• Lgb tobacco control: Do health belief model constructs predict tobacco use intentions differently between lgb and heterosexual individuals?

      Li, Y.; Yang, B.; Chen, B.; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (MDPI AG, 2021)
      This research includes two studies testing whether the Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs predict tobacco use intentions differently between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people. Focusing on cigarette smoking, Study 1 (n = 1808 U.S. adult current smokers) found that the perceived health threat and perceived benefits of smoking differently predicted intentions to continue smoking between heterosexual and LGB smokers. The perceived health threat of smoking had a weaker negative relationship and perceived benefits of smoking had a stronger positive relationship with smoking intentions among LGB smokers than heterosexual smokers. Focusing on vaping, Study 2 (n = 2801 U.S. adults) found that the perceived health threat and perceived barriers of vaping differentially predicted vaping intentions between heterosexual and LGB individuals. The perceived health threat of vaping only negatively predicted vaping intentions among heterosexual people. Perceived barriers to vaping had a stronger negative relationship with intentions to vape among LGB people than among heterosexual people. Our finding suggests that compared to perceptions of tobacco-related health consequences (perceived heath threat), behavioral perceptions (perceived benefits and barriers) may have stronger impacts on tobacco use intentions among LGB people. Thus, efforts focusing on reducing tobacco-related disparities among the LGB community should address perceived benefits and barriers of tobacco use. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Will e-cigarette modified risk messages with a nicotine warning polarize smokers’ beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks?

      Yang, B.; Barbati, J.L.; Choi, Y.; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (MDPI AG, 2021)
      In the U.S., e-cigarette companies can apply for permission to use reduced or modified risk messages (MRMs) in their marketing materials. Because e-cigarette marketing materials should have a nicotine addictiveness warning, MRMs and a nicotine warning could appear together—resulting in a conflicting message. When reading a conflicting message, individuals assimilate evidence supporting their pre-existing beliefs and eventually develop stronger beliefs, diverging more from those with different pre-existing beliefs (i.e., polarization). This study examined if exposure to e-cigarette MRMs with a nicotine warning polarizes smokers’ initially opposing beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks, and if this polarization depends on individuals’ need for closure. An online experiment randomized 761 U.S. adult smokers to either three MRMs with a nicotine warning or three control messages. People reported their perceived efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes at pre-and posttest and need for closure at pretest. Linear regression showed no polarization effects. Nonetheless, need for closure and pretest efficacy beliefs influenced message response: MRMs with a nicotine warning only enhanced efficacy beliefs of smokers with low pretest efficacy beliefs and low need for closure. Evaluation of e-cigarette mixed communication should consider individuals’ motivational and cognitive differences. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.