Browsing UA Faculty Research by Subjects
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Late Eocene Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains, Oman, Supported by Stratigraphy and Low-Temperature ThermochronologyUplift of the Al Hajar Mountains in Oman has been related to either Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the Neogene Zagros collision. To test these hypotheses, the cooling of the central Al Hajar Mountains is constrained by 10 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe), 15 fission track (AFT), and four zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) sample ages. These data show differential cooling between the two major structural culminations of the mountains. In the 3km high Jabal Akhdar culmination AHe single-grain ages range between 392 Ma and 101 Ma (2 sigma errors), AFT ages range from 518 Ma to 324 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages range from 62 +/- 3Ma to 39 +/- 2 Ma. In the 2 km high Saih Hatat culmination AHe ages range from 26 +/- 4 to 12 +/- 4 Ma, AFT ages from 73 +/- 19Ma to 57 +/- 8 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages from 81 +/- 4 Ma to 58 +/- 3 Ma. Thermal modeling demonstrates that cooling associated with uplift and erosion initiated at 40 Ma, indicating that uplift occurred 30 Myr after ophiolite obduction and at least 10 Myr before the Zagros collision. Therefore, this uplift cannot be related to either event. We propose that crustal thickening supporting the topography of the Al Hajar Mountains was caused by a slowdown of Makran subduction and that north Oman took up the residual fraction of N-S convergence between Arabia and Eurasia.
Thermochronological and Geochronological Constraints on Late Cretaceous Unroofing and Proximal Sedimentation in the Sevier Orogenic Belt, UtahA source-to-sink analysis incorporating geochronometric and thermochronometric data from the Sevier fold-thrust belt (SFTB) and proximal synorogenic strata of the Canyon Range Conglomerate (CRC) and Indianola Group (IG) provides new insights into orogenic exhumation, erosional unroofing, and the interplay between thrusting and coarse clastic deposition in the Cretaceous Cordilleran foreland basin of western North America. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Pavant and Nebo thrust sheets record significant Cenomanian cooling indicative of synchronous exhumation and thrusting along a large segment of the SFTB in central and northern Utah. Detrital zircon (U-Th)/He (DZHe) ages indistinguishable from depositional ages from the Cenomanian Dakota Formation and lower CRC also record rapid unroofing of the SFTB and synchronous deposition. DZHe data from wedge-top deposits of the CRC record two significant unroofing episodes: Albo-Cenomanian exhumation of the Pavant thrust and progressive unroofing of the Canyon Range culmination. For the IG, the presence of Paleozoic DZHe ages along with Paleozoic-Mesozoic DZ U-Pb ages in the Cenomanian Sanpete Formation suggests derivation from Paleozoic to Jurassic strata exhumed in the frontal Pavant and Nebo thrust sheets. After the Cenomanian episode of rapid exhumation, proximal foredeep strata recorded a widespread DZ provenance shift in the Turonian. Short DZHe lag time values from Campanian CRC and IG deposits reveal rapid exhumation of the SFTB during the Campanian. The synchroneity of major shortening and Campanian and Cenomanian changes in foreland basin architecture and provenance supports models proposing that active shortening in the fold-thrust belt coincides with coarse clastic influx in foreland basins.
Thermotectonic History of the Kluane Ranges and Evolution of the Eastern Denali Fault Zone in Southwestern Yukon, CanadaExhumation and landscape evolution along strike-slip fault systems reflect tectonic processes that accommodate and partition deformation in orogenic settings. We present 17 new apatite (U-Th)/He (He), zircon He, apatite fission-track (FT), and zircon FT dates from the eastern Denali fault zone (EDFZ) that bounds the Kluane Ranges in Yukon, Canada. The dates elucidate patterns of deformation along the EDFZ. Mean apatite He, apatite FT, zircon He, and zircon FT sample dates range within similar to 26-4, similar to 110-12, similar to 94-28, and similar to 137-83 Ma, respectively. A new zircon U-Pb date of 113.9 +/- 1.7 Ma (2 sigma) complements existing geochronology and aids in interpretation of low-temperature thermochronometry data patterns. Samples <= 2 km southwest of the EDFZ trace yield the youngest thermochronometry dates. Multimethod thermochronometry, zircon He date-effective U patterns, and thermal history modeling reveal rapid cooling similar to 95-75 Ma, slow cooling similar to 75-30 Ma, and renewed rapid cooling similar to 30 Ma to present. The magnitude of net surface uplift constrained by published paleobotanical data, exhumation, and total surface uplift from similar to 30 Ma to present are similar to 1, similar to 2-6, and similar to 1-7 km, respectively. Exhumation is highest closest to the EDFZ trace but substantially lower than reported for the central Denali fault zone. We infer exhumation and elevation changes associated with similar to 95-75 Ma terrane accretion and EDFZ activity, relief degradation from similar to 75-30 Ma, and similar to 30 Ma to present exhumation and surface uplift as a response to flat-slab subduction and transpressional deformation. Integrated results reveal new constraints on landscape evolution within the Kluane Ranges directly tied to the EDFZ during the last similar to 100 Myr.