• Evaluation of Potential Drug-Drug Interaction Risk of Pexidartinib With Substrates of Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

      Zahir, Hamim; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Zamora, Cynthia; Gajee, Roohi; Gordon, Michael S.; Babiker, Hani M.; Wang, Qiang; Greenberg, Jonathan; Wagner, Andrew J.; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr (WILEY, 2020-09)
      Pexidartinib is approved for treatment of adults with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor. In vitro data showed pexidartinib's potential to inhibit and induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Herein, 2 open-label, single-sequence, crossover studies evaluated the drug-drug interaction potential of pexidartinib on CYP enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A) and P-gp. Thirty-two subjects received single oral doses of midazolam (CYP3A substrate) and tolbutamide (CYP2C9 substrate) alone and after single and multiple oral doses of pexidartinib. Twenty subjects received single oral doses of omeprazole (CYP2C19 substrate) and digoxin (P-gp substrate) alone or with pexidartinib. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the effect of pexidartinib on various substrates' pharmacokinetics. No drug-drug interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence interval of the ratio of test to reference was within the range 80% to 125%. Coadministration of single and multiple doses of pexidartinib resulted in 21% and 52% decreases, respectively, in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable time point (AUC(last)) of midazolam, whereas AUC(last)values of tolbutamide increased 15% and 36%, respectively. Omeprazole exposure decreased on concurrent administration with pexidartinib, the metabolite-to-parent ratio was similar following omeprazole administration alone vs coadministration with pexidartinib; pexidartinib did not affect CYP2C19-mediated metabolism. Maximum plasma concentrations of digoxin slightly increased (32%) with pexidartinib coadministration; no significant effect on digoxin AUC(last). These results indicate that pexidartinib is a moderate inducer of CYP3A and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9 and does not significantly affect CYP2C19-mediated metabolism or P-gp transport.
    • Microglial activation decreases retention of the protease inhibitor saquinavir: implications for HIV treatment

      Dallas, Shannon; Block, Michelle; Thompson, Deborah; Bonini, Marcelo; Ronaldson, Patrick; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Drug Safety Sciences, Janssen R&D, LLC, Spring House, PA, USA; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Campus, Richmond, VA, USA; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      BACKGROUND:Active HIV infection within the central nervous system (CNS) is confined primarily to microglia. The glial cell compartment acts as a viral reservoir behind the blood-brain barrier. It provides an additional roadblock to effective pharmacological treatment via expression of multiple drug efflux transporters, including P-glycoprotein. HIV/AIDS patients frequently suffer bacterial and viral co-infections, leading to deregulation of glial cell function and release of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide.METHODS:To better define the role of inflammation in decreased HIV drug accumulation into CNS targets, accumulation of the antiretroviral saquinavir was examined in purified cultures of rodent microglia exposed to the prototypical inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS).RESULTS:3H]-Saquinavir accumulation by microglia was rapid, and was increased up to two-fold in the presence of the specific P-glycoprotein inhibitor, PSC833. After six or 24 hours of exposure to 10 ng/ml LPS, saquinavir accumulation was decreased by up to 45%. LPS did not directly inhibit saquinavir transport, and did not affect P-glycoprotein protein expression. LPS exposure did not alter RNA and/or protein expression of other transporters including multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and several solute carrier uptake transporters.CONCLUSIONS:The decrease in saquinavir accumulation in microglia following treatment with LPS is likely multi-factorial, since drug accumulation was attenuated by inhibitors of NF-kappabeta and the MEK1/2 pathway in the microglia cell line HAPI, and in primary microglia cultures from toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice. These data provide new pharmacological insights into why microglia act as a difficult-to-treat viral sanctuary site.
    • Withanolide D Exhibits Similar Cytostatic Effect in Drug-Resistant and Drug-Sensitive Multiple Myeloma Cells

      Issa, Mark E.; Wijeratne, E. M. K.; Gunatilaka, A. A. L.; Cuendet, Muriel; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-09-08)
      In spite of recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains a malignancy with very low curability. This has been partly attributed to the existence of a drug-resistant subpopulation known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). MM-CSCs are equipped with the necessary tools that render them highly resistant to virtually all conventional therapies. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of withanolide D (WND), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, on drug-sensitive tumoral plasma cells and drug-resistant MM cells have been investigated. In MTT/XTT assays, WND exhibited similar cytostatic effects between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cell lines in the nM range. WND also induced cell death and apoptosis in MM-CSCs and RPMI 8226 cells, as examined by the calcein/ethidium homodimer and annexin V/propidium iodide stainings, respectively. To determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux affected the cytostatic activity of WND, P-gp was inhibited with verapamil and results indicated that the WND cytostatic effect in MM-CSCs was independent of P-gp efflux. Furthermore, WND did not increase the accumulation of the fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in MM-CSCs, suggesting that WND may not inhibit P-gp at the tested relevant doses. Therefore, the WND-induced cytostatic effect may be independent of P-gp efflux. These findings warrant further investigation of WND in MM-CSC animal models.