• Activity of T-type calcium channels is independent of CRMP2 in sensory neurons

      Cai, Song; Shan, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhongjun; Moutal, Aubin; Khanna, Rajesh; Univ Arizona Hlth Sci, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-04-26)
      Amongst the regulators of voltage-gated ion channels is the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). CRMP2 regulation of the activity and trafficking of NaV1.7 voltage-gated sodium channels as well as the N-type (CaV2.2) voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) has been reported. On the other hand, CRMP2 does not appear to regulate L- (CaV1.x), P/Q- (CaV2.1), and R- (CaV2.3) type high VGCCs. Whether CRMP2 regulates low VGCCs remains an open question. Here, we asked if CRMP2 could regulate the low voltage-gated (T-type/CaV3.x) channels in sensory neurons. Reducing CRMP2 protein levels with short interfering RNAs yielded no change in macroscopic currents carried by T-type channels. No change in biophysical properties of the T-type currents was noted. Future studies pursuing CRMP2 druggability in neuropathic pain will benefit from the findings that CRMP2 regulates only the N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels.
    • Antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oils and extracts against Escherichia coli

      Gilling, Damian H; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Bright, Kelly R; Univ Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol Ctr, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-06-07)
      The efficacies of 11 plant-derived antimicrobials were evaluated against Escherichia coli in vitro in solution at room temperature. These included lemongrass, cinnamon, and oregano essential oils and their active components (citral, cinnamaldehyde, and carvacrol, respectively). Allspice and clove bud oils and olive, green tea, and grape seed extracts were also studied. The efficacies of the antimicrobials were both concentration- and exposure time-dependent. The essential oils and their active components demonstrated statistically significant >5.0-log10 reductions within 1-10 min. The plant extracts were less effective; green tea and grape seed extracts required 24 h before significant reductions were observed (1.93-log10 and 5.05-log10, respectively). Nevertheless, olive extract exhibited a reduction of ∼5-log10 within 30 min. Most of these plant-derived compounds exhibited strong bactericidal activity and can potentially be applied as alternatives to chemicals for foods/food contact surfaces since they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. They may also be useful in applications in which other antimicrobials have reduced efficacy (e.g., in the presence of organics) or used with sensitive populations that are unable to tolerate exposure to harsher chemicals (e.g., elderly care facilities). These compounds could be used alone, in combination, or with fast-acting antimicrobials to provide a long-lasting residual.
    • Assessment of the Crop Water Stress Index and Color Quality of Bur Clover (Medicago polymorpha L.) Under Different Irrigation Regimes

      Bijanzadeh, Ehsan; Barati, Vahid; Emam, Yahya; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-10-28)
      Relationship between canopy temperature and soil moisture is important for using the potential of canopy temperature as an indicator of crop water stress. A two-year field experiment was carried out during June to September 2016 and 2017 at the Research Station of College of Agriculture, Darab, Shiraz University, Iran, to determine crop water stress index (CWSI) for bur clover. Irrigation regimes including well-watered [Irrigation according to 100% field capacity (FC)], mild water stress (75% FC), severe water stress (50% FC), and most severe water stress (25% FC) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In 2016, CWSI values showed an increasing trend from June (0.066 in well-watered) to August (0.821 in most severe water stress) as a result of higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and depression in canopy-air temperature differences (Tc-Ta). A similar trend was observed in the second year. In both years, by increase in mean temperature from June to August, Tc-Ta differential increased and the highest monthly average value of CWSI for all treatments was obtained in August. By enhancing water stress, the color grading score decreased sharply (from 6 to 3) and stayed constant (2) for August and September. Also, a negative relationship was observed between CWSI and dry matter production (R-2 = 0.88**) and color quality (R-2 = 0.94**). It was concluded that mild water stress (75% FC) with mean seasonal CWSI being ranged about 0.198 to 0.294, without any loss in visual color quality might be the best irrigation regime for bur clover production.
    • Biochemical traits associated with growing sorghum genotypes with saline water in the field

      Shakeri, Ehsan; Emam, Yahya; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2020-02-10)
      This study was aimed to determine biochemical traits related to higher phytomass production in sorghum genotypes irrigated with saline water. It was also attempted to consider whether or not forage yield production under non-saline conditions could be used as an index for for the selection of high yielding genotypes of sorghum under saline conditions. Forty-five sorghum genotypes were grown under field conditions using saline water or normal irrigation water in two growing seasons in Yazd, Iran. It appeared that salinity tolerance in sorghum genotypes, in addition to local adaption, was highly related to forage yield as well as some biochemical traits as carotenoid concentration, catalase activity, and K+/Na+ ratio. The screening method based on biochemical traits appeared to be applicable for identification of the salt-tolerant genotypes.
    • Candidate halophytic grasses for addressing land degradation: Shoot responses of Sporobolus airoides and Paspalum vaginatum to weekly increasing NaCl concentration

      Pessarakli, Mohammad; Breshears, David D.; Walworth, James; Field, Jason P.; Law, Darin J.; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci, Coll Agr & Life Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2017-02-28)
      In many arid and semiarid regions worldwide, high levels of soil salinity is a key driver of land degradation, as well as a key impediment to re-establishing plant cover. Combating land degradation and erosion associated with soil salinity requires experimental determination of plant species that can grow in soils with high levels of salinity and can be used to re-establish plant cover. Herein, we evaluated the responses of untested candidate cultivars of two halophytic grass species to high soil salinity: alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides Torr.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). We evaluated the growth responses of both species in a greenhouse under control (no-salt) and various levels of NaCl salinity (EC 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48dSm(-1)) using Hoagland solution in a hydroponics system in a randomized complete block design trial. At all salinity levels, sacaton grass had a greater shoot height, shorter root length, lower shoot fresh and dry weights, and poorer color and general quality compared to seashore paspalum. The shoot fresh and dry weights of both grasses were greatest at the low to medium levels of salinity, with the greatest response observed at EC 16dSm(-1). At the highest level, salinity significantly reduced shoot fresh and dry weights of both grasses. Because growth of both halophytic species exhibited high tolerance to salinity stress and were stimulated under low to medium levels of salinity, both species could be considered suitable candidates for re-establishing plant cover in drylands to combat desertification and land degradation associated with high levels of soil salinity.
    • Chemical shift perturbation mapping of the Ubc9-CRMP2 interface identifies a pocket in CRMP2 amenable for allosteric modulation of Nav1.7 channels

      François-Moutal, Liberty; Scott, David Donald; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Gokhale, Vijay; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol; Univ Arizona Hlth Sci, Ctr Innovat Brain Sci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018-08-06)
      Drug discovery campaigns directly targeting the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7, a highly prized target in chronic pain, have not yet been clinically successful. In a differentiated approach, we demonstrated allosteric control of trafficking and activity of NaV1.7 by prevention of SUMOylation of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). Spinal administration of a SUMOylation incompetent CRMP2 (CRMP2 K374A) significantly attenuated pain behavior in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, underscoring the importance of SUMOylation of CRMP2 as a pathologic event in chronic pain. Using a rational design strategy, we identified a heptamer peptide harboring CRMP2's SUMO motif that disrupted the CRMP2-Ubc9 interaction, inhibited CRMP2 SUMOylation, inhibited NaV1.7 membrane trafficking, and specifically inhibited NaV1.7 sodium influx in sensory neurons. Importantly, this peptide reversed nerve injury-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the SNI model, supporting the practicality of discovering pain drugs by indirectly targeting NaV1.7 via prevention of CRMP2 SUMOylation. Here, our goal was to map the unique interface between CRMP2 and Ubc9, the E2 SUMO conjugating enzyme. Using computational and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate the enzyme/substrate nature of Ubc9/CRMP2 binding and identify hot spots on CRMP2 that may form the basis of future drug discovery campaigns disrupting the CRMP2-Ubc9 interaction to recapitulate allosteric regulation of NaV1.7 for pain relief.
    • Comparison of randomization-test procedures for single-case multiple-baseline designs

      Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.; Gafurov, Boris S.; Univ Arizona, Dept Educ Psychol (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018)
      In three simulation investigations, we examined the statistical properties of several different randomization-test procedures for analyzing the data from single-case multiple-baseline intervention studies. Two procedures (Wampold-Worsham and Revusky) are associated with single fixed intervention start points and three are associated with randomly determined intervention start points. Of the latter three, one (Koehler-Levin) is an existing procedure that has been previously examined and the other two (modified Revusky and restricted Marascuilo-Busk) are modifications and extensions of existing procedures. All five procedures were found to maintain their Type I error probabilities at acceptable levels. In most of the conditions investigated here, two of the random start-point procedures (Koehler-Levin and restricted Marascuilo-Busk) were more powerful than the others with respect to detecting immediate abrupt intervention effects. For designs in which it is not possible to include the same series lengths for all cases, either the modified Revusky or restricted Marascuilo-Busk procedure is recommended.
    • Crack the state of silence: Tune the depth of cellular quiescence for cancer therapy

      Fujimaki, Kotaro; Yao, Guang; Univ Arizona, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol; Univ Arizona, Arizona Canc Ctr (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2017-12)
      The regulation cif cellular quiescence underlies numerous physiopathological phenomena. We recently found that quiescence depth can be tuned as to adjust a dimmer switch, by altering the expression of genes in the Retinoblastoma (Rb)-E2f pathway. Reducing quiescence depth may wake dormant cancer cells and make them susceptible to treatment.
    • Development of a behaviorally induced system optimal travel demand management system

      Hu, Xianbiao; Chiu, Yi-Chang; Shelton, Jeff; Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2016-03-30)
      The basic design concept of most advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) is to present generic information to travelers, leaving travelers to react to the information in their own way. This passive way of managing traffic by providing generic traffic information makes it difficult to predict the outcome and may even incur an adverse effect, such as overreaction (also referred to as the herding effect). Active traffic and demand management (ATDM) is another approach that has received continual attention from both academic research and real-world practice, aiming to effectively influence people's travel demand, provide more travel options, coordinate between travelers, and reduce the need for travel. The research discussed in this article deals with how to provide users with a travel option that aims to minimize the marginal system impact that results from this routing. The goal of this research is to take better advantage of the available real-time traffic information provided by ATIS, to further improve the system level traffic condition from User Equilibrium (UE), or a real-world traffic system that is worse than UE, toward System Optimal (SO), and avoid passively managing traffic. A behaviorally induced, system optimal travel demand management model is presented to achieve this goal through incremental routing. Both analytical derivation and numerical analysis have been conducted on Tucson network in Arizona, as well as on the Capital Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (CAMPO) network in Austin, TX. The outcomes of both studies show that our proposed modeling framework is promising for improving network traffic conditions toward SO, and results in substantial economic savings.
    • Driving behaviors associated with emergency service vehicle crashes in the U.S. fire service

      Bui, D P; Hu, C; Jung, A M; Pollack Porter, K M; Griffin, S C; French, D D; Crothers, S; Burgess, J L; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Dept Community Environm & Policy (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018-11-17)
      Emergency service vehicle incidents are a leading cause of firefighter fatalities and are also hazardous to civilian road users. Modifiable driving behaviors may be associated with emergency service vehicle incidents. The goal of this study was to use telematics to identify driving behaviors associated with crashes in the fire service. Forty-three emergency service vehicles in 2 fire departments were equipped with telematics devices (12 in Department A and 31 in Department B). The devices collected vehicle coordinates, speed, and g forces, which were monitored for exceptions to driving rules established by the fire departments regarding speeding, harsh braking, and hard cornering. Fire department administrative reports were used to identify vehicles involved in crashes and merged with daily telematics data. Penalized logistic regression was used to identify driving rules associated with crashes. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to generate a telematics-based risk index for emergency service vehicle incidents. Nearly 1.1 million km of driving data and 44 crashes were recorded among the 2 departments during the study. Harsh braking was associated with increased odds of crash in Department A (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.51) and Department B (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.15). For every kilometer of nonemergency speeding, the odds of crash increased by 35% in Department A (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.77) and by over 2-fold in Department B (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.19-3.66). In Department B, hard cornering (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26) and emergency speeding (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.06-2.57) were also associated with increased odds of crash. The final LASSO risk index model had a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 57%. Harsh braking and excessive speeding were driving behaviors most associated with crash in the fire service. Telematics may be a useful tool for monitoring driver safety in the fire service.
    • Effects of a super absorbent polymer on soil properties and plant growth for use in land reclamation

      Abrisham, Elham Sadat; Jafari, Mohammad; Tavili, Ali; Rabii, Ahmad; Zare Chahoki, Mohammad Ali; Zare, Salman; Egan, Todd; Yazdanshenas, Habib; Ghasemian, Davood; Tahmoures, Mohammad; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018)
      Effects of the super absorbent polymer (SAP) were tested on both the soil attributes and growth properties of Seidlitzia rosmarinus in the arid Emrani region of Iran in a reclamation study. A SAP concentration gradient (SAP 0=SAP 0g dm(-3), SAP 1=SAP 1g dm(-3), and SAP 3=SAP 3g dm(-3) of soil) was coupled with 30- and 60-day irrigation intervals, and results were evaluated after two growing seasons. Results indicate that application of SAP 1 increased available water content up to 68.5% and decreased soil bulk density by 25.5% and soil infiltration rate by 21.5%. SAP enhanced growth indices and seedling establishment rates of S. rosmarinus under drought stress. In addition, the application of SAP 3 can significantly increased soil cation exchange capacity up to 31% compared to the control. This study demonstrated the increased water retention properties of SAP that leads to higher soil water storage capacity for S. rosmarinus seedlings during the first months of out-planting in arid regions. Overall, the used SAP enhanced soil and plant properties, but most assessed parameters did not differ between SAPs 1 and 3. Therefore, the 1g application rate is recommended based on technical as well as economic considerations.
    • Effects of light and temperature treatments on germination and physiological traits of stevia seedling (Stevia rebuadiana Bertoni)

      Aghighi Shahverdi, M.; Omidi, H.; Mosanaiey, H.; Pessarakli, M.; Mousavi, S. E.; Ghasemzadeh, M.; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-06-15)
      Light and temperature are among the environmental factors affecting germination of seeds and seedling growth. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of light (light, dark, and combined light and dark) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C) treatments on seed germination indices and physiological traits of stevia. With increasing temperature to 25 degrees C, percentage and rate of germination, seedling length, and vigor index increased. Also, dark and integrated treatments light and dark conditions caused increased all traits, except for the mean germination time. The highest proline and protein contents were achieved under light conditions at 15 and 30 degrees C, respectively. With increasing temperature, the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase increased. The highest activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were observed under light condition. In contrary, the highest peroxidase activity was observed under dark condition. Overall, the results showed that dark and combined dark and light conditions at 25 degrees C improved the physiological characteristics of the plant that can increase germination indices.
    • Efficacy of copper and silver as residual disinfectants in drinking water

      Sicairos-Ruelas, Enue E.; Gerba, Charles P.; Bright, Kelly R.; Univ Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol Ctr (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-01-28)
      Contamination events and biofilms can decrease the amount of free chlorine available in drinking water systems. The efficacy of 100 mu g/L silver and 400 mu g/L copper, individually and combined, were evaluated as secondary, longer-lasting residual disinfectants against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacterium fortuitum at 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C. A >5.0-log(10) reduction was observed in E. coli and L. monocytogenes after three hours and S. Typhimurium following seven hours of exposure to silver. M. fortuitum was the most resistant species to silver (1.11-log(10) after seven hours). Copper did not significantly reduce S. Typhimurium and E. coli at 24 degrees C; >= 2.80-log(10) reductions were observed in the Gram-positive L. monocytogenes and M. fortuitum. Longer exposure times were required at 4 degrees C to achieve significant reductions in all species. A synergistic effect was observed when silver and copper were combined at 24 degrees C. In addition, silver was not affected by the presence of organic matter at concentrations that completely inhibited 0.2 mg/L chlorine. The results of this study suggest that combinations of silver and copper show promise as secondary residual disinfectants. They may also be used in conjunction with low chlorine levels or other disinfectants to provide additional, long-lasting residuals in distribution systems.
    • Evaluation of edonerpic maleate as a CRMP2 inhibitor for pain relief

      Moutal, Aubin; Shan, Zhiming; Miranda, Victor G; François-Moutal, Liberty; Madura, Cynthia L; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh; Univ Arizona, Ctr Innovat Brain Sci; Univ Arizona Hlth Sci, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-11-02)
      We have previously reported that the microtubule-associated collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is necessary for the expression of chronic pain. CRMP2 achieves this control of nociceptive signaling by virtue of its ability to regulate voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. To date, however, no drugs exist that target CRMP2. Recently, the small molecule edonerpic maleate (1 -{3-[2-(1-benzothiophen-5-yl)ethoxy]propyl}azetidin-3-ol maleate), a candidate therapeutic for Alzheimer’s disease was reported to be a novel CRMP2 binding compound with the potential to decrease its phosphorylation level in cortical tissues in vivo. Here we sought to determine the mechanism of action of edonerpic maleate and test its possible effect in a rodent model of chronic pain. We observed: (i) no binding between human CRMP2 and edonerpic maleate; (ii) edonerpic maleate had no effect on CRMP2 expression and phosphorylation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; (iii) edonerpic maleate-decreased calcium but increased sodium current density in DRG neurons; and (iv) edonerpic maleate was ineffective in reversing post-surgical allodynia in male and female mice. Thus, while CRMP2 inhibiting compounds remain a viable strategy for developing new mechanism-based pain inhibitors, edonerpic maleate is an unlikely candidate.
    • Evaluation of Various Rosa Damascena Mill. Genotypes Grown under Rainfed Semi-arid Condition

      Jan Ahmadi, Somayeh; Mortazaeinezhad, Forough; Zeinali, Hossein; Askari-Khorasgani, Omid; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-09-18)
      Rosa damascena Mill L. also known as "Damask Rose" and "Gole Mohammadi" is a well-recognized high value ornamental and medicinal plant, which can be used in food, perfume and medicine industries. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of 10 Rosa damascena genotypes by evaluating their morphological traits, flower yield and oil content to find the best genotype with high productivity under rainfed condition in Lorestan province, Iran. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design trial with three replications. The data analyses, using Pearson's correlation coef?cients, showed that flower dry yield per hectare was significantly and positively correlated with, flower dry weight per plant, flowering period, plant height, number of flowers per plant, fresh and dry weight of petals, average weight of each flower, and number of flowers per day. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that the first three PCs, respectively, called as flower yield, receptacle, and flower size components accounted for 88.33% of the total variation. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters in which the highest genetic distance was observed between Kermanshah and Fars1 genotypes. Fars1 and Yazd1 genotypes had the highest productivity in terms of, respectively, flower yield and oil content and showed the high potential for cultivation under rainfed condition in Lorestan province.
    • A Genealogy of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument: Considering the Future of Federal Public Lands

      Brugger, Julie; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-12-31)
      In September 1996, President Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (GSENM) in southern Utah in order to protect its scientific and historic resources. In December 2017, President Trump reduced the size of the Monument by 46 percent and opened the excluded lands to motorized vehicles, energy and mineral development, and sale or other disposition. His action was immediately challenged by multiple lawsuits which will take years to settle in court. This article examines these events and the shifting management of U.S. public lands through the lens of governmentality. It traces the genealogy of GSENM as perceptions of public lands shifted from vacant, to possessing valuable natural resources, to national landscapes, to show how new forms of management and governmentality arose and were contested. Using these insights, it considers what current trends in public land management suggest about an emerging neoliberal governmentality and the future of public lands.
    • Growth and biochemical responses of sorghum genotypes to nitrogen fertilizer under salinity stress conditions

      Zamani, Afshin; Emam, Yahya; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Shakeri, Ehsan; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2020-11-13)
      This study was carried out to assess the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in mitigating the harmful effects of salinity stress on growth and biochemical traits in sorghum genotypes. The experiment was conducted as a factorial trial based on the completely randomized design with four replications under the greenhouse conditions. The factors included four sorghum genotypes (KDFGS1, KDFGS23, KDFGS29 lines, and KFS2 cultivar), two salinity levels (3 and 12 dS m(-1)) and three nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 150 mg N kg(-1)soil). The results showed that application of nitrogen fertilizer increased photosynthetic pigments and K+/Na+ ratio in leaf sheath and root. Also, nitrogen dramatically decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content. This was an indication of the reduced detrimental effects of salinity stress found in all genotypes. In addition, it was found that upon 150 mg N kg(-1) treatments, proline (Pro) and antioxidant enzymes markedly decreased in all sorghum genotypes. The highest impact of nitrogen fertilizer for reducing the negative effect of salinity stress was observed in KFS2 (known as tolerant genotype). Due to the highest Pro accumulation in KDFGS23 (known as sensitive genotype), it did not appear to be a suitable criterion for the selection of the tolerant lines/cultivars. In general, the results suggested that using a reasonable N fertilizer level could be used as an efficient tool to improve the growth of the sorghum genotypes subjected to salinity stress and this effect was more pronounced in the tolerant genotype.
    • Healthy foods prepared at home: Diet and support as protective strategies during pregnancy for Hispanic women

      Hopkins, Allison L.; Yeoman, Michelle; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Univ Arizona, Dept Family & Community Med (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018)
      Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers. The two most prevalent factors reported were (1) a healthy diet prepared at home from minimally processed ingredients, and (2) constant and comprehensive social support. When comparing responses related to diet by interview language preference, a proxy for acculturation, there was very little difference between participants who interviewed in Spanish and those who interviewed in English. This result may be explained by greater maternal social support and higher education levels among those who interviewed in English.
    • Human rDNA copy number is unstable in metastatic breast cancers

      Valori, Virginia; Tus, Katalin; Laukaitis, Christina; Harris, David T; LeBeau, Lauren; Maggert, Keith A; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Appl Biosci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pathol; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Ctr Canc; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-08-12)
      Chromatin-mediated silencing, including the formation of heterochromatin, silent chromosome territories, and repressed gene promoters, acts to stabilize patterns of gene regulation and the physical structure of the genome. Reduction of chromatin-mediated silencing can result in genome rearrangements, particularly at intrinsically unstable regions of the genome such as transposons, satellite repeats, and repetitive gene clusters including the rRNA gene clusters (rDNA). It is thus expected that mutational or environmental conditions that compromise heterochromatin function might cause genome instability, and diseases associated with decreased epigenetic stability might exhibit genome changes as part of their aetiology. We find the support of this hypothesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma, in which reduced epigenetic silencing has been previously described, by using a facile method to quantify rDNA copy number in biopsied breast tumours and pair-matched healthy tissue. We found that rDNA and satellite DNA sequences had significant copy number variation - both losses and gains of copies - compared to healthy tissue, arguing that these genome rearrangements are common in developing breast cancer. Thus, any proposed aetiology onset or progression of breast cancer should consider alterations to the epigenome, but must also accommodate concomitant changes to genome sequence at heterochromatic loci.
    • Impact of region of diagnosis, ethnicity, age, and gender on survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

      Acharya, Utkarsh H.; Halpern, Anna B.; Wu, Qian (Vicky); Voutsinas, Jenna M.; Walter, Roland B.; Yun, Seongseok; Kanaan, Mohammed; Estey, Elihu H.; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr, Div Hematol Oncol (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2018)
      Aim: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic clonal disorder characterized by the increased blasts and poor survival outcome, which is mainly driven by cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Here, we investigated the prognostic impact of other demographic parameters on the survival outcomes in AML patients. Method: We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database to collect demographic information, including age, diagnosis, gender, race, and geographic region in patients with non-acute promyelocytic leukemia AML, between 2004-2008. The primary end-point of our study was 3-year overall survival (OS), which was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Results: A total of 13,282 patients were included in our analyses. Increasing age (HR 1.2, p < .0001), male gender (HR 1.05, p = .01), and geographic region of Midwest (HR 1.07, p=.002) were associated with inferior 3-year OS in univariate analysis, and these parameters remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: AML is a heterogeneous myeloid neoplasm with patient outcomes largely dictated by the cytogenetics and somatic mutations. In our study, additional demographic factors, including advanced age, male gender, and geographic region of AML diagnosis were associated with OS outcome in non-APL AML patients.