• A target for increased mortality risk in critically ill patients: The concept of perpetuity

      Mosier, J.M.; Fisher, J.M.; Hypes, C.D.; Bedrick, E.J.; Campbell, E.S.; Lutrick, K.; Cairns, C.B.; Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona; Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona; Statistics Consulting Laboratory, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona; et al. (MDPI, 2021)
      Background: Emergency medicine is acuity-based and focuses on time-sensitive treatments for life-threatening diseases. Prolonged time in the emergency department, however, is associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients. Thus, we explored management after an acuity-based intervention, which we call perpetuity, as a potential mechanism for increased risk. To explore this concept, we evaluated the impact of each hour above a lung-protective tidal volume on risk of mortality. Methods: This cohort analysis includes all critically ill, non-trauma, adult patients admitted to two academic EDs between 1 November 2013 and 30 April 2017. Cox models with time-varying covariates were developed with time in perpetuity as a time-varying covariate, defined as hours above 8 mL/kg ideal body weight, adjusted for covariates. The primary outcome was the time to in-hospital death. Results: Our analysis included 2025 patients, 321 (16%) of whom had at least 1 h of perpetuity time. A partial likelihood-ratio test comparing models with and without hours in perpetuity was statistically significant (χ2 (3) = 13.83, p = 0.0031). There was an interaction between age and perpetuity (Relative risk (RR) 0.9995; 95% Confidence interval (CI95 ): 0.9991–0.9998). For example, for each hour above 8 mL/kg ideal body weight, a 20-year-old with 90% oxygen saturation has a relative risk of death of 1.02, but a 40-year-old with 90% oxygen saturation has a relative risk of 1.01. Conclusions: Perpetuity, illustrated through the lens of mechanical ventilation, may represent a target for improving outcomes in critically ill patients, starting in the emergency department. Research is needed to evaluate the types of patients and interventions in which perpetuity plays a role. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Failed noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is associated with an increased risk of intubation-related complications

      Mosier, Jarrod M; Sakles, John C; Whitmore, Sage P; Hypes, Cameron D; Hallett, Danielle K; Hawbaker, Katharine E; Snyder, Linda S; Bloom, John W; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona (Springer, 2015-03-06)
      Background: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) use has increased in the treatment of patients with respiratory failure. However, despite decreasing the need for intubation in some patients, there are no data regarding the risk of intubation-related complications associated with delayed intubation in adult patients who fail NIPPV. The objective of this study is to evaluate the odds of a composite complication of intubation following failed NIPPV compared to patients intubated primarily in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of 235 patients intubated between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2013 in a medical ICU of a university medical center. A total of 125 patients were intubated after failing NIPPV, 110 patients were intubated without a trial of NIPPV. Intubation-related data were collected prospectively through a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program and retrospectively extracted from the medical record on all patients intubated on the medical ICU. A propensity adjustment for the factors expected to affect the decision to initially use NIPPV was used, and the adjusted multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds of a composite complication (desaturation, hypotension, or aspiration) with intubation following failed NIPPV versus primary intubation. Results: A propensity-adjusted multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds of a composite complication of intubation in patients who fail NIPPV was 2.20 (CI 1.14 to 4.25), when corrected for the presence of pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and adjusted for factors known to increase complications of intubation (total attempts and operator experience). When a composite complication occurred, the unadjusted odds of death in the ICU were 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.12). Conclusions: After controlling for potential confounders, this propensity-adjusted analysis demonstrates an increased odds of a composite complication with intubation following failed NIPPV. Further, the presence of a composite complication during intubation is associated with an increased odds of death in the ICU.
    • Failure to achieve first attempt success at intubation using video laryngoscopy is associated with increased complications

      Hypes, Cameron; Sakles, John; Joshi, Raj; Greenberg, Jeremy; Natt, Bhupinder; Malo, Josh; Bloom, John; Chopra, Harsharon; Mosier, Jarrod; Univ Arizona, Sect Pulm Allergy Crit Care & Sleep, Dept Med; et al. (SPRINGER-VERLAG ITALIA SRL, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the association between first attempt success and intubation-related complications in the Intensive Care Unit after the widespread adoption of video laryngoscopy. We further sought to characterize and identify the predictors of complications that occur despite first attempt success. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive intubations performed with video laryngoscopy at an academic medical Intensive Care Unit. Operator, procedural, and complication data were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the intubation attempts and the occurrence of one or more complications. A total of 905 patients were intubated using a video laryngoscope. First attempt success occurred in 739 (81.7 %), whereas > 1 attempt was needed in 166 (18.3 %). One or more complications occurred in 146 (19.8 %) of those intubated on the first attempt versus 107 (64.5 %, p < 0.001) of those requiring more than one attempt. Logistic regression analysis shows that > 1 attempt is associated with 6.4 (95 % CI 4.4-9.3) times the adjusted odds of at least one complication. Pre-intubation predictors of at least one complication despite first attempt success include vomit or edema in the airway as well as the presence of hypoxemia or hypotension. There are increased odds of complications with even a second attempt at intubation in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications occur frequently despite a successful first attempt, and as such, the goal of airway management should not be simply first attempt success, but instead first attempt success without complications.