• Analysis of budget for interdiction on multicommodity network flows

      Zhang, Pengfei; Fan, Neng; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-03-01)
      In this paper, we concentrate on computing several critical budgets for interdiction of the multicommodity network flows, and studying the interdiction effects of the changes on budget. More specifically, we first propose general interdiction models of the multicommodity flow problem, with consideration of both node and arc removals and decrease of their capacities. Then, to perform the vulnerability analysis of networks, we define the function F(R) as the minimum amount of unsatisfied demands in the resulted network after worst-case interdiction with budget R. Specifically, we study the properties of function F(R), and find the critical budget values, such as , the largest value under which all demands can still be satisfied in the resulted network even under the worst-case interdiction, and , the least value under which the worst-case interdiction can make none of the demands be satisfied. We prove that the critical budget for completely destroying the network is not related to arc or node capacities, and supply or demand amounts, but it is related to the network topology, the sets of source and destination nodes, and interdiction costs on each node and arc. We also observe that the critical budget is related to all of these parameters of the network. Additionally, we present formulations to estimate both and . For the effects of budget increasing, we present the conditions under which there would be extra capabilities to interdict more arcs or nodes with increased budget, and also under which the increased budget has no effects for the interdictor. To verify these results and conclusions, numerical experiments on 12 networks with different numbers of commodities are performed.
    • Analyzing Patterns of Community Interest at a Legacy Mining Waste Site to Assess and Inform Environmental Health Literacy Efforts

      Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Root, Robert A; Artiola, Janick F; Klimecki, Walter; Loh, Miranda; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Dept Pharmacol (Springer, 2015-07-21)
      Understanding a community’s concerns and infor-mational needs is crucial to conducting and improving envi-ronmental health research and literacy initiatives. We hypoth-esized that analysis of community inquiries over time at alegacy mining site would be an effective method for assessingenvironmental health literacy efforts and determining whethercommunity concerns were thoroughly addressed. Through aqualitative analysis, we determined community concerns atthe time of being listed as a Superfund site. We analyzedhow community concerns changed from this starting pointover the subsequent years, and whether: (1) communicationmaterials produced by the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency and other media were aligned with community con-cerns; and (2) these changes demonstrated a progression of thecommunity’s understanding resulting from community in-volvement and engaged research efforts. We observed thatwhen the Superfund site was first listed, community memberswere most concerned with USEPA management, remediation,site-specific issues, health effects, and environmental monitor-ing efforts related to air/dust and water. Over the next 5 years,community inquiries shifted significantly to include exposureassessment and reduction methods and issues unrelated to thesite, particularly the local public water supply and home watertreatment systems. Such documentation of community inqui-ries over time at contaminated sites is a novel method to assessenvironmental health literacy efforts and determine whethercommunity concerns were thoroughly addressed.
    • Coating nonfunctionalized silica spheres with a high density of discrete silver nanoparticles

      Purdy, Stephen C.; Muscat, Anthony J.; University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-03-02)
      Reducing AgNO3 by glucose at basic pH coated the surface of silica spheres with a high density of hemispherical silver nanoparticles (average diameter 3.2±1 nm). A much lower silver concentration than is standard favored heterogeneous nucleation of silver on the silica surface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation in solution. The slow growth rate of the nuclei promoted the formation of discrete silver particles rather than a continuous shell. Based on scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the surface coverage of silver seed particles was as high as 25% at 10 °C without prior functionalization of the silica. The particles were composed of metallic silver based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. There was a sharp increase in the silver surface coverage and decrease in the particle size when the temperature was raised from 5 °C to 10 °C and the amount of silica was decreased from 0.2 to 0.025 V/V. The size was controlled by the diffusion barrier through the ion shell surrounding the silica spheres and by maintaining reaction conditions where the particles on the surface compete for silver.
    • A Darwinian Ricker Equation

      Cushing, Jim M.; University of Arizona (Springer, 2021-01-05)
      The classic Ricker equation xt + 1= bxtexp (- cxt) has positive equilibria for b> 1 that destabilize when b> e2 after which its asymptotic dynamics are oscillatory and complex. We study an evolutionary version of the Ricker equation in which coefficients depend on a phenotypic trait subject to Darwinian evolution. We are interested in the question of whether evolution will select against or will promote complex dynamics. Toward this end, we study the existence and stability of its positive equilibria and focus on equilibrium destabilization as an indicator of the onset of complex dynamics. We find that the answer relies crucially on the speed of evolution and on how the intra-specific competition coefficient c depends on the evolving trait. In the case of a hierarchical dependence, equilibrium destabilization generally occurs after e2 when the speed of evolution is sufficiently slow (in which case we say evolution selects against complex dynamics). When evolution proceeds at a faster pace, destabilization can occur before e2 (in which case we say evolution promotes complex dynamics) provided the competition coefficient is highly sensitive to changes in the trait v. We also show that destabilization does not always result in a period doubling bifurcation, as in the non-evolutionary Ricker equation, but under certain circumstances can result in a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
    • Development of a program for toric intraocular lens calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position.

      Eom, Youngsub; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Dae Wook; Yang, Seul Ki; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Hyo Myung; University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-10)
      Background: To evaluate the toric intraocular lens (IOL) calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position (ELP). Methods Two thousand samples of corneal parameters with keratometric astigmatism >= 1.0 D were obtained using boot-strap methods. The probability distributions for incision-induced keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatisms, as well as ELP were estimated from the literature review. The predicted residual astigmatism error using method D with an IOL add power calculator (IAPC) was compared with those derived using methods A, B, and C through Monte-Carlo simulation. Method A considered the keratometric astigmatism and incision-induced keratometric astigmatism, method B considered posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the A method, method C considered incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the B method, and method D considered ELP in addition to the C method. To verify the IAPC used in this study, the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis using the IAPC were compared with ray-tracing simulation results. Results The median magnitude of the predicted residual astigmatism error using method D (0.25 diopters [D]) was smaller than that derived using methods A (0.42 D), B (0.38 D), and C (0.28 D) respectively. Linear regression analysis indicated that the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis had excellent goodness-of-fit between the IAPC and ray-tracing simulation. Conclusions The IAPC is a simple but accurate method for predicting the toric IOL cylinder power and its axis considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and ELP.
    • Does a Patient-centered Educational Intervention Affect African-American Access to Knee Replacement? A Randomized Trial.

      Vina, Ernest R; Richardson, Diane; Medvedeva, Elina; Kent Kwoh, C; Collier, Aliya; Ibrahim, Said A; Univ Arizona, Sch Med; Univ Arizona, Arthrit Ctr (Springer, 2016-08)
      A TKA is the most effective and cost-effective surgical option for moderate to severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Yet, black patients are less willing to undergo knee replacement surgery than white patients. Decision aids help people understand treatment options and consider the personal importance of possible benefits and harms of treatments, including TKA.
    • The Effect of Households’ Student Debt on Life Satisfaction

      Korankye, Thomas; Kalenkoski, Charlene M.; Personal and Family Financial Planning, Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences, The University of Arizona (Springer, 2021-02-13)
      This study finds a negative effect of holding student-loan debt on the life satisfaction of household heads using longitudinal data from the 2011 to 2017 U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics and a fixed-effects modeling approach. Although debt is taken to improve future utility, it provides disutility to the head of household until it is paid off. Thus, financial planners and educators should remind their clients about the consequences of holding student-loan debt in the short term, not just the future benefits. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature.
    • Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

      Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing; Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command; Dalian Medical University; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arizona, Arizona Health Sciences Center (Springer, 2015)
      BACKGROUND: Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. METHODS: Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy were conducted to observe changes in microstructure in the rabbits. Periodic acid Schiff A and hematoxylin and eosin staining were used for detection of histological changes. RESULTS: Continuous scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that cryothermal treatment inhibited growth of fungal mycelium by destroying fungal cellular structures. Typical cryotherapy was effective in curing fungal corneal ulcer. Different fungi showed different susceptibilities to treatment. The curative effect of Candida albicans was the best, while that of Aspergillus fumigates was the worst. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a novel method of a combination of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents for treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. This treatment could help facilitate the practice of fungal keratitis treatment in the future.
    • Failed noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is associated with an increased risk of intubation-related complications

      Mosier, Jarrod M; Sakles, John C; Whitmore, Sage P; Hypes, Cameron D; Hallett, Danielle K; Hawbaker, Katharine E; Snyder, Linda S; Bloom, John W; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona (Springer, 2015-03-06)
      Background: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) use has increased in the treatment of patients with respiratory failure. However, despite decreasing the need for intubation in some patients, there are no data regarding the risk of intubation-related complications associated with delayed intubation in adult patients who fail NIPPV. The objective of this study is to evaluate the odds of a composite complication of intubation following failed NIPPV compared to patients intubated primarily in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of 235 patients intubated between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2013 in a medical ICU of a university medical center. A total of 125 patients were intubated after failing NIPPV, 110 patients were intubated without a trial of NIPPV. Intubation-related data were collected prospectively through a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program and retrospectively extracted from the medical record on all patients intubated on the medical ICU. A propensity adjustment for the factors expected to affect the decision to initially use NIPPV was used, and the adjusted multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds of a composite complication (desaturation, hypotension, or aspiration) with intubation following failed NIPPV versus primary intubation. Results: A propensity-adjusted multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds of a composite complication of intubation in patients who fail NIPPV was 2.20 (CI 1.14 to 4.25), when corrected for the presence of pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and adjusted for factors known to increase complications of intubation (total attempts and operator experience). When a composite complication occurred, the unadjusted odds of death in the ICU were 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.12). Conclusions: After controlling for potential confounders, this propensity-adjusted analysis demonstrates an increased odds of a composite complication with intubation following failed NIPPV. Further, the presence of a composite complication during intubation is associated with an increased odds of death in the ICU.
    • Gendered vulnerabilities and grassroots adaptation initiatives in home gardens and small orchards in Northwest Mexico

      Buechler, Stephanie; School of Geography and Development and Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-11-22)
      With the retreat of the state under neoliberalism, the lack of (or negligible) government and non-governmental support reasserts grassroots initiatives as a global-change strategy. A feminist political ecology approach and the concept of adverse inclusion were used to facilitate an analysis of social differences shaping local-level adaptive responses. Adaptive responses of small farmers in the border village of San Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico, who are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, water scarcity, and changing labor markets were studied. Gender differences in production sites translate into diverse vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies. Local capacities and initiatives should be a focus of research and policy to avoid viewing women and men as passive in the face of global change. The dynamic strategies of San Ignacio women and men in home gardens and small orchards hold lessons for other regions particularly related to adaptation to climate change via agrobiodiversity, water resource management, and diversified agricultural livelihoods.
    • Helplessness/hopelessness, minimization and optimism predict survival in women with invasive ovarian cancer: a role for targeted support during initial treatment decision-making?

      Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Bell, Melanie L; deFazio, Anna; Friedlander, Michael; Fardell, Joanna E; Protani, Melinda M; Webb, Penelope M; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Biostat (Springer, 2016-06)
      Women with advanced ovarian cancer generally have a poor prognosis but there is significant variability in survival despite similar disease characteristics and treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychosocial factors predict survival in women with ovarian cancer, controlling for potential confounders.
    • Improved Approximation Algorithms for Box Contact Representations

      Bekos, Michael A.; van Dijk, Thomas C.; Fink, Martin; Kindermann, Philipp; Kobourov, Stephen; Pupyrev, Sergey; Spoerhase, Joachim; Wolff, Alexander; Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-01-27)
      We study the following geometric representation problem: Given a graph whose vertices correspond to axis-aligned rectangles with fixed dimensions, arrange the rectangles without overlaps in the plane such that two rectangles touch if the graph contains an edge between them. This problem is called Contact Representation of Word Networks (Crown) since it formalizes the geometric problem behind drawing word clouds in which semantically related words are close to each other. Crown is known to be NP-hard, and there are approximation algorithms for certain graph classes for the optimization version, Max-Crown, in which realizing each desired adjacency yields a certain profit. We present the first O(1)-approximation algorithm for the general case, when the input is a complete weighted graph, and for the bipartite case. Since the subgraph of realized adjacencies is necessarily planar, we also consider several planar graph classes (namely stars, trees, outerplanar, and planar graphs), improving upon the known results. For some graph classes, we also describe improvements in the unweighted case, where each adjacency yields the same profit. Finally, we show that the problem is APX-complete on bipartite graphs of bounded maximum degree.
    • Modeling Fire Pathways in Montane Grassland-Forest Ecotones

      Conver, Joshua L.; Falk, Donald A.; Yool, Stephen R.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (Springer, 2018-02-01)
      Fire plays a key role in regulating the spatial interactions between adjacent vegetation types from the stand to the landscape scale. Fire behavior modeling can facilitate the understanding of these interactions and help managers restore or maintain fire’s natural role. The Valles Caldera National Preserve (VALL), in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, USA, contains one of the largest montane grasslands in North America and extensive areas of grassland-forest ecotone. We used the Minimum Travel Time (MTT) module in FlamMap to investigate the primary fire-growth vectors on the VALL landscape for the 50th, 90th, and 99th percentile of fire weather conditions. We evaluated whether modeled fire-growth vectors tended to follow the grassland-forest ecotone or if fire traveled directly across the grasslands and over the upland forest with a chi-square test. Our results indicated that the ecotone is a primary corridor for fire growth on the VALL landscape. Regular fire spread along the grassland-forest ecotone may help stabilize the boundary zone between these two dynamic communities by preventing forest encroachment into the grassland and maintaining an open stand structure. Identifying the dominant fire corridors will help land managers re-establish the spatial and process dynamics of the natural fire regime.
    • Modeling future range expansion and management strategies for an invasive squirrel species

      Goldstein, Emily A.; Butler, Fidelma; Lawton, Colin; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, ENR2, University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-02-18)
      Successful management of an invasive species requires in depth knowledge of the invader, the invaded ecosystem, and their interactions. The complexity of the species-system interactions can be reduced and represented in ecological models for better comprehension. In this study, a spatially explicit population model was created using the RAMAS software package to simulate the past and future invasion dynamics of the eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in the fragmented habitat in case study areas in Ireland. This invasive squirrel species causes economic damage by bark stripping forest crops and is associated with the decline of its native congener (S. vulgaris). Three combinations of demographic and dispersal parameters, which best matched the distribution of the species shortly after introduction, were used to simulate invasion dynamics. Future population expansion was modeled under scenarios of no control and two different management strategies: fatal culls and immunocontraceptive vaccination programmes. In the absence of control, the grey squirrel range is predicted to expand to the south and southwest of Ireland endangering internationally important habitats, vulnerable forest crops, and the native red squirrel. The model revealed that region-wide intensive and coordinated culls would have the greatest impact on grey squirrel populations. Control strategies consisting solely of immunocontraceptive vaccines, often preferred by public interest groups, are predicted to be less effective. Complete eradication of the grey squirrel from Ireland is not economically feasible and strategic evidence-based management is required to limit further range expansion. Ecological models can be used to choose between informed management strategies based on predicted outcomes.
    • ProcData: An R Package for Process Data Analysis

      Tang, Xueying; Zhang, Susu; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang; University of Arizona (Springer, 2021-08-11)
      Process data refer to data recorded in log files of computer-based items. These data, represented as timestamped action sequences, keep track of respondents’ response problem-solving behaviors. Process data analysis aims at enhancing educational assessment accuracy and serving other assessment purposes by utilizing the rich information contained in response processes. The R package ProcData presented in this article is designed to provide tools for inspecting, processing, and analyzing process data. We define an S3 class ‘proc’ for organizing process data and extend generic methods summary and print for ‘proc’. Feature extraction methods for process data are implemented in the package for compressing information in the irregular response processes into regular numeric vectors. ProcData also provides functions for making predictions from neural-network-based sequence models. In addition, a real dataset of response processes from the climate control item in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment is included in the package. © 2021, The Psychometric Society.
    • Quantum States as Objective Informational Bridges

      Healey, Richard; University of Arizona (Springer, 2015-09-09)
      A quantum state represents neither properties of a physical system nor anyone s knowledge of its properties. The important question is not what quantum states represent but how they are used as informational bridges. Knowing about some physical situations (its backing conditions), an agent may assign a quantum state to form expectations about other possible physical situations (its advice conditions). Quantum states are objective: only expectations based on correct state assignments are gen- erally reliable. If a quantum state represents anything, it is the objective probabilistic relations between its backing conditions and its advice con- ditions. This paper o¤ers an account of quantum states and their function
    • Rural Bioethics: The Alaska Context

      Allhoff, Fritz; Golemon, Luke; Univ Arizona, Dept Philosophy (Springer, 2019-10-11)
      With by far the lowest population density in the United States, myriad challenges attach to healthcare delivery in Alaska. In the “Size, Population, and (In)Accessibility” section, we characterize this geographic context, including how it is exacerbated by lack of infrastructure. In the “Distributing Healthcare” section, we turn to healthcare economics and staffing, showing how these bear on delivery—and are exacerbated by geography. In the “Health Care in Rural Alaska” section, we turn to rural care, exploring in more depth what healthcare delivery looks like outside of Alaska’s major cities. This discussion continues in the “Alaska’s Native Villages” section, which specifically analyzes healthcare in Alaska’s indigenous villages, some of the smallest and most isolated communities in the United States. Though many of the ways we could improve Alaskan health care for Alaskan residents are limited by its unique features, the “Justice and Healthcare Delivery” and “Technology and Telemedicine” sections consider ways in which certain policies and technology—including telemedicine—could mitigate the challenges developed in previous sections.
    • Supportive Health Education Reduces Health Care Utilization and Costs in Latinas with Breast Cancer and their Caregivers

      Badger, Terry; Sikorskii, Alla; Segrin, Chris; Given, Charles; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (Springer, 2020)
      Purpose: To compare costs and relative cost savings from reductions in unscheduled health services use for two 8-week psychosocial interventions (Telephone Interpersonal Counseling [TIPC], Supportive Health Education [SHE]) delivered by telephone to Latinas with breast cancer and their informal caregivers. Cost information is required before adopting supportive care interventions as part of routine care. There is limited information on costs of producing supportive care interventions or their impact on service use. Methods: Latinas and their caregivers were randomized to either TIPC or SHE. At baseline and month four, hospitalizations, urgent care and emergency department (ED) visits in the previous month were recorded. These were compared by trial arm for 181 survivors and 169 caregivers using logistic regression, adjusting for age and health services use at baseline. Results: Total cost per 100 survivors was $28,695 for SHE and $27,399 for TIPC. Urgent care and ED visits were reduced for survivors in SHE versus TIPC, odds ratio (OR)=0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.12, 0.88], p=.03. For hospitalizations, OR for SHE v. TIPC was 0.59, 95% CI [0.26, 1.37], p=.07. There were no differences between trial arms for caregiver health services use. Cost savings for SHE versus TIPC from reductions in health services use per 100 survivors ranged from $800 for urgent care to $17,000 for ED visits and $13,000 for hospitalizations. Conclusions: Based on this evidence, SHE can be a cost-saving supportive care solution that benefits not only survivors and caregivers, but also oncology practices reimbursed through episodes of care.
    • Swarms: Spatiotemporal grouping across domains

      Henderson, Robert; University of Arizona (Springer, 2016-03-21)
      This paper presents cross-domain evidence that natural language makes use of (at least) two ways of individuating collective entities that differ in terms of how they cohere. The first kind, which I call swarm reference, picks out higher-order collective entities defined in terms of the spatial and temporal configuration of their constituent individuals. The second, which corresponds to canonical cases of group reference (e.g. committee, team, etc.), makes use of non-spatiotemporal notions. To motivate this distinction, I present systematic differences in how these two types of collective reference behave linguistically, both in the individual and event domains. These differences support two primary results. First, they are used as tests to isolate a new class of collective nouns that denote swarm individuals, both in English, as well as other languages like Romanian. I then consider a crosslinguistically common type of pluractionality, called event-internal in the previous literature (Cusic 1981, Wood 2007), and show that its properties are best explained if the relevant verbs denote swarm events. By reducing event-internal pluractionality to a type of collective reference also available for nouns, this work generates a new strong argument that pluractionality involves the same varieties of plural reference in the event domain that are seen in the individual domain.
    • Tension Strain-Softening and Compression Strain-Stiffening Behavior of Brain White Matter

      Eskandari, Faezeh; Shafieian, Mehdi; Aghdam, Mohammad M.; Laksari, Kaveh; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn (Springer, 2020-06-16)
      Brain, the most important component of the central nervous system (CNS), is a soft tissue with a complex structure. Understanding the role of brain tissue microstructure in mechanical properties is essential to have a more profound knowledge of how brain development, disease, and injury occur. While many studies have investigated the mechanical behavior of brain tissue under various loading conditions, there has not been a clear explanation for variation reported for material properties of brain tissue. The current study compares the ex-vivo mechanical properties of brain tissue under two loading modes, namely compression and tension, and aims to explain the differences observed by closely examining the microstructure under loading. We tested bovine brain samples under uniaxial tension and compression loading conditions, and fitted hyperelastic material parameters. At 20% strain, we observed that the shear modulus of brain tissue in compression is about 6 times higher than in tension. In addition, we observed that brain tissue exhibited strain-stiffening in compression and strain-softening in tension. In order to investigate the effect of loading modes on the tissue microstructure, we fixed the samples using a novel method that enabled keeping the samples at the loaded stage during the fixation process. Based on the results of histology, we hypothesize that during compressive loading, the strain-stiffening behavior of the tissue could be attributed to glial cell bodies being pushed against surroundings, contacting each other and resisting compression, while during tension, cell connections are detached and the tissue displays softening behavior.