• Aflatoxin Contamination of Non-cultivated Fruits in Zambia

      Kachapulula, Paul W.; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J.; Univ Arizona, USDA ARS, Aflatoxin Lab, Sch Plant Sci (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-08-09)
      Wild fruits are an important food and income source for many households in Zambia. Non-cultivated plants may be as susceptible as crops to aflatoxin contamination. Concentrations of aflatoxins in commonly consumed wild fruits from markets and characteristics of associated aflatoxin-producers need to be determined to assess the aflatoxin risk posed by handling, processing, storage, and consumption. Samples of Schinziophyton rautanenii (n = 22), Vangueriopsis lanciflora (n = 7), Thespesia garckeana (n = 17), Parinari curatellifolia (n = 17), Ziziphus spp. (n = 10), Adansonia digitata (n = 9), and Tamarindus indica (n = 23) were assayed for aflatoxin using lateral-flow immunochromatography from 2016 to 2017. Aflatoxins were above Zambia's regulatory limit (10 mu g/kg) in S. rautanenii (average = 57 mu g/kg), V. lanciflora (average = 12 mu g/kg), and T. garckeana (average = 11 mu g/kg). The L strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent member of Aspergillus section Fla vi in market samples, although Aspergillus parasiticus and fungi with S morphology were also found. All fruits except T. indica supported both growth (mean = 3.1 x 10(8) CFU/g) and aflatoxin production (mean = 35,375 mu g/kg) by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi. Innate resistance to aflatoxin producers was displayed by T. indica. For the other fruits, environment and infecting fungi appeared to have the greatest potential to influence aflatoxin concentrations in markets. This is the first report of aflatoxins and aflatoxin-producers on native fruits in Zambia and suggests mitigation is required.
    • Effects of HIV infection on metastatic cervical cancer and age at diagnosis among patients in Lusaka, Zambia

      Trejo, Mario Jesus; Soliman, Amr S; Chen, Yuli; Kalima, Mulele; Chuba, Alick; Chama, Eslone; Mwaba, Catherine K; Banda, Lewis; Lishimpi, Kennedy; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2021-06-14)
      Objective: To examine the association between the duration of HIV infection and the stage of cervical cancer in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: This retrospective case-case study included 1583 cervical cancer patients from the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. A sub-population of HIV-positive patients with additional clinical HIV information was identified following linkage of cancer and HIV databases. Logistic regression models examined the relationship between HIV status and early-onset cervical cancer diagnosis, and between HIV infection duration and initial diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. Results: The study population had an average age of 49 years and 40.9% had an initial diagnosis of metastatic cancer. HIV-positive women were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed at early-onset cervical cancer compared with HIV-negative women. Among the sub-population of HIV-positive patients, a longer duration of HIV infection was associated with 20% lowered odds of initial metastatic cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: The availability, accessibility, and impact of the cervical screening program in this population should be further examined to elucidate the relationship between cervical screening, age, and duration of HIV infection and the the stage of diagnosis of cervical cancer. © 2021 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
    • Fish losses for whom? A gendered assessment of post-harvest losses in the barotse floodplain fishery, Zambia

      Kaminski, A.M.; Cole, S.M.; Al, Haddad, R.E.; Kefi, A.S.; Chilala, A.D.; Chisule, G.; Mukuka, K.N.; Longley, C.; Teoh, S.J.; Ward, A.R.; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020)
      Few studies examine post-harvest fish losses using a gender lens or collect sex-disaggregated data. This mixed-methods study assessed fish losses experienced by female and male value chain actors in a fishery in western Zambia to determine who experiences losses, why, and to what extent. Results indicate that participation in the fishery value chain is gendered and most losses occur during post-harvest activities. Discussions with fishers, processors, and traders suggest the value chain is more fluid than often depicted, with people making calculated decisions to sell fresh or dried fish depending on certain conditions, and mostly driven by the need to avoid losses and attain higher prices. The study shows that gender norms shape the rewards and risks offered by the value chain. This could be the reason why a greater proportion of women than men experienced physical losses in our study sample. Female processors lost three times the mass of their fish consignments compared to male processors. Technical constraints (lack of processing technologies) and social constraints (norms and beliefs) create gender gaps in post-harvest losses. Addressing unequal gender relations in value chains, whilst also promoting the use of loss-reducing technologies, could increase fish supply and food security in small-scale fisheries. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • A gravity model and network analysis of household food sharing in Zambia

      von Gnechten, Rachel; Wang, Junren; Konar, Megan; Baylis, Kathy; Anderson, Patrese; Giroux, Stacey; Jackson, Nicole D; Evans, Thomas; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-11-20)
      Food sharing is an important part of smallholder food systems and can help households to buffer food security shocks. Household food sharing is the smallest scale food exchange system, yet we do not understand how it compares with food exchange networks at other spatial scales. To this end, we collect information on bilateral household food sharing in two villages in Zambia with approximately 50 households each. We observed seasonal fluctuations for the density of the food sharing. To our knowledge, we are the first to show that the gravity model of trade is applicable to household food sharing. Additionally, sharing networks exhibit the same statistical properties as food exchanges in other locations and at different spatial scales. Specifically, maize exchanges (in mass) follow the Gamma distribution and the relationship between household mass flux and connectivity follows a power law distribution. This work sheds light on household food sharing in rainfed agricultural systems and suggests common underlying mechanisms of food exchange systems across spatial scales and geographies.