• Adipose-derived human stem/stromal cells: comparative organ specific mitochondrial bioenergy profiles

      Ferng, Alice S.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Fleming, Jamie M.; Conway, Renee F.; Schipper, David; Bajaj, Naing; Connell, Alana M.; Pilikian, Tia; Johnson, Kitsie; Runyan, Ray; et al. (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2016-12-01)
      Background: Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) isolated from the stromal vascular fraction are a source of mesenchymal stem cells that have been shown to be beneficial in many regenerative medicine applications. ASCs are an attractive source of stem cells in particular, due to their lack of immunogenicity. This study examines differences between mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles of ASCs isolated from adipose tissue of five peri-organ regions: pericardial, thymic, knee, shoulder, and abdomen. Results: Flow cytometry showed that the majority of each ASC population isolated from the adipose tissue of 12 donors, with an n = 3 for each tissue type, were positive for MSC markers CD90, CD73, and CD105, and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD11B, CD19, and CD45. Bioenergetic profiles were obtained for ASCs with an n = 4 for each tissue type and graphed together for comparison. Mitochondrial stress tests provided the following measurements: basal respiration rate (measured as oxygen consumption rate [pmol O-2/min], ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, respiratory control ratio, coupling efficiency, and non-mitochondrial respiration. Glycolytic stress tests provided the following measurements: basal glycolysis rate (measured as extracellular acidification rate [mpH/min]), glycolytic capacity, glycolytic reserve, and non-glycolytic acidification. Conclusions: The main goal of this manuscript was to provide baseline reference values for future experiments and to compare bioenergetic potentials of ASCs isolated from adipose tissue harvested from different anatomical locations. Through an investigation of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, it was demonstrated that bioenergetic profiles do not significantly differ by region due to depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability. Thus, although the physiological function, microenvironment and anatomical harvest site may directly affect the characteristics of ASCs isolated from different organ regions, the ultimate utility of ASCs remains independent of the anatomical harvest site.
    • A Case Study of Combined Perception-Based and Perception-Free Spinal Cord Stimulator Therapy for the Management of Persistent Pain after a Total Knee Arthroplasty

      Urits, Ivan; Osman, Mohamed; Orhurhu, Vwaire; Viswanath, Omar; Kaye, Alan D; Simopoulos, Thomas; Yazdi, Cyrus; Univ Arizona, Dept Anesthesiol, Coll Med (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-08-20)
      IntroductionTotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an effective treatment modality for severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Causes of pain following TKA are poorly understood; however, patient-specific biology and various neuropathic underlying mechanisms such as neuroma formation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have been suggested. Our case demonstrated the successful treatment of CRPS in the knee with the use of combination therapy in spinal cord stimulator.CaseWe present a 71-year-old Caucasian non-Hispanic male who presented with chronic left knee pain after undergoing a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) 18 months prior. Following his TKA, he reported doing well in the acute post-operative period but began to develop progressively worsening left knee pain at approximately the third post-operative week. He underwent a successful spinal cord stimulator (SCS) trial and subsequent implantation of two 16-contact Boston Scientific leads with a Boston Scientific Spectra WaveWriterTM SCS system. Upon first post-procedural follow-up, and moreover at his 6-month follow-up, the patient reported complete resolution of his symptoms.DiscussionThe development of persistent pain following TKA is a significant complication that is often challenging to treat. Our case demonstrated the successful treatment of CRPS in the knee with the use of combination therapy in spinal cord stimulator therapy. We anticipate that more data will continue to emerge to assess for the safety and efficacy of combination therapy.
    • Constraint Satisfaction Through GBP-Guided Deliberate Bit Flipping

      Bahrami, Mohsen; Vasić, Bane; Univ Arizona, Elect & Comp Engn (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-05-24)
      In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting binary messages over data-dependent two-dimensional channels. We propose a deliberate bit flipping coding scheme that removes channel harmful configurations prior to transmission. In this method, user messages are encoded with an error correction code, and therefore the number of bit flips should be kept small not to overburden the decoder. We formulate the problem of minimizing the number of bit flips as a binary constraint satisfaction problem, and devise a generalized belief propagation guided method to find approximate solutions. Applied to a data-dependent binary channel with the set of 2-D isolated bit configurations as its harmful configurations, we evaluated the performance of our proposed method in terms of uncorrectable bit-error rate.
    • Crystalline aspects of geography of low dimensional varieties I: numerology

      Joshi, Kirti; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2020-08-06)
      This is a modest attempt to study, in a systematic manner, the structure of low dimensional varieties in positive characteristics using p-adic invariants. The main objects of interest in this paper are surfaces and threefolds. There are many results we prove in this paper and not all can be listed in this abstract. Here are some of the results. We prove inequalities related to the Bogomolov-Miyaoka-Yau inequality: in Corollary 4.7 that c(1)(2) <= max(5c(2) + 6b(1), 6c(2)) holds for a large class of surfaces of general type. In Theorem 4.17 we prove that for a smooth, projective, Hodge-Witt, minimal surface of general type (with additional assumptions such as slopes of Frobenius on H-cris(2) (X) are >= 1/2) that c(1)(2) <= 5c(2). We do not assume any lifting, and novelty of our method lies in our use of slopes of Frobenius and the slope spectral sequence. We also construct new birational invariants of surfaces. Applying our methods to threefolds, we characterize Calabi-Yau threefolds with b(3) = 0. We show that for any CalabiYau threefold b(2) >= c(3)/2 - 1 and that threefolds which lie on the line b(2) = c(3)/2 - 1 are precisely those with b(3) = 0 and threefolds with b(2) = c(3)/2 are characterized as Hodge-Witt rigid (included are rigid Calabi-Yau threefolds which have torsion-free crystalline cohomology and whose Hodge-de Rham spectral sequence degenerates).
    • The effect of geochemical processes on groundwater in the Velenje coal basin, Slovenia: insights from mineralogy, trace elements and isotopes signatures

      Kanduč, Tjaša; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Vreča, Polona; Samardžija, Zoran; Verbovšek, Timotej; Božič, Darian; Jamnikar, Sergej; Solomon, D. Kip; Fernandez, Diego P.; Eastoe, Christopher; et al. (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-11)
      This study investigated the mineralogical and isotopic composition of groundwater and precipitation to identify and constrain geochemical processes within stacked Pliocene and Triassic aquifers in the Velenje coal basin. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis revealed that suspended matter in the Pliocene aquifer consists of feldspars and quartz, while dolomite, calcite and feldspars are present in the aquifer dewatering Triassic strata. The concentrations of trace elements in Triassic and Pliocene aquifers range from highest to lowest Zn > Fe > Ni > Al > Ba > Mn > B > Li > Mo > As with the majority of trace element concentrations below international drinking water health guidelines. Multivariate principal component analysis indicated that concentrations of Mn, Ba, Eu, Cs, Y, Li and T, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in samples were the best chemical parameter for distinguishing the two aquifers. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found between Ni, Mn, Co, Zn, As and Mo. Groundwater in the Pliocene aquifer likely has an external source of carbon based on the delta C-13(CO2) values (- 12.3 to - 3.6%). The groundwater also has detectable levels of dissolved methane with isotopic values (-77.7 to - 51.4 parts per thousand delta C-13(CH4); -247 to -162 parts per thousand delta H-2(CH4)) consistent with microbial methanogenesis. The groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has tritium values (up to 4.1 TU H-3) characteristic of modern recharge (< 50 years), while the lack of detectable H-3 (0TU) in the Pliocene aquifer is consistent with longer residence times.
    • Factors Related to Physician Clinical Decision-Making for African-American and Hispanic Patients: a Qualitative Meta-Synthesis.

      Breathett, Khadijah; Jones, Jacqueline; Lum, Hillary D; Koonkongsatian, Dawn; Jones, Christine D; Sanghvi, Urvi; Hoffecker, Lilian; McEwen, Marylyn; Daugherty, Stacie L; Blair, Irene V; et al. (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2018-03-05)
      Clinical decision-making may have a role in racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare but has not been evaluated systematically. The purpose of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies that explore various aspects of how a patient's African-American race or Hispanic ethnicity may factor into physician clinical decision-making. Using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library, we identified 13 manuscripts that met inclusion criteria of usage of qualitative methods; addressed US physician clinical decision-making factors when caring for African-American, Hispanic, or Caucasian patients; and published between 2000 and 2017. We derived six fundamental themes that detail the role of patient race and ethnicity on physician decision-making, including importance of race, patient-level issues, system-level issues, bias and racism, patient values, and communication. In conclusion, a non-hierarchical system of intertwining themes influenced clinical decision-making among racial and ethnic minority patients. Future study should systematically intervene upon each theme in order to promote equitable clinical decision-making among diverse racial/ethnic patients.
    • Financial Stressors as Catalysts for Relational Growth: Bonadaptation Among Lower-Income, Unmarried Couples

      LeBaron, Ashley B.; Curran, Melissa A.; Li, Xiaomin; Dew, Jeffrey P.; Sharp, Trevor K.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Univ Arizona (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2020-02-05)
      The FAAR model (Patterson in Fam Syst Med 6(2):202-237, 1988) posits that following a stressor, demands, capabilities, and meanings can contribute to bonadaptation (i.e., adaptation that promotes wellbeing). The purpose of the current study is to test how financial and relational demands, capabilities, and meanings are associated with relationship commitment and coparenting (i.e., bonadaptation) following a financial stressor. We used data from the Building Strong Families (BSF) sample (i.e., primarily lower-income, unmarried couples; N = 1396). First, results showed that predictors of coparenting were more numerous than predictors of commitment. Second, all facets of the FAAR model-demands, capabilities, and meanings-were evident as predictors of bonadaptation. Finally, comparing the results with the results of a previous paper (i.e., a nationally-representative sample of married couples; Dew et al. in J Fam Econ Issues 39(3):405-421, 2018), relationship maintenance behaviors and financial support were capabilities for both samples, whereas other capabilities and meanings were context-specific (e.g., relational support significant in Dew et al. sample but not BSF sample). These patterns suggest that although some of the avenues to bonadaptation may differ depending on the sample, it is possible for couples to thrive not just in spite of financial stressors but even because of them; that is, financial stressors can serve as catalysts for positive relational growth.
    • Health Care Providers' Negative Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes of American Indians

      Zestcott, Colin A; Spece, Lloyd; McDermott, Daniel; Stone, Jeff; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2020-05-23)
      Research suggests that implicit biases held by health care providers may play a role in perpetuating health disparities. However, minimal work has examined the presence of providers' negative implicit attitudes and stereotypes of American Indians. The current work examined implicit attitudes and stereotypes toward American Indians among 111 health care providers using the Implicit Association Test. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes toward American Indians. In addition, results showed that providers implicitly stereotype American Indians as noncompliant. This effect was moderated by self-reports of cultural competency and implicit bias training experience such that those reporting cultural competency or implicit bias training reported lower implicit stereotyping than those reporting no cultural competency or implicit bias training. Moreover, medical students reported lower implicit stereotyping than medical residents and practicing physicians. Implications of providers' implicit biases on treatment of American Indian patients and implicit bias reduction research are discussed.
    • Images in Practice: Multifidus Muscle Dysfunction Characterized by Fat Infiltration in a Patient with Chronic Lumbar Back Pain

      Kassem, Hisham; Urits, Ivan; Hasoon, Jamal; Kaye, Alan D; Chesteen, George; Viswanath, Omar; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Dept Anesthesiol (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-12-27)
    • Images in Practice: Successful Recapture of Spinal Cord Stimulator Paresthesia Coverage via Generator Reprogramming in a Patient with a Severely Displaced Percutaneous Trial Lead

      Schwartz, Ruben H; Urits, Ivan; Solomon, Marc; Orhurhu, Vwaire; Kaye, Alan D; Viswanath, Omar; Univ Arizona, Dept Anesthesiol, Coll Med (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-12-27)
    • Initial Single-Site Surgical Experience with SMILE: A Comparison of Results to FDA SMILE, and the Earliest and Latest Generation of LASIK

      Moshirfar, Majid; Murri, Michael S; Shah, Tirth J; Linn, Steven H; Ronquillo, Yasmyne; Birdsong, Orry C; Hoopes, Phillips C; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2018-12-01)
      IntroductionThe primary objective was to show our initial surgical single-site experience with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) after the official enrollment in March 2017 following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for simple myopia in late 2016 in the United States and, subsequently, compare our results to the earliest and most advanced generation of excimer platforms for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery.MethodsThis was a retrospective single-site study of 68 eyes from 35 patients who had SMILE surgery. The patients' preoperative and postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest sphere, manifest cylinder, intraoperative complications, and preoperative and postoperative visual symptoms were collected. We compared our findings to the results from the FDA SMILE study, and to the three earliest (1999-2000) and three of the most updated (2013-2016) platforms for LASIK.ResultsThe cumulative UDVA was 20/20 and 20/40 or better in 74% and 100% of patients, respectively. The intended target refraction was within0.5 and +/- 1.00 D in 80% and 93% of cases, respectively. The prevalence of dry eyes decreased by nearly half from 1-week to the 6-month postoperative interval. Patients noted improvement in glare (17%), halos (17%), fluctuation (25%), and depth perception (8%) at the 6-month interval compared to preoperative levels.Conclusions<his study's findings are consistent with current SMILE reports. Notably, the results are superior to the earliest generation of LASIK, however inferior to the latest excimer platforms. SMILE does meet the efficacy and safety criteria met by FDA; however, there is a definite need for further improvement to reach the superior refractive outcomes produced by the latest generation of LASIK platforms.
    • Lieb-Robinson Bounds and Strongly Continuous Dynamics for a Class of Many-Body Fermion Systems in R-d

      Gebert, Martin; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Reschke, Jake; Sims, Robert; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2020-09-24)
      We introduce a class of UV-regularized two-body interactions for fermions in R-d and prove a Lieb-Robinson estimate for the dynamics of this class of many-body systems. As a step toward this result, we also prove a propagation bound of Lieb-Robinson type for Schrodinger operators. We apply the propagation bound to prove the existence of infinite-volume dynamics as a strongly continuous group of automorphisms on the CAR algebra.
    • Mandibular Nerve Block for Long-Term Pain Relief in a Case of Refractory Burning Mouth Syndrome

      Kassem, Hisham; Alexandre, Lucien; Urits, Ivan; Kaye, Alan D; Viswanath, Omar; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Anesthesiol (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2020-02-12)
    • Online Facility Assignment

      Ahmed, Abu Reyan; Rahman, Md. Saidur; Kobourov, Stephen; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2018)
      We consider the online facility assignment problem, with a set of facilities F of equal capacity l in metric space and customers arriving one by one in an online manner. We must assign customer c(i) to facility f(j) before the next customer c(i+1) arrives. The cost of this assignment is the distance between ci and fj. The total number of customers is at most vertical bar F vertical bar l and each customer must be assigned to a facility. The objective is to minimize the sum of all assignment costs. We first consider the case where facilities are placed on a line so that the distance between adjacent facilities is the same and customers appear anywhere on the line. We describe a greedy algorithm with competitive ratio 4 vertical bar F vertical bar and another one with competitive ratio vertical bar F vertical bar. Finally, we consider a variant in which the facilities are placed on the vertices of a graph and two algorithms in that setting.
    • Performance analysis for an enhanced architecture of IoV via Content-Centric Networking

      Li, Zhuo; Chen, Yutong; Liu, Deliang; Li, Xiang; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2017-07-14)
      TCP/IP protocol gradually exposes many shortcomings such as poor scalability and mobility. Content-Centric Networking is a new architecture which cares about the content itself rather than its source. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel IoV architecture which based on Content-Centric Networking and tests its transmission interference time, transmission delay, and throughout in network layer. The experimental results show that the novel architecture is superior to the current IoV in the communication performance.
    • The Socialization of Financial Giving: A Multigenerational Exploration

      LeBaron, Ashley B.; Univ Arizona, Family Studies & Human Dev (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2019-05-15)
      Previous research has found that family socialization influences financial giving behaviors and that financial giving predicts personal wellbeing. However, little research since the early 1980 s has explored this phenomenon, and virtually none of the research has been qualitative in nature. As part of the Whats and Hows of Family Financial Socialization project, this study employs a diverse, multi-site, multigenerational sample (N = 115) to qualitatively explore the following research question: how do children learn about financial giving from their parents? In other words, how is financial giving transmitted across generations? From interviews of emerging adults and their parents and grandparents, three core themes emerged: "Charitable Donations," "Acts of Kindness," and "Investments in Family." Various topics, processes, methods, and meanings involved in this socialization are presented, along with implications and potential directions for future research.