• Abstraction, Concrescence, and Identity in Descriptive Metadata

      Radio, Erik; University of Arizona (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-27)
      Descriptive metadata is affected by the challenge of using language that is resilient to semantic transformation over time. Yet part of this is directly related to a bibliographic rift between between abstract and concrete elements. By exploring the materiality of information objects and how descriptive values are subsequently derived, ideological formations and their impact become apparent. An examination into the origins of abstract elements demonstrates their identitarian tendencies and the effect on conceptual organization. Alternatives offered by negative dialectics and critical realism are explored towards a different model of information organization and retrieval.
    • Copper and zinc uptake by celery plants grown on acidic soil amended with biosolids

      Haghighi, Maryam; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09-11)
      For trace elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability of these elements, Cu and Zn, in biosolids is important because both are essential elements and both are potential contaminants when biosolids are land applied. A greenhouse study was conducted in factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications on a soil treated with four rates of Cu (0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) and four rates of Zn (0, 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) on celery plants to investigate the distribution and mobility of these elements as well as growth and antioxidant changes of celery. The results of antioxidant changes were inconclusive due to irregular changes with Zn and Cu applications. However, generally the results show that Cu did not affect superoxide dismutase (SOD) or peroxidase (POD) activities in most of the treatments. On the other hand, Zn stimulated SOD and POD activities in most of the treatments. The photosynthesis rate decreased with the applications of Cu and Zn at the rates above 100 and 300 mg/kg and increased in low Cu concentration (50 mg/kg) compared to S (soil without biosolid).
    • Effect of Drought Stress on Total Protein, Essential Oil Content, and Physiological Traits of Levisticum Officinale Koch

      Akhzari, Davoud; Pessarakli, Mohammad; University of Arizona, Plant Sciences (Taylor & Francis, 2015-11-13)
      Levisticum officinale Koch is one of the most important plants producing essential oil. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of drought stress on growth, total protein and essential oil content of Levisticum officinale. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design using 5 replications. Aridity levels of field capacity irrigation (as control), −0.6 and −1.0 MPa were applied. There was significant effect of aridity on leaf area in Levisticum officinale. The highest leaf area values were found in the lowest aridity (FC) level. The root weight and root length in the −0.6 MPa aridity level were more than that of the control aridity level, but, shoot height and shoot weight were highest in the control treatment. Total soluble protein contents under −0.6 MPa drought stress was numerically lower than that in the control treatment, but statistically there was no significant difference between protein contents in the −0.6 MPa and the control treatment. Compared to the control treatment, total soluble protein contents of Levisticum officinale were significantly decreased in the −1.0 MPa drought treatment. Essential oil content of Levisticum officinale was significantly increased in the −0.6 MPa drought treatment compared to the control. Compared to control treatment, there was a significant reduction found in essential oil content of Levisticum officinale in the −1.0 MPa aridity treatment. The results suggest that in the drought levels between −0.6 to −1.0 MPa, Levisticum officinale could be used for arid and semi-arid lands economical use.
    • Effects of municipal wastewater on soil chemical properties in cultivating turfgrass using subsurface drip irrigation

      Tabatabaei, Sayyed-Hassan; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Mirlatifi, Seyed Majid; Sharifnia, Rezvan Sadat; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci; Department of Water Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran; Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; Water Resources Research Center, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-04)
      Knowing the concentrations of the nutrient elements in soils is important due to their toxic effect on humans and the environment. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of water quality, depths and distances of lateral installation on soil chemical properties during turfgrass cultivation. A field experiment was conducted using a Split Split Plot design based on the Randomized complete Block (RCB) with two treatments (well’s and wastewater), and eight sub-treatments (45 and 60 cm distance of the laterals and 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm depths of laterals) in three replicates on a sandy-loam soil, in Shahrekord, Iran. Soil samples were collected from 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth for measuring nitrate (NO3-), electrical conductivity (EC), and pH at the end of the experiment. During the experiment, fecal coliform (FC) were also measured at the soil surface. Results indicated that by increasing lateral distance, NO3- level increased in both layers. With installing laterals in deeper levels, NO3- concentration decreased at the beginning, then increased in the first layer, whereas in the second layer NO3- concentration decreased. In addition, installing laterals in deeper depth, caused an increase in soil EC in the top layer, but a decrease in the lower layer. However, the results showed that there was no significant effect of experimental factors on soil pH. The results also show that with increasing laterals depth, Fc level decreased at the soil surface.
    • Effects of raw materials on vermicompost qualities

      A'ali, Rahman; Jafarpour, Mehrdad; Kazemi, Elahe; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Department of Horticultural Science, Agriculture and Natural Faculty, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Horticultural Science, Agriculture and Natural Faculty, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Horticultural Science, Agriculture and Natural Faculty, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-11)
      Overuse of the chemical compounds and toxic elements leads to problems and transmission of contaminants and pollutants to humans and other living organisms. One of the industries’ byproducts of the agriculture sector is production of various composts from the organic raw materials that the best type of which is so – called Vermicompost. In this study, effects of raw materials on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Vermicompost are discussed. To do so, sheep manure, pomegranate peels, spent mushroom compost either singly or double, triple or fourfold chopped corn, sugar beet pulp and sawdust were used. This research project was conducted in a completely randomized design experiment with 23 treatments with 3 replications. Results revealed that various bed combinations exert different effects on Vermicompost quality such that, the Vermicomposting process led to a significant decrease in electrical conductivity (EC) and a significant increase in pH in most of the culture (seed) beds. Also, the levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium in most treatments increased following completion of the vermicomposting process. As a result, this process can be introduced as an organic fertilizer with complete nutrients for improving chemical characteristics of agricultural wastes to usable fertilizers.
    • Effects of salinity, drought, and priming treatments on seed germination and growth parameters of Lathyrus sativus L.

      Gheidary, Somayeh; Akhzari, Davoud; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci; Department of Watershed and Rangeland Management, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran; Department of Watershed and Rangeland Management, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25)
      Germination of plants is one of the most important stages during their growth which is often influenced by environmental stresses, especially drought and salinity. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salinity and drought on seed germination and growth of Lathyrus sativa. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement in 4 replications. Salinity treatments were 0, 2, and 4 dS/m and drought treatments included 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 MPa. Salinity and drought treatments were prepared by using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that salinity and drought stresses decreased germination percentage, root and radicle length.
    • Effects Of Selenium as a Beneficial Element on Growth and Photosynthetic Attributes of Greenhouse Cucumber

      Haghighi, Maryam; Sheibanirad, Atena; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Plant Sciences (Taylor & Francis, 2015-11-09)
      Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and livestock with antioxidant and anticancer characteristics. Although Se is not an essential element for plants, it has been reported that it can improve plant growth. This experiment was conducted at the Isfahan University of Technology in winter 2010. The experiment was factorial based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. Se was added to nutrient solution in 4 concentrations 2, 4, and 6 mg/l sodium selenite (Na2SeO3). Root volume, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, number and weight of fruits, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis traits (photosynthesis rate, stomata internal carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, stomata conductance) were measured. Results showed that Se increased root dry weight. Fresh and dry weights of shoot increased in the 2 mg/l Se treatment and decreased at the higher level of Se. Chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate were not affected by Se. Stomata internal CO2 concentration and stomata conductance decreased by Se addition. Overall, Se at 2 mg/l application rate was effective in some physiological characteristics of cucumber.
    • Effects of sprayed humic acid, iron, and zinc on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of niger plant ( Guizotia abyssinica L.)

      Tadayyon, Ali; Beheshti, Sedigheh; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran; Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran; College of Agric. & Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25)
      In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of organic fertilizer and micronutrients on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Niger plant, a field experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications at Shahrekord University Research Farm during the years 2013-2014. Treatments included three levels of humic acid (1, 3, and 6 liters of humic acid per hectare), iron (4 parts per million, ppm), zinc (4 parts per million, ppm) and control (without humic acid iron, and zinc). In this experiment, traits of the number of heads per plant, seeds number per head, 1000 seeds' weight, grain yield, and also oil and protein content were evaluated. The findings showed that foliar application of humic acid, zinc and iron resulted in a significant increase in all analyzed traits. The most significant plant response was obtained with the use of 6 liters humic acid per hectare, and the second most significant plant response was seen with the sprayed zinc treatment which was probably due to limited absorption and deficiency of these elements in the tested soil.
    • Estimating nutritive values of Jasminum fruticans L. plant species in northern rangelands of Golestan province

      Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Mirdeilami, Seydeh Zohreh; Ghilishli, Fatemeh; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Research and Education Center of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-11)
      Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values in different parts of plant species and habitats are important in Rangelands Management. Effects of different plant parts (stems and leaves) of the Jasminum fruticans L. plant species on forage quality indicators were investigated in two regions in 2015. Plant samples were collected from Sharlogh Rangelands and cultivated in Research and Education Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources (RECANR) in Iran with completely randomized design with three replications in each plant sample. The plant leaves and stems’ samples were oven-dried at 80°C for 24 hours, then analyzed for crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), dry matter (DM) Ether Extract (EE), Crude Ash (CA), Metabolizable Energy (ME), and mineral elements, including Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). Results showed that the forage quality indicators in different regions were statistically significant, except for the CA. Also, nutritive values differed significantly (P<0.01) between different plant parts, except ME parameter. Results also indicated that J. fruticans due to its high tissue CP content is a valuable source of forage for livestock.
    • Morpho-pomological and chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Iran

      Rahimi, Ali Mohammad; Jafarpour, Mehrdad; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25)
      This study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of five pomegranates fruit (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Iran. Significant differences were found among the pomegranate cultivars for many of the properties studied. Results showed that, in particular, fruit diameter ranged from 63.63 mm (Syah) to 79.29 mm (Rabab), fruit volume from 153.3 cm3 (Syah) to 293.3 cm3 (Rabab), fruit density from 0.93 g cm-3 (Rabab) to 1.13 g cm-3 (Torsh Sefeed). Although Syah showed the lowest fruit weight (144.8 g), fruit yield (8.28 ton ha–1) and fruit skin thickness (1.55 mm), Rabab had the highest fruit yield (27.1 ton ha–1) and fruit skin thickness (2.32 mm). Juice volume was between 61.1 and 67.0 cm3. Percent of aril ranged from 59.64% (Rabab) to 75.3% (Syah) and weight of aril was between 108.9 and 199.8 g. Also, results indicated that titratable acidity content varied from 0.39% (Syah) to 1.13% (Torsh Sefeed). The total soluble solids content varied from 12.67 ◦Brix (Torsh Sefeed) to 15.67 ◦Brix (Zardeh Anar), pH values from 3.05 to 3.77, Electrical conductivity values from 2.8 to 3.14 dSm-1 and vitamin C content from 59.25 to 69.52 mg 100g1. The anthocyanins content was observed between 80.36 (Syah) and 216.97 (Zardeh Anar). The antioxidant activity of pomegranate cultivars ranged from 27.24% (Syah) to 84.04% (Torsh Sefeed). These results demonstrated that the cultivar was the major factor which influences the morpho-pomological and chemical (especially, antioxidant activity), properties in pomegranates.
    • Physiological responses of pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) to drought stress

      Mardani, Sara; Tabatabaei, Sayyed Hassan; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Zareabyaneh, Hamid; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; College of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran; College of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; College of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25)
      Water shortage is the most important factor constraining agricultural production all over the world. New irrigation strategies must be established to use the limited water resources more efficiently. This study was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications under the greenhouse condition at Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. In this study, the physiological responses of pepper plant affected by irrigation water were investigated. Irrigation treatments included control (full irrigation level, FI) and three deficit irrigation levels, 80, 60 and 40% of the plant’s water requirement called DI80, DI60, and DI40, respectively. A no plant cover treatment with three replications was also used to measure evaporation from the soil surface. Daily measurements of volumetric soil moisture (VSM) were made at each 10 cm intervals of the soil column, considered as a layer. The differences between the measured VSM and the VSM in the next day and evaporation rate at the soil surface at the same layer of the no plant cover treatment were calculated. Eventually, by considering the applied and collected water in each treatment, evapotranspiration (ETC) and root water uptake (RWU) in each layer per day were estimated. Furthermore, fruit number per plant, fresh fruit weight/day, root fresh/dry weight, shoot fresh/dry weight, root zone volume, root length and density, crop yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured under different water treatments. The results showed that the maximum and minimum of all the studied parameters were found in the FI and DI40 treatments, respectively. ETC in the DI80, DI60, and DI40 treatments were reduced by 14.2, 37.4, and 52.2%, respectively. Furthermore, applying 80, 60, and 40% of the plant’s water requirement led to crop yield reduction by 29.4, 52.7, and 69.5%, respectively. The averages of root water uptakes (ARWUs) in the DI80, DI60, and DI40 treatments reduced by 17.08, 48.72, and 68.25%, respectively. WUE and crop yield also showed no significant difference in the FI and DI80 treatments. Moreover, in the DI80 treatment the reduced rate of water uptake was less than the reduced rate of plant's applied water. According to these results, it can be concluded that 20% deficit irrigation had no significant reduction on the yield of pepper, but above this threshold, there was an adverse effect on the growth and yield. Therefore, for water management in the regions with limited water resources, plant's applied water can be decreased around 20%.
    • Reader response: Letters to the Editor

      DeFrain, Erica; Hathcock, April; Masland, Turner; Pagowsky, Nicole; Pho, Annie; Rigby, Miriam; Roberto, K. R.; University of Nebraska-Lincoln; NYU; Portland State University; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-06)
    • Rhetoric, Narrative, and the Remembrance of Death in ʿAttār's Mosibat-nāmeh

      O’Malley, Austin Michael; University of Arizona (Taylor & Francis, 2017-08-14)
      This paper examines the anecdotes of ʿAttār’s Mosibat-nāmeh as temporal phenomena from the perspective of a reader moving progressively through the text; it is argued that that these anecdotes do not function primarily as carriers of dogmatic information, but as dynamic rhetorical performances designed to prod their audiences into recommitting to a pious mode of life. First, the article shows how the poem’s frame-tale influences a reader’s experience of the embedded anecdotes by encouraging a sequential mode of consumption and contextualizing the work’s pedagogical aims. Next, it is demonstrated that these anecdotes are bound together through formulae and lexical triggers, producing a paratactic structure reminiscent of oral homiletics. Individual anecdotes aim to unsettle readers’ ossified religious understandings, and together they offer a flexible set of heuristics for pious living. Finally, it is argued that ʿAttār’s intended readers were likely familiar with the mystical principles that underlie his poems; he therefore did not use narratives to provide completely new teachings, but rather to persuade his audience to more fully embody those pious principles to which they were already committed.
    • Sojourner reentry: a grounded elaboration of the integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation

      Pitts, Margaret Jane; University of Arizona, Department of Communication (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-19)
      This paper offers grounded evidence in support of the elaboration of Kim's [(2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage] integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation (ITCCA) to include sojourner reentry. Findings from 24 intensive interviews validate the heuristic value of ITCCA in the reentry context, but also reveal unique features that set reentry adaptation apart from cross-cultural adaptation. Key theoretical contributions include (1) a nuanced description of the role of reentry communication competence, (2) greater complexity of the roles and networks of interpersonal and mediated communication upon return, (3) an expansion to the environment domain to include home environment, and (4) a long-range perspective on the development of functional fitness, psychological health, and intercultural personhood. Implications for sojourner reentry training are addressed.
    • Storyable Images: Manfred Beier’s Private-to-Public Archive

      Jackson, Meg R.; University of Arizona (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-05)