• Brief Education Improves Proper Metered-Dose Inhaler Use

      Kellman, Dwayne A; Iserson, Kenneth V; Levy, Robert D; McIntosh, Belinda; Maxwell, Yusiny; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-03-31)
      Background: Inhaled beta-agonists are the cornerstone of acute treatment for asthma and chronic lung disease. Upon emergency department (ED) discharge, patients optimally receive prescriptions for metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with instructions on their proper use. Yet prior studies suggest that ED personnel have limited knowledge of proper MDI techniques. It is unclear how effectively brief education will improve this knowledge to enable them to provide adequate patient instructions. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate ED medical personnel's baseline knowledge of MDI use and the utility of brief education on their ability to use MDIs. Methods: After providing written consent, a spirometry nurse evaluated emergency physicians and nurses on their ability to properly perform three (open-mouth/two-finger, spacer, and closed-mouth) MDI techniques. The same spirometry nurse then gave a short educational session demonstrating the proper MDI techniques. Two weeks later, the nurse re-evaluated the same personnel on their MDI techniques. Results: All emergency medical personnel initially performed poorly in demonstrating proper MDI technique, averaging 29.8% steps done correctly. Two weeks after their educational session, they improved greatly, averaging 89.4% steps done correctly. Conclusions: This study demonstrated both that ED personnel had poor initial knowledge about MDI techniques and that a brief educational intervention improved most people's ability to use, and presumably to instruct patients/parents in proper use of, MDIs. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Catatonia-Like Syndrome Treated With Low-Dose Ketamine

      Iserson, Kenneth V; Durga, Dellon; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-05)
      Background Ketamine's application in psychiatry have expanded, but it appears never to have been previously used to diagnose and treat patients with catatonia-like syndrome that occasionally present to emergency departments. Case Report A 23-year-old male was observed to suddenly stop talking. His ED GCS was 8 and had normal vital signs. While verbally unresponsive, he refused to open his eyes, demonstrated waxy flexibility of his arms, but the balance of his physical, neurological, and laboratory exams were normal. Strongly suspecting a catatonic state, they needed to rapidly confirm that diagnosis or begin evaluating him for potentially life-threatening non-psychiatric illnesses. Lacking other diagnostic modalities, they administered low-dose ketamine boluses. Ketamine 25 mg (1 mL) was diluted in 9 mL NS (2.5 mg/mL). Based on similar protocols, 1 mL of the solution (0.03 mg/Kg) was given intravenously every few minutes. After 12.5 mg ketamine, he was conscious and verbal. Subsequent history confirmed a prior episode requiring an extensive, non-productive medical evaluation. Psychiatry later confirmed the diagnosis. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Patients with catatonia-like states pose a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Multiple interventions have been used with varying success. Optimal interventions provide a rapid resolution (or demonstrate that a psychiatric cause is not likely), be safe, encompass few contraindications, and be familiar to the clinician. In our patient, subanesthetic doses of ketamine fulfilled these criteria and successfully resolved the condition. If shown effective in other cases, ketamine would be a valuable addition to our psychiatric armamentarium.
    • Clinical characteristics and treatment experience of individuals with SCN8A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SCN8A-DEE): Findings from an online caregiver survey

      Cutts, Alison; Savoie, Hillary; Hammer, Michael F.; Schreiber, John; Grayson, Celene; Luzon, Constanza; Butterfield, Noam; Pimstone, Simon N.; Aycardi, Ernesto; Harden, Cynthia; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2022-04)
      Purpose: SCN8A developmental epileptic encephalopathy (SCN8A-DEE) is a rare and severe genetic epilepsy syndrome characterized by early-onset developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and intractable seizures. SCN8A gene variants are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum and variable disease severity. A caregiver survey, solicited by the advocacy group The Cute Syndrome Foundation (TCSF), was conducted to gather information on the demographics/disease presentation, seizure history, and treatment of patients with SCN8A-related epilepsies. Methods: A 36-question online survey was developed to obtain de-identified data from caregivers of children with SCN8A-related epilepsy. The survey included questions on genetic diagnosis, disease manifestations/comorbidities, seizure severity/type, current/prior use of antiseizure medicines (ASMs), and best/worst treatments per caregiver perception. Results: In total, 116 survey responses (87 USA, 12 Canada, 12 UK, 5 Australia) were quantitatively analyzed. Generalized tonic/clonic was the most common seizure type at onset and time of survey; absence and partial/focal seizures were also common. Most patients (77%) were currently taking ≥2 ASMs; 50% had previously tried and stopped ≥4 ASMs. Sodium channel blockers (oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine) provided the best subjective seizure control and quality of life. Conclusion: The SCN8A-DEE patient population is heterogeneous in seizure characteristics and ASMs taken and is difficult to treat, with high seizure burden and multiple comorbidities. The high proportion of patients who previously tried and stopped ASMs indicates large unmet treatment need. Further collaboration between families, caregivers, patient advocates, clinicians, researchers, and industry can increase awareness and understanding of SCN8A-related epilepsies, improve clinical trial design, and potentially improve patient outcomes.
    • The Early Psychosis Intervention Center (EPICENTER): development and six-month outcomes of an American first-episode psychosis clinical service

      Breitborde, Nicholas JK; Bell, Emily K.; Dawley, David; Woolverton, Cindy; Ceaser, Alan; Waters, Allison C.; Dawson, Spencer C.; Bismark, Andrew W.; Polsinelli, Angelina J.; Bartolomeo, Lisa; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
      BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that specialized clinical services targeted toward individuals early in the course of a psychotic illness may be effective in reducing both the clinical and economic burden associated with these illnesses. Unfortunately, the United States has lagged behind other countries in the delivery of specialized, multi-component care to individuals early in the course of a psychotic illness. A key factor contributing to this lag is the limited available data demonstrating the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of early intervention for psychosis among individuals served by the American mental health system. Thus, the goal of this study is to present clinical and cost outcome data with regard to a first-episode psychosis treatment center within the American mental health system: the Early Psychosis Intervention Center (EPICENTER). METHODS: Sixty-eight consecutively enrolled individuals with first-episode psychosis completed assessments of symptomatology, social functioning, educational/vocational functioning, cognitive functioning, substance use, and service utilization upon enrollment in EPICENTER and after 6 months of EPICENTER care. All participants were provided with access to a multi-component treatment package comprised of cognitive behavioral therapy, family psychoeducation, and metacognitive remediation. RESULTS: Over the first 6 months of EPICENTER care, participants experienced improvements in symptomatology, social functioning, educational/vocational functioning, cognitive functioning, and substance abuse. The average cost of care during the first 6 months of EPICENTER participation was lower than the average cost during the 6-months prior to joining EPICENTER. These savings occurred despite the additional costs associated with the receipt of EPICENTER care and were driven primarily by reductions in the utilization of inpatient psychiatric services and contacts with the legal system. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that multi-component interventions for first-episode psychosis provided in the US mental health system may be both clinically-beneficial and cost-effective. Although additional research is needed, these findings provide preliminary support for the growing delivery of specialized multi-component interventions for first-episode psychosis within the United States. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01570972; Date of Trial Registration: November 7, 2011
    • Efficacy and safety of delafloxacin, ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, and tigecycline for the empiric treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

      Alhifany, A.A.; Bifari, N.; Alatawi, Y.; Malik, S.U.; Almangour, T.A.; Altebainawi, A.F.; Alshammari, T.M.; Alotaibi, A.F.; Mahrous, A.J.; Alshehri, F.S.; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2022)
      Background: This review aimed to conduct an indirect comparison using a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of delafloxacin versus other single antibiotic regimens for the empiric treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections. Method: A systematic search with no start date restrictions was conducted. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the quality of included RCTs. Results: Of the 577 studies initially identified, nine RCTs were included in the review. The network meta-analysis showed that ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, delafloxacin and tigecycline had similar efficacy in the indirect comparisons [Ceftaroline Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% Crl = 0.46–3.6), ceftobiprole (OR = 1.3, 95% Crl = 0.34–3.0) and tigecycline (OR = 0.96, 95% Crl = 0.30–2.9)]. However, the ranking plot for the intention to treat (ITT) population showed that delafloxacin had a probability of 80.8% to be ranked first followed by ceftobiprole (13.1%). The analysis of the overall adverse events showed that ceftaroline (OR = 0.88, 95% Crl = 0.65–1.2), ceftobiprole (OR = 1.1, 95% Crl = 0.69–2.0), delafloxacin (OR = 0.88, 95% Crl = 0.57–1.3) and tigecycline (OR = 1.4, 95% Crl = 0.88–2.2) had similar safety profiles. Conclusion: Delafloxacin did not show any statistically significant differences when compared to ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, and tigecycline in terms of efficacy and safety. However, the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability ranked delafloxacin as the first option for the ITT population. © 2022 The Authors
    • Knowledge and practices of primary care physicians or general practitioners treating post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome

      Austhof, Erika; Schaefer, Kenzie; Faulkner, Jaime; Bach, Laura; Riddle, Mark; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Div Gastroenterol & Hepatol (BMC, 2020-05-25)
      Background Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome (PI-IBS) is a functional bowel disorder which has significant impacts to a patient's quality of life. No IBS-specific biomarker or treatment regimen for PI-IBS currently exists, therefore understanding practice patterns and variance is of interest. Methods This online survey of primary care physicians and general practitioners in the USA aimed to understand the knowledge and treatment of PI-IBS within the physician's current practice. Summary statistics are provided with a commentary on implications for practices and treatment of PI-IBS. Results Most physician survey respondents (n = 50) were aware of PI-IBS, but less than half discussed this condition as a possible outcome in their patients with a recent gastrointestinal infection. Most physicians indicated that they would treat the patients themselves with a focus on managing IBS through different treatment modalities based on severity. Treatment for PI-IBS followed IBS recommendations, but most physicians also prescribed a probiotic for therapy. Physicians estimated that 4 out of 10 patients who develop PI-IBS will have life-long symptoms and described significant impacts to their patient's quality of life. Additionally, physicians estimated a significant financial burden for PI-IBS patients, ranging from $100-1000 (USD) over the course of their illness. Most physicians agreed that they would use a risk score to predict the probability of their patients developing PI-IBS, if available. Conclusions While this survey is limited due to sample size, physician knowledge and treatment of PI-IBS was consistent across respondents. Overall, the physicians identified significant impacts to patient's quality of life due to PI-IBS.
    • Social & psychological factors associated with oral analgesic use in knee osteoarthritis management

      Vina, E R; Hausmann, L R M; Obrosky, D S; Youk, A; Ibrahim, S A; Weiner, D K; Gallagher, R M; Kwoh, C K; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Arthrit Ctr (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019-07-01)
      Objective: Determine modifiable social and psychological health factors that are associated with use of oral opioid and non-opioid medications for OA. Methods: Patients were categorized based on use of the following oral medications: opioids (with/without other oral analgesic treatments), non-opioid analgesics, and no oral analgesic treatment. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate adjusted relative risk ratios (RRRs) of using an opioid or a non-opioid analgesic (vs. no oral analgesic treatment), comparing patients by levels of social support (Medical Outcomes Study scale), health literacy ("How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?"), and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8). Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: In this sample (mean age 64.2 years, 23.6% women), 30.6% (n = 110) reported taking opioid analgesics for OA, 54.2% (n = 195) reported non-opioid use, and 15.3% (n = 55) reported no oral analgesic use. Opioid users had lower mean social support scores (10.0 vs 10.5 vs 11.9, P = 0.007) and were more likely to have moderate-severe depressive symptoms (42.7% vs 24.1% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001). Health literacy did not differ by treatment group type. Having moderate-severe depression was associated with higher risk of opioid analgesic use compared to no oral analgesic use (RRR 2.96, 95% CI 1.08-8.07) when adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical factors. Neither social support nor health literacy was associated with opioid or non-opioid oral analgesic use in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Knee OA patients with more severe depression symptoms, compared to those without, were more likely to report using opioid analgesics for OA. (C) 2019 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Spoken language outcome measures for treatment studies in Down syndrome: feasibility, practice effects, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of variables generated from expressive language sampling

      Thurman, A.J.; Edgin, J.O.; Sherman, S.L.; Sterling, A.; McDuffie, A.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Hamilton, D.; Abbeduto, L.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate expressive language sampling (ELS) as a procedure for generating spoken language outcome measures for treatment research in Down syndrome (DS). We addressed (a) feasibility, (b) practice effects across two short-term administrations, (c) test-retest reliability across two short-term administrations, (d) convergent and discriminant construct validity, and (e) considered comparisons across the conversation and narration contexts. Method: Participants were 107 individuals with DS between 6 and 23 years of age who presented with intellectual disability (IQ < 70). The utility of ELS procedures designed to collect samples of spoken language in conversation and narration were evaluated separately. Variables of talkativeness, vocabulary, syntax, utterance planning, and articulation quality, derived from transcripts segmented into C-units (i.e., an independent clause and its modifiers), were considered. A 4-week interval was used to assess practice effects and test-retest reliability. Standardized direct assessments and informant report measures were collected to evaluate construct validity of the ELS variables. Results: Low rates of noncompliance were observed; youth who were under 12 years of age, had phrase-level speech or less, and had a 4-year-old developmental level or less were at particular risk for experiencing difficulty completing the ELS procedures. Minimal practice effects and strong test-retest reliability across the 4-week test-retest interval was observed. The vocabulary, syntax, and speech intelligibility variables demonstrated strong convergent and discriminant validity. Although significant correlations were found between the variables derived from both the conversation and narration contexts, some differences were noted. Conclusion: The ELS procedures considered were feasible and yielded variables with adequate psychometric properties for most individuals with DS between 6 and 23 years old. That said, studies of outcome measures appropriate for individuals with DS with more limited spoken language skills are needed. Context differences were observed in ELS variables suggest that comprehensive evaluation of expressive language is likely best obtained when utilizing both contexts. © 2021, The Author(s).