• Characterization of L-amino Acid Oxidase Derived from Venom: Procoagulant and Anticoagulant Activities

      Nielsen, Vance G; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Anesthesiol (MDPI, 2019-09-30)
      Snake venom enzymes of the L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) class are responsible for tissue hemorrhage, edema, and derangement of platelet function. However, what role, if any, these flavoenzymes play in altering plasmatic coagulation have not been well defined. Using coagulation kinetomic analyses (thrombelastograph-based), it was determined that the LAAO derived from Crotalus adamanteus venom displayed a procoagulant activity associated with weak clot strength (no factor XIII activation) similar to thrombin-like enzymes. The procoagulant activity was not modified in the presence of reduced glutathione, demonstrating that the procoagulant activity was likely due to deamination, and not hydrogen peroxide generation by the LAAO. Further, unlike the raw venom of the same species, the purified LAAO was not inhibited by carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2). Lastly, exposure of the enzyme to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) resulted in the LAAO expressing anticoagulant activity, preventing contact activation generated thrombin from forming a clot. In sum, this investigation for the first time characterized the LAAO of a snake venom as both a fibrinogen polymerizing and an anticoagulant enzyme acting via oxidative deamination and not proteolysis as is the case with thrombin-like enzymes (e.g., serine proteases). Using this thrombelastographic approach, future investigation of purified enzymes can define their biochemical nature.