratic and community-wide responses to past environmental change. However, to date, the impacts of species interactions have been largely overlooked. Here we used non-genetic data to characterize two competing scenarios about expected levels of congruence among five deadwood-associated (saproxylic) invertebrate species (i.e., a wood-feeding cockroach, termite, and beetle; a predatory centipede, and a detritivorous millipede) from the southern Appalachian Mountains - a globally recognized center of endemism. Under one scenario, abiotic factors primarily drove species' responses, with predicted congruence based on the spatial overlap of climatically stable habitat areas estimated for each species via ecological niche modeling. The second scenario considered biotic factors to be most influential, with proxies for species interactions used to predict congruence. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences focused on four axes of comparison: the number and geographic distribution of distinct spatial-genetic clusters, phylogeographic structure, changes in effective population size, and historical gene flow dynamics. Overall, we found stronger support for the ecological co-associations scenario, suggesting an important influence of biotic factors in constraining or facilitating species' responses to Pleistocene climatic cycles. However, there was an imperfect fit between predictions and outcomes of genetic data analyses. Thus, while thought-provoking, conclusions remain tentative until additional data on species interactions becomes available. Ultimately, the approaches presented here advance comparative phylogeography by expanding the scope of inferences beyond solely considering abiotic drivers, which we believe is too simplistic. This work also provides conservation-relevant insights into the evolutionary history of a functionally important ecological community.
    • Lycaon pictus (Carnivora: Canidae)

      Bucci, Melanie E; Nicholson, Kerry L; Krausman, Paul R; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona; School of Renewable Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-04-09)
      Lycaon pictus (Temminck, 1820), the African wild dog, is a moderately sized carnivore with dog-like appearance and irregularly mottled black, yellow-brown, and white pelage. It has a head-body length of 76-112 cm, tail length of 30-41 cm, shoulder height of 61-78 cm, and body weight of 17-36 kg. Lycaon pictus has four toes on each foot, differentiating it from other canids; is the only extant species within the genus with no subspecies; and is unlikely to be confused with any other canid. Lycaon pictus was once widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa inhabiting nearly all environments and now inhabits grasslands, montane savanna, and open woodlands. Lycaon pictus is recognized as "Endangered" (EN) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
    • Meta Salud Diabetes for cardiovascular disease prevention in Mexico: a cluster-randomized behavioural clinical trial

      Rosales, Cecilia B; Denman, Catalina A; Bell, Melanie L; Cornejo, Elsa; Ingram, Maia; del Carmen Castro Vásquez, María; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Jesús Eduardo; Aceves, Benjamín; Nuño, Tomas; Anderson, Elizabeth J; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-04-11)
      BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle interventions offered at points of care, including support groups, may improve chronic disease management, especially in low-resource populations. We assessed the effectiveness of an educational intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) support groups to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We recruited 518 participants to a parallel, two-arm, cluster-randomized, behavioural clinical trial across 22 clinics in Sonora, Mexico, between August 2016 and October 2018. We delivered a 13-week secondary prevention intervention, Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD), within the structure of a support group (GAM: Grupo de Ayuda Mutua) in government-run (community) Health Centres (Centros de Salud). The primary study outcomes were difference in Framingham CVD risk scores and hypertension between intervention (GAM+MSD) and control (GAM usual care) arms at 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: CVD risk was 3.17% age-points lower in the MSD arm versus control at 3 months [95% confidence interval (CI): -5.60, -0.75, P = 0.013); at 12 months the difference was 2.13% age-points (95% CI: -4.60, 0.34, P = 0.088). There was no evidence of a difference in hypertension rates between arms. Diabetes distress was also lower at 3 and 12 months in the MSD arm. Post-hoc analyses showed greater CVD risk reduction among men than women and among participants with HbA1c < 8. CONCLUSIONS: MSD contributed to a positive trend in reducing CVD risk in a low-resource setting. This study introduced an evidence-based curriculum that provides T2D self-management strategies for those with controlled T2D (i.e. HbA1c < 8.0) and may improve quality of life.
    • My Wellness Coach: Evaluation of a mobile app designed to promote integrative health among underserved populations

      Yuan, Nicole P; Brooks, Audrey J; Burke, Molly K; Crocker, Robert; Stoner, Gates Matthew; Cook, Paula; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Bautista, Juan; Petralba, Patricia; Whitewater, Shannon; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-06-05)
      Underserved populations, including those from racial and ethnic groups and with low socioeconomic status, often lack access to mobile apps aimed at reducing health risk factors. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of the mobile app, My Wellness Coach (MWC), designed to promote behavior change in seven core areas of integrative health among underserved populations. Patients and staff were recruited from clinic and other settings. Some participants used MWC in a weekly group setting (n = 5); others on their own with support from a coordinator (n = 36). Health outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Mobile app ratings were collected at 5 weeks and 3 months. Goal setting data were analyzed at 3 months. Most participants (76%) set at least one goal, 71% created action steps for goals, and 29% completed a goal. Patients in the group setting had the highest rate of goal completion (60%) compared to patients (20%) and staff (27%) using the app on their own. Significant (p <. 05) changes in pre-and post-Test scores were documented for overall wellbeing, global physical health, BMI, vigorous physical activity, and eHealth literacy. Most participants (75%-91%) gave MWC high ratings for impact on behavior change, help seeking, intent to change, attitudes, knowledge, and awareness. This study documented preliminary evidence of the potential benefits of MWC among underserved communities. Future evaluations of Spanish and Android versions and comparisons between group and individual administration will inform implementation strategies for scaling MWC-based interventions to reach underserved communities nationally.
    • A New Approach to Evaluate and Reduce Uncertainty of Model-Based Biodiversity Projections for Conservation Policy Formulation

      Myers, Bonnie J E; Weiskopf, Sarah R; Shiklomanov, Alexey N; Ferrier, Simon; Weng, Ensheng; Casey, Kimberly A; Harfoot, Mike; Jackson, Stephen T; Leidner, Allison K; Lenton, Timothy M; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-10-13)
      Biodiversity projections with uncertainty estimates under different climate, land-use, and policy scenarios are essential to setting and achieving international targets to mitigate biodiversity loss. Evaluating and improving biodiversity predictions to better inform policy decisions remains a central conservation goal and challenge. A comprehensive strategy to evaluate and reduce uncertainty of model outputs against observed measurements and multiple models would help to produce more robust biodiversity predictions. We propose an approach that integrates biodiversity models and emerging remote sensing and in-situ data streams to evaluate and reduce uncertainty with the goal of improving policy-relevant biodiversity predictions. In this article, we describe a multivariate approach to directly and indirectly evaluate and constrain model uncertainty, demonstrate a proof of concept of this approach, embed the concept within the broader context of model evaluation and scenario analysis for conservation policy, and highlight lessons from other modeling communities.
    • A New Multilateralism? A Case Study of the Belt and Road Initiative

      Zhou, Jingyuan; James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-08-30)
      The first five years (the first stage) of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) have drawn international attention and provoked scepticism and debate. This article explores questions about the nature of the BRI and its impact on multilateralism, which is increasingly fragile and under attack. After summarizing past practices employed in BRI investments, it analyses the characteristics of the BRI and assesses the results and implications. This article studies in depth one of the two primary BRI economic activities—special economic zones. The article introduces and compares the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Chinese domestic banks in their respective financing practices and compares state-owned enterprises and privately owned enterprises in BRI practices. The article observes three characteristics from past BRI practices and analyzes their respective implications on the transformation of international trade governance. The first characteristic is the unconventional ‘infrastructure development first, institution next’ approach. The second is the plurilateral- and multilateral-focused method in international rule-setting processes. The third characteristic is innovation in the dispute settlement mechanism. Through a cautious examination, the article argues that experiences gained from BRI inform China’s international rule-making efforts and further its domestic trade liberalization reform agenda, which will likely contribute to the convergence of rule-making in international trade. © The Author(s) (2020). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
    • The relationship of vancomycin 24-hour AUC and trough concentration

      Nix, David E; Davis, Lisa E; Matthias, Kathryn R; Department Of Pharmacy Practice And Science, Department Of Medicine, University Of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-11-27)
      Purpose: Prior to the 2020 release of a joint consensus guideline on monitoring of vancomycin therapy for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, clinicians had escalated vancomycin doses for 2 decades while targeting trough concentrations of 15 to 20 μg/mL, leading to an increased frequency of nephrotoxicity. For MRSA infections, the 2020 guideline recommends adjusting doses to achieve a 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 400 to 600 μg · h/mL; however, monitoring of trough concentrations has been entrenched for 3 decades. Calculating dose regimens based on AUC will require obtaining an increased number of vancomycin serum concentrations and, possibly, advanced software. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between AUC and trough concentration and the influence of dosing regimen on goal achievement. Methods: The relationship between trough concentration and AUC was explored through derivation of an equation based on a 1-compartment model and simulations. Results: 24-hour AUC is related to dosing interval divided by half-life in a nonlinear fashion. The target trough concentration can be individualized to achieve a desired AUC range, and limiting use of large doses (>15-20 mg/kg) can protect against excessive 24-hour AUC with trough-only monitoring. Conclusion: After initially determining pharmacokinetic parameters, subsequent monitoring of AUC can be accomplished using trough concentrations only. Trough concentration may be used as a surrogate for AUC, although the acceptable target trough concentration will vary depending on dosing interval and elimination rate constant. This work included development of an AUC-trough equation to establish a patient-specific target for steady-state trough concentration.
    • The Sounds of Memory: Extending the Age–Prospective Memory Paradox to Everyday Behavior and Conversations

      Haas, Maximilian; Mehl, Matthias R; Ballhausen, Nicola; Zuber, Sascha; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-01-29)
      Objectives: Around the turn of the millennium, the "age-prospective memory (PM) paradox" challenged the classical assumption that older adults necessarily evidence a marked decline in PM functioning. As previous investigations highlighted ecological validity to be a potential explanation, the present study sought to extend established approaches by using novel real-world assessment technologies to examine PM unobtrusively in everyday-life conversations. Method: Next to laboratory PM tasks, real-life PM performance of 53 younger adults (19-32 years) and 38 older adults (60-81 years) was assessed from three sources: Over 9 days, participants completed an experimenter-given naturalistic task, a diary-based approach assessing self-assigned intentions, as well as an ambulatory assessment with the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), a device that unobtrusively samples ambient sounds to detect spontaneous speech production related to (lapses in) everyday PM. Results: Older adults showed lower performance in laboratory PM only for the time-based task and performed either equally well as or even better than younger adults in everyday PM. With regard to PM performance as captured in real-life ambient audio data, younger adults talked more frequently about PM than older adults, but no significant difference between younger and older adults was found for speech related to PM errors. Discussion: Findings confirmed older adults' preserved PM performance in everyday life across different indicators with increasing ecological validity. Furthermore, as a novel method to assess conversational PM in everyday life, the EAR opens new insights about the awareness of PM lapses and the communication of intentions in real life.