• Absolute brain size predicts dog breed differences in executive function

      Horschler, Daniel J; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; MacLean, Evan L; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-03-01)
      Large-scale phylogenetic studies of animal cognition have revealed robust links between absolute brain volume and species differences in executive function. However, past comparative samples have been composed largely of primates, which are characterized by evolutionarily derived neural scaling rules. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether positive associations between brain volume and executive function reflect a broad-scale evolutionary phenomenon, or alternatively, a unique consequence of primate brain evolution. Domestic dogs provide a powerful opportunity for investigating this question due to their close genetic relatedness, but vast intraspecific variation. Using citizen science data on more than 7000 purebred dogs from 74 breeds, and controlling for genetic relatedness between breeds, we identify strong relationships between estimated absolute brain weight and breed differences in cognition. Specifically, larger-brained breeds performed significantly better on measures of short-term memory and self-control. However, the relationships between estimated brain weight and other cognitive measures varied widely, supporting domain-specific accounts of cognitive evolution. Our results suggest that evolutionary increases in brain size are positively associated with taxonomic differences in executive function, even in the absence of primate-like neuroanatomy. These findings also suggest that variation between dog breeds may present a powerful model for investigating correlated changes in neuroanatomy and cognition among closely related taxa.
    • Age influences domestic dog cognitive performance independent of average breed lifespan

      Watowich, Marina M; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Cognit Sci (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-04-30)
      Across mammals, increased body size is positively associated with lifespan. However, within species, this relationship is inverted. This is well illustrated in dogs (Canis familiaris), where larger dogs exhibit accelerated life trajectories: growing faster and dying younger than smaller dogs. Similarly, some age-associated traits (e.g., growth rate and physiological pace of aging) exhibit accelerated trajectories in larger breeds. Yet, it is unknown whether cognitive performance also demonstrates an accelerated life course trajectory in larger dogs. Here, we measured cognitive development and aging in a cross-sectional study of over 4000 dogs from 66 breeds using nine memory and decision-making tasks performed by citizen scientists as part of the Dognition project. Specifically, we tested whether cognitive traits follow a compressed (accelerated) trajectory in larger dogs, or the same trajectory for all breeds, which would result in limited cognitive decline in larger breeds. We found that all breeds, regardless of size or lifespan, tended to follow the same quadratic trajectory of cognitive aging-with a period of cognitive development in early life and decline in later life. Taken together, our results suggest that cognitive performance follows similar age-related trajectories across dog breeds, despite remarkable variation in developmental rates and lifespan.
    • Anisotropic larval connectivity and metapopulation structure driven by directional oceanic currents in a marine fish targeted by small-scale fisheries

      Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Marinone, S. Guido; Paz-Garcia, David A.; Giron-Nava, Alfredo; Plomozo-Lugo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Cuellar, Ollin; Weaver, Amy Hudson; García-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Conservat Genet Lab (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2018-01)
      The dispersal during the planktonic larval period is a key feature to understand the metapopulation structure of marine fishes, and is commonly described by four general models: (1) lack of population structure due to extensive larval dispersal; (2) isolation by geographic distance, where larval connectivity decreases with increasing distance between sites in all directions (isotropy); (3) population structure without any clear geographic trend (chaotic); and (4) population structure explained by seascape approaches that explicitly incorporate the spatial and temporal variations in the direction and strength of oceanic currents via oceanographic modeling. We tested the four models in the Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, a key commercial species in the Gulf of California (GC), Mexico. We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 225 samples collected during 20152016 from 8 sites, and contrasted the observed empirical genetic patterns against predictions from each model. We found low but significant levels of population structure among sites. Only the seascape approach was able to significantly explain levels of genetic structure and diversity, but exclusively within spring and summer, suggesting that this period represents the spawning season for L. peru. We showed that in the GC, the strong asymmetry in the oceanic currents causes larval connectivity to show different values when measured in distinct directions (anisotropy). Management tools, including marine reserves, could be more effective if placed upstream of the predominant flow. Managers should consider that oceanographic distances describing the direction and intensity of currents during the spawning period are significant predictors of larval connectivity between sites, as opposed to geographic distances.
    • Assessing livelihood-ecosystem interdependencies and natural resource governance in Indian villages in the Middle Himalayas

      Everard, Mark; Gupta, Nishikant; Scott, Christopher A.; Tiwari, Prakash C.; Joshi, Bhagwati; Kataria, Gaurav; Kumar, Smita; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-01)
      Mountains host high biological and cultural diversity, generating ecosystem services providing benefits over multiple scales but also suffering significant poverty and vulnerabilities. Case studies in two contrasting village communities in the Indian Middle Himalayas explore linkages between people and adjacent forest and river ecosystems. Interviews with local people and direct observations revealed low food availability and decreasing self-sufficiency, under the combined pressures of increasing foraging by wildlife (primarily pigs and monkeys) coupled with seasonal to permanent outmigration by younger men seeking more secure income and alternative livelihoods. Much of the income remitted by migrants to their villages was not retained locally but flowed back out of the Himalayan region through purchases of food produced and marketed in the plains. This threatens the economic viability of villages, also placing asymmetric pressures on resident female, elderly and young people who concentrate labour on local livestock production to the neglect of crop agriculture, further compounding land abandonment and wildlife foraging. Significant traditional knowledge remains, along with utilitarian, cultural and spiritual connections with the landscape. Many beneficiaries of locally produced ecosystem services are remote from village communities (particularly water flows downstream to the plains), but no recompense is paid to stewards of the forested Himalayan landscape. Although local people currently perceive high biodiversity as a constraint to agriculture and other economic activities, the Himalayan landscapes could potentially constitute an asset with appropriate institutional development through promotion of managed bioprospecting, guided ecotourism and payment for ecosystem services (PES) schemes for water supply and under REDD+.
    • The association between motor capacity and mobility performance: frailty as a moderator

      Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, M Jane; Najafi, Bijan; Wendel, Christopher; Schwenk, Michael; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn & Med (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-10-10)
      We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the observational (blinded for review) study in a community-dwelling cohort in (blinded for review). Participants were N = 112 older adults aged 65 years or older who were categorized as non-frail (n = 40), pre-frail (n = 53) or frail (n = 19) based on the Fried frailty index.Motor capacity was quantified as normal (NWS) and fast walking speed (FWS). Mobility performance was quantified as 1) cumulated physical activity (PA) time and 2) everyday walking performance (average steps per walking bout; maximal number of steps in one walking bout), measured by a motion sensor over a 48 h period. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate moderation effects.
    • The association between social support through contacts with Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and antenatal anxiety among women in Mysore, India: a cross-sectional study

      Bhushan, Nivedita L; Krupp, Karl; Jaykrishna, Poornima; Ravi, Kavitha; Khan, Anisa; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kiplagat, Sandra; Srinivas, Vijaya; Madhivanan, Purnima; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot Sci; et al. (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-03-07)
      Purpose In India, antenatal anxiety prevalence estimates range from 6 to 48%. Social support is strongly associated with mental wellbeing, yet most studies have examined the impact of support from partners and family members rather than peers, community members, or health care providers. This study explores the supportive role of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) contacts for antenatal anxiety. Methods Data were analyzed from the Saving Children, Improving Lives project, a quasi-experimental study conducted among rural, pregnant women in India. Regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship frequency of ASHA contacts and antenatal anxiety. Antenatal anxiety was measured using a subscale of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results The sample consisted of 480 pregnant women. Reported antenatal anxiety prevalence was 27% (95% CI 23%, 31%). Participants who were more frequently visited by ASHAs at home (aPR: 0.90; 95% CI 0.76, 0.98) and more frequently accompanied by ASHAs to their antenatal care visits (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.78, 0.95) were less likely to report antenatal anxiety. ASHA home visits were protective for the most vulnerable women (primigravida and those experiencing domestic violence) and ASHA accompaniment to antenatal care visits was equally protective for all women. Conclusions ASHAs are valued for their contribution towards maternal health education and linking women of reproductive age to healthcare services. Our findings additionally suggest the important role ASHAs play in providing social support to pregnant women, particularly those who are most vulnerable to experiencing antenatal anxiety.
    • Big data of tree species distributions: how big and how good?

      Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Enquist, Brian J.; Maitner, Brian; Merow, Cory; Svenning, Jens-C.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2018-01-15)
      Background: Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. Methods: We combined data from five major aggregators of occurrence data (e.g. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Botanical Information and Ecological Network v.3, DRYFLOR, RAINBIO and Atlas of Living Australia) by creating a workflow to integrate, assess and control data quality of tree species occurrences for species distribution modeling. We further assessed the coverage - the extent of geographical data - of five economically important tree families (Arecaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Fagaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae). Results: Globally, we identified 49,206 tree species (84.69% of total tree species pool) with occurrence records. The total number of occurrence records was 36.69 M, among which 6.40 M could be considered high quality records for species distribution modeling. The results show that Europe, North America and Australia have a considerable spatial coverage of tree occurrence data. Conversely, key biodiverse regions such as South-East Asia and central Africa and parts of the Amazon are still characterized by geographical open-public data gaps. Such gaps are also found even for economically important families of trees, although their overall ranges are covered. Only 15,140 species (26.05%) had at least 20 records of high quality. Conclusions: Our geographical coverage analysis shows that a wealth of easily accessible data exist on tree species occurrences worldwide, but regional gaps and coordinate errors are abundant. Thus, assessment of tree distributions will need accurate occurrence quality control protocols and key collaborations and data aggregation, especially from national forest inventory programs, to improve the current publicly available data.
    • Characterization by next-generation sequencing of 24 new microsatellite loci for the barred sand-bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard, 1854), from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

      Domínguez-Contreras, José F.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Castillo-Lopez, Alejandro; Gracia-Olea, José Alberto; Blasco, Cecilia M.; Peckham, S. Hoyt; Univ Arizona, Conservat Genet Lab, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2018-12)
      We characterized a set of new hypervariable microsatellite loci for the barred sand-bass (Paralabrax nebulifer), a marine fish that supports important recreational and artisanal fisheries in California, USA and the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. We performed a shotgun genome sequencing with the 454 XL titanium chemistry and used bioinformatics to search for microsatellite loci with perfect repeats. We selected 40 primer pairs that were synthesized and genotyped in an ABI PRISM 3730XL DNA sequencer in 32 individuals from San Juanico, Baja California Sur. We estimated levels of genetic diversity, deviations from linkage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of null alleles and the probability of individual identity for the new markers. We successfully scored 24 microsatellite loci (13 tetranucleotides and 11 dinucleotides). The average number of alleles per locus was 12.5 (range 4-23). The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.779 (range 0.313-0.969) and 0.774 (range 0.350-0.939), respectively. We detected significant linkage disequilibrium in two pairs of loci. Genotype frequencies at seven loci showed significant deviations from the expectations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had estimated null allele frequencies 10%. The probability of individual identity for the new loci was 8.5(-36). The new markers will be useful for investigating patterns of fine-scale genetic structure and diversity to estimate larval dispersal and assess metapopulation dynamics, information necessary for the sustainable management of P. nebulifer fisheries at the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula.
    • Composition and interpretation of stratified deposits in ancestral Hopi villages at Homol’ovi

      Adams, E. Charles; Fladd, Samantha G.; Univ Arizona, Arizona State Museum; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2017-09)
      During more than 20 years excavating in five of the seven ancestral Hopi villages comprising the Homol'ovi Settlement Cluster in northeastern Arizona, an incredible diversity of depositional practices has been noted within and outside structures. This paper focuses on one particular class of deposits unique in its use of ash either as part of the composition of deposits or as caps to deep, complex deposits. The association of ash with ritual structures, rare or unusual objects, and structural fires is explored and explained as likely tied to purification ritual and attempts to forget the past. Recognition of these deposits was possible through a systematic study of stratigraphic patterns among all excavation units.
    • Convection–diffusion molecular transport in a microfluidic bilayer device with a porous membrane

      Frost, Timothy S.; Estrada, Victor; Jiang, Linan; Zohar, Yitshak; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-09-21)
      The field of human cell research is rapidly changing due to the introduction of microphysiological systems, which commonly feature two stacked microchannels separated by a porous membrane for in vitro barrier modeling. An essential component to adequately representing a subset of human organ or tissue functions in these microfluidic systems is the concentration distribution of the biospecies involved. In particular, when different cell types are cultured, a delicate balance between media mixing and cellular signaling is required for long-term maintenance of the cellular co-culture. In this work, we experimentally measured the effects of various control parameters on the transient and steady average molecular concentration at the bilayer device outlet. Using these experimental results for validation, we then numerically investigated the concentration distributions due to the convection–diffusion mass transport in both microchannels. The effects of media flow rate, separation membrane porosity, molecular size, microchannel dimensions and flow direction have been systematically characterized. The transient response is found to be negligible for cell co-cultures lasting several days, while the steady-state concentration distribution is dominated by the media flow rate and separation membrane porosity. Numerically computed concentration profiles reveal self-similarity characteristics featuring a diffusive boundary layer, which can be manipulated for successful maintenance of cell co-culture with limited media mixing and enhanced cell signaling.
    • The curious case of bunnies: interpretation of the lagomorph index from Homol’ovi I, Room 733

      Bailey, Kassi; Rowe, Matthew; Adams, E. Charles; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-06-16)
      Applications of lagomorph indices to faunal assemblages in the American Southwest have produced a complex series of hypotheses and explanations for the changing ratio between Sylvilagus (cottontail rabbits) and Lepus (jackrabbits) in the archaeological record. Archaeologists attribute shifts in the lagomorph index (LI) to variation in the natural environment, modification of the landscape by Native Americans, changes in human hunting behaviors, and depression of Lepus populations through differential hunting. Couched within the logic of human behavioral ecology (HBE), LI attempts to connect species representation to environmental change and human decision-making. The varied ecosystems, cultures, and environments of the American Southwest complicate this connection and make some interpretations better suited to different subregions. In this paper, we report results from the analysis of faunal remains from Room 733 at Homol’ovi I, an ancestral Hopi site near Winslow, Arizona. Room 733 dates to the Late Homol’ovi Phase (LHP) 1385–1400 but also includes dates from the Early Homol’ovi Phase (EHP) 1330–1365. We calculate the LI for both phases to evaluate different explanations for shifts in the LI relative to regional moisture patterns. We find that while most explanations for changing LI are interconnected, changing environmental moisture, human hunting behaviors, and depression of Lepus populations do not fully explain the shifting LI. We suggest that human niche construction provides the most satisfactory explanation for changing lagomorph representation in the assemblage from Homol’ovi Room 733.
    • Dog cognitive development: a longitudinal study across the first 2 years of life

      Bray, Emily E; Gruen, Margaret E; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Horschler, Daniel J; Levy, Kerinne M; Kennedy, Brenda S; Hare, Brian A; MacLean, Evan L; Univ Arizona, Arizona Canine Cognit Ctr, Sch Anthropol; Univ Arizona, Cognit Sci Program; et al. (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-10-28)
      While our understanding of adult dog cognition has grown considerably over the past 20 years, relatively little is known about the ontogeny of dog cognition. To assess the development and longitudinal stability of cognitive traits in dogs, we administered a battery of tasks to 160 candidate assistance dogs at 2 timepoints. The tasks were designed to measure diverse aspects of cognition, ranging from executive function (e.g., inhibitory control, reversal learning, memory) to sensory discrimination (e.g., vision, audition, olfaction) to social interaction with humans. Subjects first participated as 8-10-week-old puppies, and then were retested on the same tasks at similar to 21 months of age. With few exceptions, task performance improved with age, with the largest effects observed for measures of executive function and social gaze. Results also indicated that individual differences were both early emerging and enduring; for example, social attention to humans, use of human communicative signals, independent persistence at a problem, odor discrimination, and inhibitory control all exhibited moderate levels of rank-order stability between the two timepoints. Using multiple regression, we found that young adult performance on many cognitive tasks could be predicted from a set of cognitive measures collected in early development. Our findings contribute to knowledge about changes in dog cognition across early development as well as the origins and developmental stability of individual differences.
    • Effectiveness and Tolerability of Vildagliptin and the Single Pill Combination of Vildagliptin and Metformin in "Real-World" Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The G-FORCE Study

      Van Gaal, Luc; Hermans, Michel P; Daci, Evis; Denhaerynck, Kris; De Meester, Lut; MacDonald, Karen; Abraham, Ivo; Vancayzeele, Stefaan; Maris, Michael; Univ Arizona, Ctr Hlth Outcomes & Pharmacoecon Res; et al. (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-06)
      Introduction: Randomized clinical trials showed that vildagliptin is well tolerated and leads to clinically meaningful decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) both in monotherapy and as add-on therapy in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Nevertheless, there is an increased interest for real-life studies to confirm the clinical trial findings in the setting of a daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of vildagliptin in a real-life clinical setting and to explore factors determining drug adherence and T2DM management. Methods: G-FORCE was a prospective, observational, open-label, multi-center study in which T2DM patients were prescribed de novo vildagliptin. Clinical effectiveness was determined by changes in HbA1c and FPG and by the proportion of patients reaching glycemic goal. Data were collected at baseline, after 10515 days and after 18015 days. Results: A total of 1230 patients were included in this analysis. Mean age was 63.9 +/- 10.8years, and mean HbA1c and FPG levels were 8.2 +/- 1.3% and 171.0 +/- 53.3mg/dL, respectively. At 180days of treatment, HbA1c and FPG levels decreased to 7.2 +/- 1.0% and 141.1 +/- 44.0mg/dL, respectively, while the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c and FPG goals rose from 8.6 to 44.6% and from 14.2 to 42.8%, respectively. Conclusion: In this real-world study, vildagliptin was an effective and safe treatment for T2DM patients already treated with metformin, while the single pill combination of vildagliptin and metformin provides a convenient alternative while ensuring comparable effectiveness and tolerability. Funding: Novartis Pharma.
    • Effects of higher-order multipoles of the lunar disturbing potential on elongated orbits in cislunar space

      Rosengren, Aaron J.; Namazyfard, Hossein; Giacaglia, Giorgio E. O.; Univ Arizona, Aerosp & Mech Engn Dept (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-05-29)
      For an Earth satellite in cislunar space, the effects of the third or higher-order harmonics in the solar disturbing function are negligible. For lunar perturbations, however, these terms become increasingly important as the semimajor axis increases. We investigate the effects of these higher-order multipole moments on circular, moderate, and highly elliptical orbits, where the semimajor axis is a relatively large fraction (similar to 20%) of the Moon's one. We specifically characterize the regions of cislunar space where the octupole-order approximation, often used in celestial and astrophysical dynamics for studying the stability and fates of hierarchical planetary systems, is actually a valid truncation of the gravitational interactions.
    • The effects of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on olfaction in mouse models of Niemann-Pick C1 Disease

      Erickson, Robert; Univ Arizona, Sch Med, Dept Pediat (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-08)
      The Npc1(nih/nih)-null model and the Npc1(nmf164/nmf164) hypomorph models of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) disease show defects in olfaction. We have tested the effects of the life-prolonging treatment hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) on olfaction and neural stem cell numbers when delivered either systemically or by nasal inhalation. Using the paradigm of finding a hidden cube of food after overnight food deprivation, Npc1(nih/nih) homozygous mice showed a highly significant delay in finding the food compared with wild-type mice. Npc1(nmf164/nmf164) homozygous mice showed an early loss of olfaction which was mildly corrected by somatic delivery of HPBCD which also increased the number of neural stem cells in the mutant but did not change the number in wild-type mice. In contrast, nasal delivery of this drug, at 1/5 the dosage used for somatic delivery, to Npc1(nmf164/nmf164) mutant mice delayed loss of olfaction but the control of nasal delivered saline did so as well. The nasal delivery of HPBCD to wild-type mice caused loss of olfaction but nasal delivery of saline did not. Neural stem cell counts were not improved by nasal therapy with HPBCD. We credit the delay in olfaction found with the treatment, a delay which was also found for time of death, to a large amount of stimulation the mice received with handling during the nasal delivery.
    • The endomorphin-1/2 and dynorphin-B peptides display biased agonism at the mu opioid receptor

      LaVigne, Justin; Keresztes, Attila; Chiem, Daniel; Streicher, John M; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-04)
      Dynorphins, enkephalins, and endomorphins are endogenous opioid agonist peptides that may possess distinct bias profiles; biased agonism of endogenous peptides could explain the selective roles of these ligands in vivo. Our purpose in the present study was to investigate biased signaling and potential underlying molecular mechanisms of bias using 35S-GTPγS and cAMP assays, specifically focusing on the role of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and regulators of G-protein signaling proteins (RGSs) in CHO, N2a, and SH-SY5Y cell lines, all expressing the human MOR.
    • Estimating the heritability of cognitive traits across dog breeds reveals highly heritable inhibitory control and communication factors

      Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Hare, Brian; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; MacLean, Evan L; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol; Univ Arizona, Cognit Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Coll Vet Med (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-06-10)
      Trait heritability is necessary for evolution by both natural and artificial selection, yet we know little about the heritability of cognitive traits. Domestic dogs are a valuable study system for questions regarding the evolution of phenotypic diversity due to their extraordinary intraspecific variation. While previous studies have investigated morphological and behavioral variation across dog breeds, few studies have systematically assessed breed differences in cognition. We integrated data from Dognition.com-a citizen science project on dog cognition-with breed-averaged genetic data from published sources to estimate the among-breed heritability of cognitive traits using mixed models. The resulting dataset included 11 cognitive measures for 1508 adult dogs across 36 breeds. A factor analysis yielded four factors interpreted as reflecting inhibitory control, communication, memory, and physical reasoning. Narrow-sense among-breed heritability estimates-reflecting the proportion of cognitive variance attributable to additive genetic variation-revealed that scores on the inhibitory control and communication factors were highly heritable (inhibitory control: h2 = 0.70; communication: h2 = 0.39), while memory and physical reasoning were less heritable (memory: h2 = 0.17; physical reasoning: h2 = 0.21). Although the heritability of inhibitory control is partially explained by body weight, controlling for breed-average weight still yields a high heritability estimate (h2 = 0.50), while other factors are minimally affected. Our results indicate that cognitive phenotypes in dogs covary with breed relatedness and suggest that cognitive traits have strong potential to undergo selection. The highest heritabilities were observed for inhibitory control and communication, both of which are hypothesized to have been altered by domestication.
    • Exploring everyday examples to explain basis: insights into student understanding from students in Germany

      Zandieh, Michelle; Adiredja, Aditya; Knapp, Jessica; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-12)
      There is relatively little research specifically about student understanding of basis. Our ongoing work addresses student understanding of basis from an anti-deficit perspective, which focuses on the resources that students have to make sense of basis using everyday ideas. Using data from a group of women of color in the United States, we previously developed an analytical framework to describe student understanding about basis, including codes related to characteristics of basis vectors and roles of basis vectors in the vector space. In this paper, we utilize the methods of the previous study to further enrich our findings about student understanding of basis. By analyzing interview data from students in Germany, we found that this group of students most often used ideas that we describe by the roles generating, structuring, and traveling, and the characteristics different and essential. Some of the themes that emerged from the data illustrate common pairings of these ideas, students' flexibility in interpreting multiple roles within one everyday example, and the ways that the roles and characteristics motivate students to create additional examples. We also discuss two ways that differences between the German and English languages were pointed out by students in the interviews.
    • FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2

      Pyarelal, A.; Song, H.; Su, S.; Univ Arizona (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-06)
      In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched, as an international collaboration hosted by CERN. This study covers a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), which could, successively, be installed in the same 100 km tunnel. The scientific capabilities of the integrated FCC programme would serve the worldwide community throughout the 21st century. The FCC study also investigates an LHC energy upgrade, using FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the second volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the electron-positron collider FCC-ee. After summarizing the physics discovery opportunities, it presents the accelerator design, performance reach, a staged operation scenario, the underlying technologies, civil engineering, technical infrastructure, and an implementation plan. FCC-ee can be built with today's technology. Most of the FCC-ee infrastructure could be reused for FCC-hh. Combining concepts from past and present lepton colliders and adding a few novel elements, the FCC-ee design promises outstandingly high luminosity. This will make the FCC-ee a unique precision instrument to study the heaviest known particles (Z, W and H bosons and the top quark), offering great direct and indirect sensitivity to new physics.
    • FCC-hh: The Hadron Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 3

      Pyarelal, Adarsh; Song, Huayang; Su, Shufang; Univ Arizona (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-07)
      In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics (EPPSU), the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched as a world-wide international collaboration hosted by CERN. The FCC study covered an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee), the corresponding 100km tunnel infrastructure, as well as the physics opportunities of these two colliders, and a high-energy LHC, based on FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the third volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the hadron collider FCC-hh. It summarizes the FCC-hh physics discovery opportunities, presents the FCC-hh accelerator design, performance reach, and staged operation plan, discusses the underlying technologies, the civil engineering and technical infrastructure, and also sketches a possible implementation. Combining ingredients from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high-luminosity LHC upgrade and adding novel technologies and approaches, the FCC-hh design aims at significantly extending the energy frontier to 100TeV. Its unprecedented centre of-mass collision energy will make the FCC-hh a unique instrument to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, offering great direct sensitivity to new physics and discoveries.