Browsing UA Faculty Research by Subjects
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Assessment of YAP gene polymorphisms and arsenic interaction in Mexican women with breast cancerThe identification of gene-environment interactions related to breast cancer reveals the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and allows the distinction of women at high risk from women at lower risk, which could decrease the morbimortality of this neoplasm. The current study evaluated the association between polymorphisms rs1820453 and rs11225161 of the Yes-associated protein (YAP) gene in women with breast cancer exposed to arsenic (As) through drinking water. In total, 182 women were assessed for the frequency of YAP rs1820453 and rs11225161 polymorphisms and As urinary levels. The results demonstrated a positive and significant association between breast cancer and smoking, type of drinking water, and levels of AsIII , AsV and inorganic As (iAs) but not the YAP gene polymorphisms evaluated. In conclusion, our data showed that the source of drinking water and AsV and iAs urinary levels increased the risk for breast cancer, but no interactions between YAP gene polymorphisms and As urinary levels were found.
Association between YAP expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast tissue with arsenic urinary levelsThe Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis and it has been noted that loss of critical components of this pathway can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important component of this Hippo pathway because YAP is the nuclear effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and it is crucial for the response to oxidative stress induced by cellular process and by different xenobiotics, including arsenic. It has been proposed that YAP dysregulation can contribute to a malignant cellular phenotype acting as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the expression of YAP in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast tissue of women chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. YAP expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 120 breast biopsies from women with breast cancer and from women with other non-neoplastic breast pathologies. Arsenic concentration was quantified in urine. The results disclosed a significant lower percentage of cytoplasm YAP expression in cases and that YAP high-intensity staining in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus decreases the risk for breast cancer. In conclusion, our overall data suggest that YAP may act as a tumor suppressor protein because their reduced expression in cases, which can induce an environment favorable for inhibition of apoptosis and promoting cellular proliferation by increasing genetic instability of cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer.
Plant-Based Scaffolds Modify Cellular Response to Drug and Radiation Exposure Compared to Standard Cell Culture ModelsPlant-based scaffolds present many advantages over a variety of biomaterials. Recent studies explored their potential to be repopulated with human cells and thus highlight a growing interest for their use in tissue engineering or for biomedical applications. However, it is still unclear if thesein vitroplant-based scaffolds can modify cell phenotype or affect cellular response to external stimuli. Here, we report the characterization of the mechano-regulation of melanoma SK-MEL-28 and prostate PC3 cells seeded on decellularized spinach leaves scaffolds, compared to cells deposited on standard rigid cell culture substrate, as well as their response to drug and radiation treatment. The results showed that YAP/TAZ signaling was downregulated, cellular morphology altered and proliferation rate decreased when cells were cultured on leaf scaffold. Interestingly, cell culture on vegetal scaffold also affected cellular response to external stress. Thus, SK-MEL-28 cells phenotype is modified leading to a decrease in MITF activity and drug resistance, while PC3 cells showed altered gene expression and radiation response. These findings shed lights on the decellularization of vegetal materials to provide substrates that can be repopulated with human cells to better reproduce a soft tissue microenvironment. However, these complex scaffolds mediate changes in cell behavior and in order to exploit the capability of matching physical properties of the various plant scaffolds to diverse physiological functionalities of cells and human tissue constructs, additional studies are required to better characterize physical and biochemical cell-substrate interactions.