• Dependence of convective boundary mixing on boundary properties and turbulence strength

      Cristini, A; Hirschi, R; Meakin, C; Arnett, D; Georgy, C; Walkington, I; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-04-01)
      Convective boundary mixing is one of the major uncertainties in stellar evolution. In order to study its dependence on boundary properties and turbulence strength in a controlled way, we computed a series of 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar convection during carbon burning with a varying boosting factor of the driving luminosity. Our 3D implicit large eddy simulations were computed with the PROMPI code. We performed a mean field analysis of the simulations within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. Both the vertical rms velocity within the convective region and the bulk Richardson number of the boundaries are found to scale with the driving luminosity as expected from theory: v proportional to L-1/3 and Ri(B) proportional to L-2/3, respectively. The positions of the convective boundaries were estimated through the composition profiles across them, and the strength of convective boundary mixing was determined by analysing the boundaries within the framework of the entrainment law. We find that the entrainment is approximately inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, Ri(B) (proportional to Ri(B)(-alpha), alpha similar to 0.75). Although the entrainment law does not encompass all the processes occurring at boundaries, our results support the use of the entrainment law to describe convective boundary mixing in 1D models, at least for the advanced phases. The next steps and challenges ahead are also discussed.
    • H α morphologies of star clusters: a LEGUS study of H ii region evolution time-scales and stochasticity in low-mass clusters

      Hannon, Stephen; Lee, Janice C; Whitmore, B C; Chandar, R; Adamo, A; Mobasher, B; Aloisi, A; Calzetti, D; Cignoni, M; Cook, D O; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-10-12)
      The morphology of H II regions around young star clusters provides insight into the time-scales and physical processes that clear a cluster's natal gas. We study similar to 700 young clusters (<= 10 Myr) in three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 7793, NGC 4395, and NGC 1313) using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey). Clusters are classified by their H alpha morphology (concentrated, partially exposed, no-emission) and whether they have neighbouring clusters (which could affect the clearing time-scales). Through visual inspection of the HST images, and analysis of ages, reddenings, and stellar masses from spectral energy distributions fitting, together with the (U - B), (V - I) colours, we find (1) the median ages indicate a progression from concentrated (similar to 3Myr), to partially exposed (similar to 4Myr), to no H alpha emission (>5Myr), consistent with the expected temporal evolution of H II regions and previous results. However, (2) similarities in the age distributions for clusters with concentrated and partially exposed H alpha morphologies imply a short time-scale for gas clearing (less than or similar to 1 Myr). Also, (3) our cluster sample's median mass is similar to 1000 M-circle dot, and a significant fraction (similar to 20 per cent) contain one or more bright red sources (presumably supergiants), which can mimic reddening effects. Finally, (4) the median E(B - V) values for clusters with concentrated H alpha and those without H alpha emission appear to be more similar than expected (similar to 0.18 versus similar to 0.14, respectively), but when accounting for stochastic effects, clusters without H alpha emission are less reddened. To mitigate stochastic effects, we experiment with synthesizing more massive clusters by stacking fluxes of clusters within each H alpha morphological class. Composite isolated clusters also reveal a colour and age progression for H alpha morphological classes, consistent with analysis of the individual clusters.
    • A radial velocity survey of the Carina Nebula's O-type stars

      Kiminki, Megan M; Smith, Nathan; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-06)
      We have obtained multi-epoch observations of 31 O-type stars in the Carina Nebula using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope. We measure their radial velocities to 1-2 km s(-1) precision and present new or updated orbital solutions for the binary systems HD 92607, HD 93576, HDE 303312, and HDE 305536. We also compile radial velocities from the literature for 32 additional O-type and evolved massive stars in the region. The combined data set shows a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 0.6 km s(-1). We calculate a velocity dispersion of <= 9.1 km s(-1), consistent with an unbound, substructured OB association. The Tr 14 cluster shows a marginally significant 5 km s(-1) radial velocity offset from its neighbour Tr 16, but there are otherwise no correlations between stellar position and velocity. The O-type stars in Cr 228 and the South Pillars region have a lower velocity dispersion than the region as a whole, supporting a model of distributed massive star formation rather than migration from the central clusters. We compare our stellar velocities to the Carina Nebula's molecular gas and find that Tr 14 shows a close kinematic association with the Northern Cloud. In contrast, Tr 16 has accelerated the Southern Cloud by 10-15 km s(-1), possibly triggering further massive star formation. The expansion of the surrounding HII region is not symmetric about the O-type stars in radial velocity space, indicating that the ionized gas is constrained by denser material on the far side.
    • Thermal balance and comparison of gas and dust properties of dense clumps in the Hi-GAL survey

      Merello, M; Molinari, S; Rygl, K L J; Evans, N J; Elia, D; Schisano, E; Traficante, A; Shirley, Y; Svoboda, B; Goldsmith, P F; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-03)
      We present a comparative study of physical properties derived from gas and dust emission in a sample of 1068 dense Galactic clumps. The sources are selected from the cross-match of the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey with 16 catalogues of NH3 line emission in its lowest inversion (1,1) and (2,2) transitions. The sample covers a large range in masses and bolometric luminosities, with surface densities above Sigma = 0.1 g cm(-2) and with low virial parameters alpha < 1. The comparison between dust and gas properties shows an overall agreement between T-kin and T-dust at volumetric densities n greater than or similar to 1.2 x 10(4)cm(-3), and a median fractional abundance chi (NH3) = 1.46 x 10(-8). While the protostellar clumps in the sample have small differences between T-kin and T-dust, prestellar clumps have a median ratio T-kin/T-dust = 1.24, suggesting that these sources are thermally decoupled. A correlation is found between the evolutionary tracer L/M and the parameters T-kin/T-dust and chi(NH3) in prestellar sources and protostellar clumps with L/M < 1 L circle dot M circle dot-1 . In addition, a weak correlation is found between non-thermal velocity dispersion and the L/M parameter, possibly indicating an increase of turbulence with protostellar evolution in the interior of clumps. Finally, different processes are discussed to explain the differences between gas and dust temperatures in prestellar candidates, and the origin of non-thermal motions observed in the clumps.