• Breastfeeding Knowledge and Behavior Among Women Visiting a Tertiary Care Center in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey

      Sultania, Priya; Agrawal, Nisha R; Rani, Anjali; Dharel, Dinesh; Charles, Rachael; Dudani, Rajesh; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pediat, Div Neonatol (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2019-05-03)
      Background: Breastfeeding is commonly practiced by a majority of mothers in developing countries, though there are widespread misconceptions about optimal breastfeeding traditions. In addition to culturally prominent rituals and social norms, incorrect and inadequate breastfeeding knowledge is major factors for this high-risk behavior. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding among girls and women visiting a tertiary care center in India and to find out the factors, which influence the breastfeeding behaviors. Design/Methods: It is a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study done among women attending outpatient and inpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology of S.S. Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, India. A face-to-face interview using a pre-designed, self-administered, standardized questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices of breastfeeding was conducted. The information was collected and analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Findings: Among 1000 women enrolled in the study, 89% were married, 25% were primiparous, and 52% were multiparous. More than 50% were illiterate, 91% unemployed, and 90% had hospital delivery. Of the total 770 mothers, only 55% received proper antenatal care during pregnancy, of which only 40% were counseled about breastfeeding. Regarding knowledge and attitude about breastfeeding, majority females (71.4%) considered breast milk as best food for a newborn, which was better in younger women <20 years (86%). Regarding breastfeeding behavior, only 45% mothers initiated breastfeeding within one hour of delivery, which was worse in home delivered mothers (25%). Most (82%) mothers fed colostrum to their babies but 27% of mothers gave pre-lacteal feeds. Illiterate mothers (56.3%), mothers with only primary education (70%), and unemployed mothers (53.85%) continued to do exclusive breastfeeding without initiating complementary feeds even after six months. Conclusion(s): Although breastfeeding is practiced by a majority of mothers in a developing country like India, there is a significant gap in knowledge and optimal breastfeeding behaviors. Healthy breastfeeding behavior can be encouraged among mothers by proper counseling by health care workers and organizing educational programs focusing women especially with low education and limited resources.
    • Category-specific effects in Welsh mutation

      Hammond, Michael; Bell, Elise; Anderson, Skye; Webb-Davies, Peredur; Ohala, Diane; Carnie, Andrew; Brooks, Heddwen; Univ Arizona (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2020-01-03)
      In this paper we investigate category-specific effects through the lens of Welsh mutation. Smith (2011) and Moreton et al. (2017) show that English distinguishes nouns and proper nouns in an experimental blending task. Here we show that Welsh distinguishes nouns, verbs, personal names, and place names in the mutation system. We demonstrate these effects experimentally in a translation task designed to elicit mutation intuitions and in several corpus studies. In addition, we show that these effects correlate with lexical frequency. Deeper statistical analysis and a review of the English data suggests that frequency is a more explanatory factor than part of speech in both languages. We therefore argue that these category-specific effects can be reduced to lexical frequency effects.
    • The Distribution of Talker Variability Impacts Infants’ Word Learning

      Quam, Carolyn; Knight, Sara; Gerken, LouAnn; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2017-01-05)
      Infants struggle to apply earlier-demonstrated sound-discrimination abilities to later word-learning, attending to non-constrastive acoustic dimensions (e.g., Hay et al., 2015), and not always to contrastive dimensions (e.g., Stager & Werker, 1997). One hint about the nature of infants' difficulties comes from the observation that input from multiple talkers can improve word learning (Rost & McMurray, 2009). This may be because, when a single talker says both of the to-be-learned words, consistent talker's-voice characteristics make the acoustics of the two words more overlapping (Apfelbaum & McMurray, 2011). Here, we test that notion. We taught 14-month-old infants two similar-sounding words in the Switch habituation paradigm. The same amount of overall talker variability was present as in prior multiple-talker experiments, but male and female talkers said different words, creating a gender-word correlation. Under an-acoustic-similarity account, correlated talker gender should help to separate words-acoustically and facilitate learning. Instead, we found that correlated talker gender impaired learning of word-object pairings compared with uncorrelated talker gender-even when gender-word pairings were always maintained in test-casting doubt on one account of the beneficial effects of talker variability. We discuss several alternate potential explanations for this effect.
    • Lexical representation and processing of word-initial morphological alternations: Scottish Gaelic mutation

      Ussishkin, Adam; Warner, Natasha; Clayton, Ian; Brenner, Daniel; Carnie, Andrew; Hammond, Michael; Fisher, Muriel; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2017-04-12)
      When hearing speech, listeners begin recognizing words before reaching the end of the word. Therefore, early sounds impact spoken word recognition before sounds later in the word. In languages like English, most morphophonological alternations affect the ends of words, but in some languages, morphophonology can alter the early sounds of a word. Scottish Gaelic, an endangered language, has a pattern of 'initial consonant mutation' that changes initial consonants: Pog 'kiss' begins with [ph], but phog 'kissed' begins with [f]. This raises questions both of how listeners process words that might begin with a mutated consonant during spoken word recognition, and how listeners relate the mutated and unmutated forms to each other in the lexicon. We present three experiments to investigate these questions. A priming experiment shows that native speakers link the mutated and unmutated forms in the lexicon. A gating experiment shows that Gaelic listeners usually do not consider mutated forms as candidates during lexical recognition until there is enough evidence to force that interpretation. However, a phonetic identification experiment confirms that listeners can identify the mutated sounds correctly. Together, these experiments contribute to our understanding of how speakers represent and process a language with morphophonological alternations at word onset.
    • The roots of measurement

      Henderson, Robert; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist, Commun Bldg (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2019-02-28)
      In addition to roots for familiar classes like verb, noun, and adjective, Mayan languages have a class of roots traditionally called “positional”. Positional roots are distinct from other roots most prominently in terms of requiring derivation into stems of one of the more familiar categories to be used. The goal of this work is to show that the behavior of positionals follows from semantic facts, in particular, the fact that they denote measure functions of type ⟨e,d⟩. This conclusion is supported through a series of novel arguments from the Mayan language Kaqchikel that positional roots have a scalar semantics. It then argues for the type ⟨e,d⟩ analysis by contrasting them with gradable root adjectives, which similarly make reference to ordered degrees on a scale, but which have a relational type—namely, ⟨d,et⟩. I then show that a core function of positional morphology, and the morpheme that derives positional stative predicates in particular, is to take positional roots into stems of type ⟨d,et⟩, which will account for the fact that derived positionals behave semantically like root adjectives. In this way, this work not only presents a novel account of the Mayan data, but provide additional evidence for the proposal that even within languages there can be differences in the fine-grained compositional structure of degree-denoting expressions.