• Hematospermia Evaluation at MR Imaging

      Mittal, Pardeep K; Camacho, Juan C; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kalb, Bobby; Harri, Peter A; Master, Viraj; Kokabi, Nima; Hartman, Matthew; Kitajima, Hiroumi D; Moreno, Courtney C; et al. (RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA, 2016-08-12)
      Hematospermia is a challenging and anxiety-provoking condition that can manifest as a single episode or recur over the course of weeks to months. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition in younger sexually active males without a history of risk factors such as cancer, urogenital malformations, bleeding disorders, and their associated symptoms. However, patients with recurrent, refractory and painful hematospermia with associated symptoms, such as fever, pain, or weight loss, require evaluation through clinical assessment and noninvasive investigations to rule out underlying pathologic conditions such as ejaculatory obstruction, infectious and inflammatory causes, malignancy, vascular malformations, and systemic disorders that increase the risk of bleeding, especially when presenting in older men. If these investigations are negative, the patient should be reassured and treated accordingly. In the recent past, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has assumed a major role in the investigation of hematospermia due to its excellent soft-tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities. In this review, we will discuss the potential causes of hematospermia and its diagnostic workup, including pathophysiology, anatomic considerations, the imaging appearance of associated pathologic conditions, and management. (C) RSNA, 2016 . radiographics.rsna.org
    • Role of Imaging in the Evaluation of Male Infertility

      Mittal, Pardeep K.; Little, Brent; Harri, Peter A.; Miller, Frank H.; Alexander, Lauren F.; Kalb, Bobby; Camacho, Juan C.; Master, Viraj; Hartman, Matthew; Moreno, Courtney C.; et al. (RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA, 2017-05)
      Infertility is defined herein as the inability to achieve pregnancy after frequently engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse for 1 year. Among infertile couples, the cause of infertility involves the male partner in approximately 50% of cases. Male infertility is usually caused by conditions affecting sperm production, sperm function, or both, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Chronic health problems, injuries, lifestyle choices, anatomic problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects can have a role in male infertility. The diagnostic workup of male infertility should include a thorough medical and reproductive history, physical examination, and semen analysis, followed by imaging. The main role of imaging is identification of the causes of infertility, such as congenital anomalies and disorders that obstruct sperm transport and may be correctable. Scrotal ultrasonography is the most common initially performed noninvasive examination used to image the male reproductive system, including the testes and extratesticular structures such as the epididymis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is another noninvasive imaging modality used in the pelvis to evaluate possible obstructive lesions involving the ductal system. MR imaging of the brain is extremely useful for evaluating relevant neurologic abnormalities, such as pituitary gland disorders, that are suspected on the basis of hormone analysis results. Invasive techniques are usually reserved for therapeutic interventions in patients with known abnormalities. In this article, the causes and imaging findings of obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia are discussed. In addition to detecting treatable conditions that are related to male infertility, identifying the life-threatening entities associated with infertility and the genetic conditions that could be transmitted to offspring-especially in patients who undergo assisted reproduction-is critical. (C) RSNA, 2017
    • Shear-Wave Elastography: Basic Physics and Musculoskeletal Applications

      Taljanovic, Mihra S; Gimber, Lana H; Becker, Giles W; Latt, L Daniel; Klauser, Andrea S; Melville, David M; Gao, Liang; Witte, Russell S; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med Imaging; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Orthopaed Surg; et al. (RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA, 2017)
      In the past 2 decades, sonoelastography has been progressively used as a tool to help evaluate soft-tissue elasticity and add to information obtained with conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonographic techniques. Recently introduced on clinical scanners, shear-wave elastography (SWE) is considered to be more objective, quantitative, and reproducible than compression sonoelastography with increasing applications to the musculoskeletal system. SWE uses an acoustic radiation force pulse sequence to generate shear waves, which propagate perpendicular to the ultrasound beam, causing transient displacements. The distribution of shear-wave velocities at each pixel is directly related to the shear modulus, an absolute measure of the tissue's elastic properties. Shear-wave images are automatically coregistered with standard B-mode images to provide quantitative color elastograms with anatomic specificity. Shear waves propagate faster through stiffer contracted tissue, as well as along the long axis of tendon and muscle. SWE has a promising role in determining the severity of disease and treatment follow-up of various musculoskeletal tissues including tendons, muscles, nerves, and ligaments. This article describes the basic ultrasound physics of SWE and its applications in the evaluation of various traumatic and pathologic conditions of the musculoskeletal system.