• A 1720-nm ring-cavity Tm-doped fiber laser with optimized output coupling

      Zhang, L.; Zhang, J.; Sheng, Q.; Sun, S.; Shi, C.; Fu, S.; Bai, X.; Shi, W.; Yao, J.; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2021)
      We have demonstrated an efficient 1720-nm all-fiber laser with ring-cavity configuration based on commercial Tmdoped silica fiber and 1570-nm in-band pump source. The rate equation model was built up to analyze the laser performance of Tm-doped fiber, which exhibits strong absorption in 1.7-µm region. The results show that efficient laser operation can be achieved through the optimization of output coupling and the length of Tm-doped fiber. By using homemade couplers, we experimentally achieved 2.36-W laser output power under 6-W launched pump power. The slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power and optical efficiency were 50.2% and 39.3%, respectively. Due to the employment of ring resonator, a narrow laser linewidth of ~4 GHz at maximum output power was observed. © 2021 SPIE.
    • A co-registered multimodal imaging system for reflectance, multiphoton, and optical coherence microscopy

      Vega, D.; Barton, J.K.; Galvez, D.; Santaniello, S.P.; Adams, Z.; Pham, N.Y.; Kiekens, K.; Cordova, R.; Montague, J.; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      Multimodal imaging is an advantageous method to increase the accuracy of disease classification. As an example, we and others have shown that optical coherence tomography images and fluorescence spectroscopy contain complementary information that can increase the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. A common challenge in multimodal imaging is image co-registration. The different images are often taken with separate imaging setups, making it challenging to precisely image the same tissue area or co-register the images computationally. To solve this problem, we have developed a co-registered multimodal imaging system that images the same tissue location with reflectance, multi-photon, and optical coherence microscopy. The co-registration mechanism is a dual-clad fiber that integrates with a scanning microscope or scanning endoscope, collecting all three signals using the same optical path. In the current implementation, optical coherence tomography utilizes a 1300 nm super luminescent diode, multi-photon signals are excited by a custom femtosecond 1400 nm fiber laser producing two-and three-photon signals in the 460-900 nm band, and reflectance imaging operates at 561 nm. The system separates the different signals using fiber wavelength division multiplexers, a dual-clad fiber coupler, and dichroic mirrors to deliver the different signals to the corresponding detector. This wavelength selection enables the system to work passively, meaning that there is no need for devices such as filter wheels. Using the scanning microscope configuration, we have obtained multimodal images of ex-vivo ovine ovary tissue. © 2021 SPIE.
    • A domeless, mobile 2-meter telescope

      Kingsley, J.; Strittmatter, P.; Gonzales, K.; Connors, T.; Kingsley, B.; Jannuzi, B.; Yoshii, Y.; Minezaki, T.; Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (SPIE, 2020)
      There are many astronomical, interferometric and space situational awareness applications for single and multiple 2-meter aperture optical and infrared mobile telescopes that are low cost, can be easily transported and quickly deployed at a variety of sites. A design concept is presented for a trailermounted 2-meter telescope with a novel micro-enclosure that allows the telescope to be moved and deployed quickly for observations. The telescope is protected from adverse weather using a weatherproof telescope tube instead of a conventional dome or enclosure. It has Cassegrain, Nasmyth and coudé foci suitable for astronomical, interferometric, space situational awareness, and laser communications applications, and is designed for replication at low cost. An initial implementation is being developed to explore the performance of such a telescope using re-purposed primary and secondary mirrors and other components from the MAGNUM telescope. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    • A laser-truss based optical alignment system on LBT

      Rakich, A.; Choi, H.; Veillet, C.; Hill, J.M.; Bec, M.; Zhang, Y.; Brendel, T.; Sitarski, B.; Gardiner, M.; Kim, D.W.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      Since 2017 LBTO, in partnership with GMTO, has been developing a laser-trussed based metrology system for the active alignment of telescope main optical components to each other and to instruments. The effort has addressed needs of both organizations; LBTO with the opportunity to assess the performance of a new technological approach to telescope alignment, and the GMTO with the opportunity to prototype and field-test a system that has been identified as a crucial "missing link"in the active-optics chain between open-loop modelling and wavefront-sensing for ELT-scale telescopes. Following two years of effort the positive results so far obtained have convinced LBTO, in 2019, to commence to develop an integrated operational active-optics system based on this technological approach. A team drawn from LBTO, Steward Observatory, GMTO, the Wyant College of Optical Sciences and Mersenne Optical Consulting are currently completing the first phase of this Telescope Metrology System (TMS). This paper shall describe the system in detail and report on progress, current status, and future goals. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    • A new frontier for J-band interferometry: Dual-band NIR interferometry with MIRC-X

      Labdon, A.; Monnier, J.D.; Kraus, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Setterholm, B.R.; Anugu, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Lanthermann, C.; Davies, C.L.; Ennis, J.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      In this contribution we report on our work to increase the spectral range of the Michigan Infrared Combiner- eXeter (MIRC-X) instrument at the CHARA array to allow for dual H and J band interferometric observations. We comment on the key science drivers behind this project and the methods of characterisation and correction of instrumental birefringence and dispersion. In addition, we report on the first results from on-sky commissioning in November 2019. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    • A novel power and communications hub: The GMT EtherCAT and power hub

      Ford, J.M.; Ranka, T.; Salanski, T.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2020)
      Each of the seven primary mirror cell in the GMT contains over 225 EtherCAT slaves in the cell, leading to a nightmare of cabling. Optimization of the initial construction and ongoing maintenance of the cells requires reduced complexity of wiring in the cell. Employing the concept of Power over EtherCAT and a star configuration, the resulting the EtherCAT Power and Communications Hub design reduces the wiring in the cell by 2/3, while additionally providing centralized power management and diagnosis of each actuator communications link. The design consists of an EtherCAT slave to allow the central control system to monitor and control the slaves attached to the hub, and power control circuits to provide and monitor power to each slave. In addition to providing a significant reduction in wiring complexity, the hub serves as an additional control point for power to each support actuator, enhancing mirror safety through redundant control of the actuators. This paper describes the motivation driving the requirements, the resulting requirements and design, and test results of the prototype EtherCAT and Power Hubs. © 2020 SPIE.
    • Acoustic source localization on a thin isotropic spherical shell

      Zhou, Z.; Cui, Z.; Kundu, T.; Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona; Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2021)
      Acoustic source localization (ASL) on a thin isotropic spherical shell is more challenging than that for two-dimensional flat plate structures. Here, a localization technique for isotropic spherical shell is proposed based on the triangular time difference using only four sensors without knowing the acoustic wave speed in the material. The proposed technique does not require solving a system of nonlinear equations, thus it greatly reduces the complexity of calculation. A finite element model of a thin isotropic spherical shell was created to verify the proposed acoustic source localization technique. The results of numerical simulation prove the reliability of the proposed technique. © 2021 SPIE
    • Adaptive optics real-time control with the compute and control for adaptive optics (Cacao) software framework

      Guyon, Olivier; Sevin, Arnaud; Ferreira, Florian; Ltaief, Hatem; Males, Jared R.; Deo, Vincent; Gratadour, Damien; Cetre, Sylvain; Martinache, Frantz; Lozi, Julien; et al. (SPIE, 2020-12-13)
      The Compute and control for adaptive optics (Cacao) is an open source software package providing a flexible framework for deploying real-time adaptive optics control. Cacao leverages CPU and GPU computational resources to meet the demands of modern AO systems with thousands of degrees of freedom running at kHz speed or faster. Cacao adopts a modular approach, where individual processes operate over a standardized data stream stucture. Advanced control loops integrating multiple sensors and DMs are built by assembling multiple such processes. High-level constructs are provided for sensor fusion, where multiple sensors can drive a single physical DM. The common data stream format is at the heart of Cacao, holding data content in shared memory and timing information as semaphores. Cacao is currently in operation on the general-purpose Subaru AO188 system, the SCExAO and MagAOX extreme-AO instruments. Its data stream format has been adopted at Keck, within the COMPASS AO simulation tool, and in the COSMIC modular RTC platform. We describe Cacao's software architecture and toolset, and provide simple examples for users to build a real-time control loop. Advanced features are discussed, including on-sky results and experience with predictive control and sensor fusion. Future development plans will include leveraging machine learning algorithms for real-time PSF calibration and more optimal AO control, for which early on-sky demonstration will be presented. © 2020 SPIE.
    • ADC/DAC resolution tolerance improvement by implementing probabilistic shaping distributions in PAM and QAM modulation schemes

      Han, X.; Yue, Y.; Qu, Z.; Holmes, R.; Djordjevic, I.B.; ECE Dept., University of Arizona (SPIE, 2021)
      In this paper, we simulated the ADC/DAC resolution tolerance improvement by implementing probabilistic shaping (PS) distributions in PAM and QAM modulation schemes for 400G and 800G transmissions. We compared PS- and uniformdistributed PM-16QAM, PM-32QAM, and PM-64QAM performance in 800G coherent transmission in FR links. The PS distribution scheme is based on Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and 0.1378 FEC overhead is chosen. We demonstrate that for any of these modulation schemes the post-BER (post-FEC bit-error rate) performance is more sensitive to ADC resolution. Moreover, the application of PS distribution can offer us 0.5-dB improvement in received optical power (ROP) for LDPC-coded PM-16QAM and 0.7-dB improvement for PM-32QAM, while PM-64QAM can get 0.6-dB improvement in ROP. For PAM transmission, we simulated a 4-channel CWDM 400G transmission system with wavelengths 1271 nm, 1291 nm, 1311 nm, and 1331 nm for 4-PAM modulation scheme. The PS distribution scheme we used in PAM is exponential distribution, and the FEC overhead is also 0.1378. We demonstrated that the pre-SER (pre-FEC symbol-error rate) performance is also more sensitive to the ADC resolution compared to DAC resolution. Therefore, the PS LPDCcoded modulation represents a great candidate to improve the system performance and reduce the cost. © 2021 SPIE.
    • All reflective THz telescope design with an inflatable primary antenna for Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems (OASIS) mission

      Takashima, Y.; Sirsi, S.; Choi, H.; Palisoc, A.; Arenberg, J.W.; Kim, D.; Walker, C.; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2021)
      With an inflatable membrane, a space antenna having an order of magnitude larger photon collection area as compared to the state of the art is feasible. An integrated and comprehensive study has been performed by the scientists and engineers team at NASA Goddard, Northrup Grumman, L’Garde and University of Arizona. As a part of the study, optical design for the 19m antenna is overviewed here. © 2021 SPIE.
    • All-fiber mode-locked laser at 977 nm

      Aleshkina, S.S.; Lipatov, D.S.; Velmiskin, V.V.; Kochergina, T.A.; Fedotov, A.; Gumenyuk, R.; Kotov, L.V.; Temyanko, V.L.; Bubnov, M.M.; Guryanov, A.N.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      In this paper, we have developed Yb-doped fiber suitable for creation of all-fiber seed laser schemes operating near 977 nm. The fiber was based on a ring-doping design (cladding was partially doped with Yb-ions), which allowed us to fabricate a relatively small core and provide mode field diameter (MFD) of the active fiber comparable with standard fibers (to achieve small splicing losses with commercially available optical fibers) and, simultaneously, increase absorption from the cladding to keep a reasonably high lasing efficiency. So MFDx of the fiber was 12 μm, MFDy was 14 μm. Outer silica cladding of the active fiber was decreased to diameter of 80 μm and a special pump and signal combiner was used to inject pump and signal into the active fiber. Based on the developed Yb-doped fiber an all-fiber polarization maintaining mode-locked laser with central wavelength around 977 nm was demonstrated for the first time. SESAM was used as a saturable absorber. The laser was self-starting for pump powers above 4.6 W, with the output power of 3 mW. The autocorrelation was the best fitted with sech2 profile and pulse duration was estimated to be as long as 9.5 ps. The fundamental cavity frequency corresponded to the pulse repetition rate of 33.532 MHz. Signal-to-noise ratio measured in the radio frequency range was more than 50 dB, the line width was below 1 kHz, which indicate ultimate stability of the fabricated mode-lock laser. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    • An innovative integral field unit upgrade with 3D-printed micro-lenses for the RHEA at Subaru

      Anagnos, T.; Maier, P.; Hottinger, P.; Betters, C.H.; Feger, T.; Leon-Saval, S.G.; Gris-Sanchez, I.; Yerolatsitis, S.; Lozi, J.; Birks, T.A.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      In the new era of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) currently under construction, challenging requirements drive spectrograph designs towards techniques that efficiently use a facility's light collection power. Operating in the single-mode (SM) regime, close to the diffraction limit, reduces the footprint of the instrument compared to a conventional high-resolving power spectrograph. The custom built injection fiber system with 3D-printed microlenses on top of it for the replicable high-resolution exoplanet and asteroseismology spectrograph (RHEA) at Subaru in combination with extreme adaptive optics of SCExAO, proved its high efficiency in a lab environment, manifesting up to ∼77% of the theoretical predicted performance. © 2020 SPIE.
    • An open-source Gaussian beamlet decomposition tool for modeling astronomical telescopes

      Ashcraft, J.N.; Douglas, E.S.; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (SPIE, 2020)
      In the pursuit of directly imaging exoplanets, the high-contrast imaging community has developed a multitude of tools to simulate the performance of coronagraphs on segmented-aperture telescopes. As the scale of the telescope increases and science cases move toward shorter wavelengths, the required physical optics propagation to optimize high-contrast imaging instruments becomes computationally prohibitive. Gaussian Beamlet Decom- position (GBD) is an alternative method of physical optics propagation that decomposes an arbitrary wavefront into paraxial rays. These rays can be propagated expeditiously using ABCD matrices, and converted into their corresponding Gaussian beamlets to accurately model physical optics phenomena without the need of diffraction integrals. The GBD technique has seen recent development and implementation in commercial software (e.g. FRED, CODE V, ASAP)1-3 but appears to lack an open-source platform. We present a new GBD tool developed in Python to model physical optics phenomena, with the goal of alleviating the computational burden for modeling complex apertures, many-element systems, and introducing the capacity to model misalignment errors. This study demonstrates the synergy of the geometrical and physical regimes of optics utilized by the GBD technique, and is motivated by the need for advancing open-source physical optics propagators for segmented- aperture telescope coronagraph design and analysis. This work illustrates GBD with Poisson's spot calculations and show significant runtime advantage of GBD over Fresnel propagators for many-element systems. © 2020 SPIE.
    • Analytical and finite element analysis tool for nonlinear membrane antenna modeling for astronomical applications

      Palisoc, A.L.; Pardoen, G.; Takashima, Y.; Chandra, A.; Sirsi, S.; Choi, H.; Kim, D.; Quach, H.; Arenberg, J.W.; Walker, C.; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      The uninflated shape configurations of parabolic and spherical membrane mirrors were calculated by solving the inverse problem, i.e., given the design inflation pressure, the membrane material and geometric properties, what must be the initial uninflated shape such that on inflation to the design pressure, the exact desired surface of revolution is obtained. The resulting first order nonlinear differential equation was numerically integrated using the boundary conditions. The initial uninflated shape was then subjected to a forward transformation using FAIM, a proprietary geometric nonlinear membrane finite element code. FAIM has been validated against exact analytical solutions for both small and extremely large deformations that are up to eight orders of magnitude larger compared with the starting undeflected shape. Simulations reveal that to fabricate a very accurate and precise inflated membrane mirror relative to the design parameters, one must not only accurately measure and input the moduli in both meridional and hoop directions but an accurately measured Poisson’s ratio as well. The code was used to guide the membrane mirror design. For very small aperture diameters, the initial uninflated shape may be fabricated by thermo-forming the membrane. For aperture diameters exceeding one meter however, the membrane mirror is built with discrete gores that are joined together with tapes at the seams. This provided the impetus to write a companion computer code FLATE, to calculate the gore shapes using a slight modification of the solution to the inverse transformation equation to account for the presence of the seam tapes. After the gores were determined, the resulting final inflated shape was calculated and verified using FAIM. Sensitivity analyses can now be carried out to determine the resulting surface shape as a function of the different sources of error: gore width, gore length, perimeter attachment uncertainties, thermal effects, variation of material properties over the membrane continuum and inflation pressure changes. The code has been shown to be more robust than equivalent commercial analytical packages in so far as membrane, cable and space-frame element combinations are concerned. In particular, the analytical and finite element codes were used in the preliminary assessment of a membrane optic for the OASIS Mission (Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems) [1]. The OASIS is a 20-meter class space observatory operating at high spectral resolution in the terahertz frequencies. Over its nominal 2-year mission it will probe conditions and search for biogenic molecules on hundreds of protoplanetary disks and other solar system objects. © 2021 SPIE.
    • Angular Spectrum Evaluation Tool analysis of the Crown of Light diamond cut

      Sasian, J.; Paikin, R.; University of Arizona, Wyant College of Optical Sciences (SPIE, 2020)
      We analyze the Crown of Light (COL) cut using an angular spectrum evaluation tool. Several light performing features of the COL are discussed. In particular, it is found that the angular spectrum of the COL tends to be concentrated and that this maximizes the brilliance and sparkle probability when the COL is aimed at localized light sources. It is contended that the COL represents a novel paradigm in diamond cuts. A distinctive feature of the COL cut is its dome shaped crown. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its.
    • ANTARES: A gateway to ZTF and LSST alerts

      Lee, C.-H.; Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Narayan, G.; Soraisam, M.; Stubens, C.; Wolf, N.; Snodgrass, R.; Kececioglu, J.; Scheidegger, C.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      With the avalanche of alerts to be delivered by Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time and the limited resources for follow-up, we will need brokers to select intriguing alerts that warrant follow-up in a timely manner. At NSF's NOIRLab and University of Arizona, we are developing the Arizona-NOIRLab Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System (ANTARES, Saha et al. 2014, 2016, Narayan et al. 2018), to hunt for the rarest of the rare events in the time domain. In this work, we provide an overview of the ANTARES system, how we use real-time alerts from the ongoing Zwicky Transient Facility survey as a training set, and the way forwards to Rubin observatory. © 2020 SPIE.
    • Aspera: The UV SmallSat telescope to detect and map the warm-hot gas phase in nearby galaxy halos

      Chung, H.; Vargas, C.J.; Hamden, E.; McMahon, T.; Gonzales, K.; Khan, A.R.; Agarwal, S.; Bailey, H.; Behroozi, P.; Brendel, T.; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      Aspera is an extreme-UV (EUV) Astrophysics small satellite telescope designed to map the warm-hot phase coronal gas around nearby galaxy halos. Theory suggests that this gas is a significant fraction of a galaxy’s halo mass and plays a critical role in its evolution, but its exact role is poorly understood. Aspera observes this warm-hot phase gas via Ovi emission at 1032 Å using four parallel Rowland-Circle-like spectrograph channels in a single payload. Aspera’s robust-and-simple design is inspired by the FUSE spectrograph, but with smaller, four 6.2 cm × 3.7 cm, off-axis parabolic primary mirrors. Aspera is expected to achieve a sensitivity of 4.3×10-19 erg/s/cm2/arcsec2 for diffuse Ovi line emission. This superb sensitivity is enabled by technological advancements over the last decade in UV coatings, gratings, and detectors. Here we present the overall payload design of the Aspera telescope and its expected performance. Aspera is funded by the inaugural 2020 NASA Astrophysics Pioneers program, with a projected launch in late 2024. © 2021 SPIE.
    • Blooming in H2RG arrays: Laboratory measurements of a second brighter-fatter type effect in HgCdTe infrared detectors

      Zengilowski, G.R.; Cabrera, M.S.; McMurtry, C.W.; Pipher, J.L.; Dorn, M.L.; Reilly, N.S.; Bovie, D.; Mainzer, A.K.; Wong, A.F.; Lee, D.; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      Improved measurement and calibration of detector behaviors will be crucial for future space missions, particularly those aiming to tackle outstanding questions in cosmology and exoplanet research. Similarly, many small detector effects, such as the nearest-neighbor interactions of the brighter-fatter effect and interpixel capacitance, will need to be considered to ensure measured signals are truly astronomical in origin. Laboratory measurements confirming the existence of an additional brighter-fatter type effect in HAWAII-1RG and HAWAII-2RG HgCdTe infrared arrays with cutoff wavelengths ranging from 5.7 to 16.7 μm are presented. This effect is similar in nature to the blooming observed in charge-coupled devices and is characterized by a pixel spontaneously sharing a current with its neighbors upon reaching saturation, serving to make the brightest sources appear fatter. In addition to exploring the cause and mechanism of current sharing for this effect, measurements for several arrays show the magnitude of the shared current is greater than 60% of the incoming photocurrent hitting the saturated pixel. A proof-of-concept correction method for this effect is also described along with the necessary next steps to improve this correction and investigate the amplitude of other nearest-neighbor interactions. © 2021 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
    • Calibration of the instrumental polarization effects of SCExAO-CHARIS' spectropolarimetric mode∗

      van Holstein, R.G.; Bos, S.P.; Ruigrok, J.; Lozi, J.; Guyon, O.; Norris, B.; Snik, F.; Chilcote, J.; Currie, T.; Groff, T.D.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      SCExAO at the Subaru telescope is a visible and near-infrared high-contrast imaging instrument employing extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy. The instrument feeds the near-infrared light (JHK) to the integral field spectrograph CHARIS. Recently, a Wollaston prism was added to CHARIS' optical path, giving CHARIS a spectropolarimetric capability that is unique among high-contrast imaging instruments. We present a detailed Mueller matrix model describing the instrumental polarization effects of the complete optical path, thus the telescope and instrument. The 22 wavelength bins of CHARIS provide a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the wavelength dependence of the instrumental polarization effects. From measurements with the internal light source, we find that the image derotator (K-mirror) produces strong wavelength-dependent crosstalk, in the worst case converting ∼95% of the incident linear polarization to circularly polarized light that cannot be measured. Theoretical calculations show that the magnitude of the instrumental polarization of the telescope varies with wavelength between approximately 0.5% and 0.7%, and that its angle is exactly equal to the altitude angle of the telescope. We plan to more accurately determine the instrumental polarization of the telescope with observations of a polarization standard star, and fit more comprehensive physical models to all experimental data. In addition, we plan to integrate the complete Mueller matrix model into the existing CHARIS post-processing pipeline, with the aim to achieve a polarimetric accuracy of <0.1% in the degree of linear polarization. Our calibrations of CHARIS' spectropolarimetric mode will enable unique quantitative polarimetric studies of circumstellar disks and planetary and brown dwarf companions. © 2020 SPIE
    • CHARA array adaptive optics: Complex operational software and performance

      Anugu, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Turner, N.H.; Anderson, M.D.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.; Majoinen, O.; et al. (SPIE, 2020)
      The CHARA Array is the longest baseline optical interferometer in the world. Operated with natural seeing, it has delivered landmark sub-milliarcsecond results in the areas of stellar imaging, binaries, and stellar diameters. However, to achieve ambitious observations of faint targets such as young stellar objects and active galactic nuclei, higher sensitivity is required. For that purpose, adaptive optics are developed to correct atmospheric turbulence and non-common path aberrations between each telescope and the beam combiner lab. This paper describes the AO software and its integration into the CHARA system. We also report initial on-sky tests that demonstrate an increase of scientific throughput by sensitivity gain and by extending useful observing time in worse seeing conditions. Our 6 telescopes and 12 AO systems with tens of critical alignments and control loops pose challenges in operation. We describe our methods enabling a single scientist to operate the entire system. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.