• Abundance and Activity of 16S rRNA, AmoA and NifH Bacterial Genes During Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

      Nelson, Karis N; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2015-01-01)
      Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings.
    • Central Role of Moral Obligations in Determining Intentions to Engage in Digital Piracy

      Hashim, Matthew J.; Kannan, Karthik N.; Wegener, Duane T.; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, Dept Management Informat Syst (TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2018-10-26)
      Piracy is a significant source of concern facing software developers, music labels, and movie production companies, to name a few. Digital goods producers and government entities argue that there are victims of piracy, whereas pirates may perceive their actions to be victimless. Regarding implications of our research, we extend the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by theorizing that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control could influence perceptions of moral obligations as a consequence of the desire to rationalize unethical behavior. Unlike prior literature, we manipulate the rationalization of moral obligations due to the victimless view toward piracy and show how moral obligations become important determinants of piracy behavior. Accordingly, our demonstrated malleability of morals may be an important path through which individuals are able to continue past behaviors. We also conduct a second study to identify the effect of implementing an educational message from a fictitious software company to exogenously nudge the pirate and influence the impact of perceived moral obligations on intentions to pirate. Our results show that the introduction of an exogenous educational message is an effective piracy mitigation strategy.
    • Collaborate and Innovate: The Impact of Academic Librarians on the Commercialization of University Technology

      Elliott, Cynthia; Dewland, Jason; Martin, Jennifer R.; Kramer, Sandra; Jackson Sr., John J.; Research and Learning Department, University of Arizona Libraries; Research and Learning Department, University of Arizona Health Sciences Library; Arizona Center for Accelerated Biomedical Innovation, University of Arizona (TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2016-09-03)
      The University of Arizona Library, in collaboration with the campus commercialization unit, created a partnership that contributes to the early development of inventions in the commercialization pipeline. The library-commercialization business intelligence workgroup was incorporated into the overall campus commercialization business-development workflow in 2014 and is comprised of librarians and commercialization professionals working together to provide insight and decision support for development of commercialization strategies for inventions emerging from university research that aligns with market drivers. These efforts are recognized by university leadership as critical to the strategic plan of the university. This article discusses the impact of the workgroup and how the group of librarians contributed to the development of new companies, new licenses, and financial impact of economic development at a large land-grant university and larger community.
    • Representations of Utopian Urbanism and the Feminist Geopolitics of ‘New City’ Development

      Lynch, Casey R.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2018-12-30)
      Increasingly over the past few years the building of new cities “from scratch” has become a key strategy to promote development across much of the Global South. While several projects are currently under construction, many others exist primarily as proposals awaiting adequate investment or government action. This paper builds on previous literature that considers representations of such projects – promotional materials, digitally-produced video simulations, and master plans – as key components in the production of imagined urban futures. Through an exploration of the proposed Zone for Economic Development and Employment (ZEDE) in Honduras, this article demonstrates a feminist geopolitical approach focused on how such representations of utopian urbanism circulate through the local communities slated for new city development. I examine how representations of future urban spaces and future urban governance regimes become appropriated by local residents in organizing opposition or otherwise making sense of the proposed project’s potential impact on their lives.
    • Spaceport America: Contested Offworld Access and the Everyman Astronaut

      Sammler, Katherine G.; Lynch, Casey R.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2019-02-04)
      Spaceport America, a spectacle to see with curvilinear geometry that itself looks like a spacecraft rising out of the desert near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, conveys a hope of the everyman astronaut. Yet this private-public project, spending over $200 million in state taxpayer money to build and with a $2.85 million operating budget for 2017, does not provide the vertical transport analog of an airport. As Virgin Galactic stalls in launching its astronomically-priced zero-gravity music festival and commercial passenger flights, the facilities have been dusted off for educational rocketry club launches and Hollywood film backdrops while most public access to the grounds is restricted to expensive guided tours. As with the Spaceport, access to outer space itself raises questions of public versus private ownership and exclusivity. With the shifting role of nation states in offplanet activity, there are openings for outer space to become another site of capital accumulation or to manifest as envisioned by social movements and “community space programs.” This paper traces the ongoing realignment of public and private interests in offworld activity, of which Spaceport America is representative, considering how notions of offworld access have evolved since the aspirational vision of space as a commons laid out in the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty. The paper juxtaposes the emerging public-private hegemony with the actions of three autonomous space organizations that actively construct alternative political economic models, technological systems, and cultural imaginaries of offworld access.