• Designing healthy communities: A walkability analysis of LEED-ND

      Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Orr, Barron J.; Gimblett, Randy H.; Chalfoun, Nader V.; Going, Scott B.; Guertin, David P.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016-12)
      Prevailing city design in many countries has created sedentary societies that depend on automobile use. Consequently, architects, urban designers, and land planners have developed new urban design theories, which have been incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) certification system. The LEED-ND includes design elements that improve human well-being by facilitating walking and biking, a concept known as walkability. Despite these positive developments, relevant research findings from other fields of study have not been fully integrated into the LEED-ND. According to Zuniga-Teran (2015), relevant walkability research findings from multiple disciplines were organized into a walkability framework (WF) that organizes design elements related to physical activity into nine categories, namely, connectivity, land use, density, traffic safety, surveillance, parking, experience, greenspace, and community. In this study, we analyze walkability in the LEED-ND through the lens of the nine WF categories. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, we identify gaps and strengths in the LEED-ND and propose potential enhancements to this certification system that reflects what is known about enhancing walkability more comprehensively through neighborhood design analysis. This work seeks to facilitate the translation of research into practice, which can ultimately lead to more active and healthier societies. (C) 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
    • Designing healthy communities: Testing the walkability model

      Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Orr, Barron J.; Gimblett, Randy H.; Chalfoun, Nader V.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Guertin, David P.; Going, Scott B.; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017-03)
      Research from multiple domains has provided insights into how neighborhood design can be improved to have a more favorable effect on physical activity, a concept known as walkability. The relevant research findings/hypotheses have been integrated into a Walkability Framework, which organizes the design elements into nine walkability categories. The purpose of this study was to test whether this conceptual framework can be used as a model to measure the interactions between the built environment and physical activity. We explored correlations between the walkability categories and physical activity reported through a survey of residents of Tucson, Arizona (n=486). The results include significant correlations between the walkability categories and physical activity as well as between the walkability categories and the two motivations for walking (recreation and transportation). To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports links between walkability and walking for recreation. Additionally, the use of the Walkability Framework allowed us to identify the walkability categories most strongly correlated with the two motivations for walking. The results of this study support the use of the Walkability Framework as a model to measure the built environment in relation to its ability to promote physical activity. (C) 2017 The Authors.