• Breadwinner Seeks Bottle Warmer: How Women’s Future Aspirations and Expectations Predict Their Current Mate Preferences

      Croft, Alyssa; Schmader, Toni; Beall, Alec; Schaller, Mark; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2020-06)
      Contemporary women in Western cultures are often trying to juggle careers alongside personal and societal expectations for childrearing in an effort to "have it all." We examine the effects of this balancing act on heterosexual women's mate selection motivations. Across three Canadian samples (n = 360), we tested concurrent hypotheses about the desirability of both similar and complementary characteristics in a potential mate. Specifically, women's aspirations (to prioritize career over family) and their expectations for the roles they will most likely adopt within their future partnerships (primary breadwinner and/or caregiver) were tested as key predictors of mate preferences. Although specific effects varied across samples, a mega-analysis of the combined sample and an internal meta-analysis of effect sizes from the three studies provided support for both complementary and similarity motives (controlling for gender role attitudes). Women's aspirations to prioritize career (over family) predicted greater similarity in mate preferences, such that they placed less importance on men's parenting qualities, more importance on their access to financial resources, and preferred a career-oriented over family-oriented exemplar. However, women's expectations of actually taking on the breadwinner role predicted greater complementarity in mate preferences (greater desirability of parenting qualities and a family-oriented partner; with financial resources rated as less important). Our work expands current understanding of women's decision-making processes when selecting a mate and has implications for men's changing traits and roles.
    • Cognitive interviews guide design of a new CAM patient expectations questionnaire

      Sherman, Karen; Eaves, Emery; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hsu, Clarissa; Cherkin, Daniel; Turner, Judith; Group Health Research Institute, 1730 Minor Avenue, Suite 1600, Seattle WA 98101, USA; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, 1450 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85719, USA; Center for Community Health and Evaluation, Group Health Research Institute, 1730 Minor Avenue, Suite 1600, Seattle WA 98101, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Box 356560, Seattle WA 98195-6560, USA (BioMed Central, 2014)
      BACKGROUND:No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expectancy measures have been used in those studies, with no validated questionnaires clearly focused on CAM and pain. We undertook cognitive interviews as part of a process to develop and validate such a questionnaire.METHODS:We reviewed questions about expectations of benefits of acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, or yoga for pain. Components of the questions - verbs, nouns, response options, terms and phrases describing back pain - were identified. Using seven different cognitive interview scripts, we conducted 39 interviews to evaluate how individuals with chronic low back pain understood these individual components in the context of expectancy questions for a therapy they had not yet received. Chosen items were those with the greatest agreement and least confusion among participants, and were closest to the meanings intended by the investigators.RESULTS:The questionnaire drafted for psychometric evaluation had 18 items covering various domains of expectancy. "Back pain" was the most consistently interpreted descriptor for this condition. The most understandable response options were 0-10 scales, a structure used throughout the questionnaire, with 0 always indicating no change, and 10 anchored with an absolute descriptor such as "complete relief". The use of words to describe midpoints was found to be confusing. The word "expect" held different and shifting meanings for participants. Thus paired items comparing "hope" and "realistically expect" were chosen to evaluate 5 different aspects of treatment expectations (back pain
    • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers' views of chronic low back pain patients' expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

      Schafer, Lisa; Hsu, Clarissa; Eaves, Emery; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Turner, Judith; Cherkin, Daniel; Sims, Colette; Sherman, Karen; Center for Community Health and Evaluation, Group Health Research Institute, 1730 Minor Avenue, Suite 1600, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, 1450 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719, USA; et al. (BioMed Central, 2012)
      BACKGROUND:Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers' views of their patients' expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes.METHODS:To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients' expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1.RESULTS:CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients' expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients' expectations in a number of domains-- roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients' expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment.CONCLUSIONS:Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients' expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.
    • Promises, Expectations & Causation

      Di Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Dufwenberg, Martin; Papa, Stefano; Passarelli, Francesco; Univ Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-01)
      Why do people keep their promises? Vanberg (2008) and Ederer and Stremitzer (2017) provide causal evidence in favor of, respectively, an intrinsic preference for keeping one's word and Charness and Dufwenberg's (2006) expectations-based account based on guilt aversion. The overall picture is incomplete though, as no study disentangles effects in a design that provides exogenous variation of both (the key features of) promises and beliefs. We report evidence from an experimental design that does so. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • A qualitative study of changes in expectations over time among patients with chronic low back pain seeking four CAM therapies

      Eaves, Emery R.; Sherman, Karen J.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hsu, Clarissa; Nichter, Mark; Turner, Judith A.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Group Health Research Institute; Department of Family and Community Medicine & School of Anthropology, University of Arizona; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
      BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient expectations about a treatment and the treatment outcomes, particularly for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies, is not well understood. Using qualitative data from a larger study to develop a valid expectancy questionnaire for use with participants starting new CAM therapies, we examined how participants' expectations of treatment changed over the course of a therapy. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 64 participants initiating one of four CAM therapies (yoga, chiropractic, acupuncture, massage) for chronic low back pain. Participants just starting treatment were interviewed up to three times over a period of 3 months. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative mixed methods approach incorporating immersion/crystallization and matrix analysis for a decontexualization and recontextualization approach to understand changes in thematic emphasis over time. RESULTS: Pre-treatment expectations consisted of conjecture about whether or not the CAM therapy could relieve pain and improve participation in meaningful activities. Expectations tended to shift over the course of treatment to be more inclusive of broader lifestyle factors, the need for long-term pain management strategies and attention to long-term quality of life and wellness. Although a shift toward greater acceptance of chronic pain and the need for strategies to keep pain from flaring was observed across participants regardless of therapy, participants varied in their assessments of whether increased awareness of the need for ongoing self-care and maintenance strategies was considered a "positive outcome". Regardless of how participants evaluated the outcome of treatment, participants from all four therapies reported increased awareness, acceptance of the chronic nature of pain, and attention to the need to take responsibility for their own health. CONCLUSIONS: The shift in treatment expectations to greater acceptance of pain and the need for continued self-care suggests that future research should explore how CAM practitioners can capitalize on these shifts to encourage feelings of empowerment rather than disappointment surrounding realizations of the need for continued engagement with self-care.
    • Recovery Spring, Faltering Fall: March to November 1933

      Taylor, Jason E.; Neumann, Todd C.; Univ Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2016-07)
      Recovery from the Great Depression began in March 1933, simultaneous to Franklin Roosevelt's inauguration. However, the pace of that recovery between that date and the Second World War was extremely uneven with some dramatic starts and stops. Between March and July 1933, manufacturing production rose 78%, production of durable goods was up 199%, total industrial production rose 57%, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 71%.Then the economy contracted sharply again beginning in August 1933-the July 1933 level of industrial production was not reached again until August 1935. This paper addresses two questions. What factors were responsible for bringing about the sharp recovery in the spring of 1933 and what factors brought this short-lived economic surge to an end? (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.