• Design and analysis of a hybrid X-ray transmission and diffraction system

      Greenberg, J.A.; Carpenter, J.; Coccarelli, D.; Ding, Y.; Yang, S.; Fang, E.; Brumbaugh, K.; Gregory, C.; Ashok, A.; Kapadia, A.J.; et al. (SPIE, 2021)
      Aviation security, mail inspection, medical diagnostics and many other industries all face the same challenge: to accurately identify the presence of a target material concealed within a cluttered surrounding environment. X-ray systems that combine transmission and diffraction measurements promise excellent detection performance with low false alarm rates; however, conventional approaches to combining these measurements typically under-utilize the available information and result in higher overall system resource costs. Here, we consider a fully integrated approach to hybrid X-ray transmission and diffraction systems and discuss simulation- and experimental-based investigations of the design and performance (both imaging and detection) of such systems. Based on this analysis, we describe a hybrid system capable of scanning boxes and/or luggage and report its ability to distinguish materials of interest to aviation security and pharmaceutical inspection. © 2021 SPIE.