• Assessing Compatibility of a Pesticide in an IPM Program

      Farrar, James J; Ellsworth, Peter C; Sisco, Rebecca; Baur, Matthew E; Crump, Amanda; Fournier, Al J; Murray, M Katie; Jepson, Paul C; Tarutani, Cathy M; Dorschner, Keith W; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-01-22)
      Judicious use of pesticides is generally accepted as an important pest-control tactic in integrated pest management programs, but not all pesticides are equally appropriate. When this project began, there was not an appropriate tool or set of criteria available to evaluate how well a proposed pesticide use fit within an IPM program. The Western Integrated Pest Management Center and Western Inter-Regional Project #4 (IR-4) collaborated to develop the IPM Compatibility Guidance Document-a set of criteria and instructions for evaluating the potential IPM fit of a proposed pesticide use. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document includes a set of instructions and examples to help IR-4 project requestors develop a ranking and a short narrative description (termed an IPM Fit Statement by the IR-4 Project) of a proposed pesticide use within an IPM program. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document lists 21 specific factors in eight categories-efficacy, economic benefit, nontarget effects, resistance concerns, environmental fate, worker risk, compatibility with monitoring, and utility as a preventative-with descriptors of affirmative, intermediate, and negative compatibility attributes. A survey of project requestors and their IPM Fit Statement submissions indicates that the IPM Criteria Guidance Document is helpful and its use increased the breadth of IPM factors addressed in IR-4 project requests. The IPM Criteria Guidance Document, as a model for formalizing pesticide 'fit' assessment, may have broader application in evaluating pest-management tools for their compatibility in IPM programs.
    • Measuring Open Access Policy Compliance: Results of a Survey

      Kipphut-Smith, Shannon; Boock, Michael; Chapman, Kimberly; Willi Hooper, Michaela; Office of Digital Innovation and Stewardship, University Libraries, University of Arizona (Pacific University Libraries, 2018-10-05)
      INTRODUCTION In the last decade, a significant number of institutions have adopted open access (OA) policies. Many of those working with OA policies are tasked with measuring policy compliance. This article reports on a survey of Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) members designed to better understand the methods currently used for measuring and communicating OA policy success. METHODS This electronic survey was distributed to the COAPI member listserv, inviting both institutions who have passed an implemented policies and those who are still developing policies to participate. RESULTS The results to a number of questions related to topics such as policy workflows, quantitative and qualitative measurement activities and related tools, and challenges showed a wide range of responses, which are shared here. DISCUSSION It is clear that a number of COAPI members struggle with identifying what should be measured and what tools and methods are appropriate. The survey illustrates how each institution measures compliance differently, making it difficult to benchmark against peer institutions. CONCLUSION As a result of this survey, we recommend that institutions working with OA policies be as transparent as possible about their data sources and methods when calculating deposit rates and other quantitative measures. It is hoped that this transparency will result in the development of a set of qualitative and quantitative best practices for assessing OA policies that standardizes assessment terminology and articulates why institutions may want to measure policies.
    • Node-Link or Adjacency Matrices: Old Question, New Insights

      Okoe, Mershack; Jianu, Radu; Kobourov, Stephen; Univ Arizona (IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2019-10)
      Visualizing network data is applicable in domains such as biology, engineering, and social sciences. We report the results of a study comparing the effectiveness of the two primary techniques for showing network data: node-link diagrams and adjacency matrices. Specifically, an evaluation with a large number of online participants revealed statistically significant differences between the two visualizations. Our work adds to existing research in several ways. First, we explore a broad spectrum of network tasks, many of which had not been previously evaluated. Second, our study uses two large datasets, typical of many real-life networks not explored by previous studies. Third, we leverage crowdsourcing to evaluate many tasks with many participants. This paper is an expanded journal version of a Graph Drawing (GD'17) conference paper. We evaluated a second dataset, added a qualitative feedback section, and expanded the procedure, results, discussion, and limitations sections.
    • Political Uncertainty Moderates Neural Evaluation of Incongruent Policy Positions

      Haas, Ingrid; Baker, Melissa; Gonzalez, Frank J.; School of Government and Public Policy, University of Arizona (Royal Society Publishing, 2021-02-22)
      Uncertainty has been shown to impact political evaluation, yet the exact mechanisms by which uncertainty affects the minds of citizens remain unclear. This experiment examines the neural underpinnings of uncertainty in political evaluation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants completed an experimental task where they evaluated policy positions attributed to hypothetical political candidates. Policy positions were either congruent or incongruent with candidates’ political party affiliation and presented with varying levels of certainty.Neural activitywas modelled as a function of uncertainty and incongruence. Analyses suggest that neural activity in brain regions previously implicated in affective and evaluative processing (anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex) differed as a function of the interaction between uncertainty and incongruence, such that activation in these areas was greatest when information was both certain and incongruent, and uncertainty influenced processing differently as a function of the valence of the attached information. These findings suggest that individuals are attuned to uncertainty in the stated issue positions of politicians, and that the neural processing of this uncertainty is dependent on congruence of these positions with expectations based on political party identification. Implications for the study of emotion and politics and political cognition are discussed. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The political brain: neurocognitive and computational mechanisms’.
    • A Practical Tutorial Discussion the Evaluating ITArtifacts Using Controlled Experiments using the Design Science Framework

      Leroy, Gondy; University of Arizona, Management Informations Systems (IEEE, 2020-11)
      This tutorial teaches how to conduct evaluations that fit within the design science paradigm, i.e., evaluations of algorithms and entire systems. Design science is of increasing importance in IS with many of the main and top journals recognizing it as an important research approach in our field. However, many business schools and i-schools focus on behavioral or econometrics when teaching evaluation. This tutorial brings the complement to this: ANOVA and t-Test for evaluation of artifacts under different conditions. © 2020 IEEE.
    • Shadowing emergency medicine residents by medical education specialists to provide feedback on non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies

      Waterbrook, Anna L.; Ellinwood, Karen C. Spear; Pritchard, T. Gail; Bertels, Karen; Johnson, Ariel C.; Min, Alice; Stoneking, Lisa R.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Emergency Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Obstet & Gynecol; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pediat; et al. (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2018)
      Objective: Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management) are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM) physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED). This study examines residents' perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills. Methods: Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected nonmedical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones. Results: Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2). Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received milestone scores and narrative feedback on the non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies and indicated the shadow experience and subsequent feedback were valuable. Conclusion: Medical education specialists who observe residents over the course of an entire shift and evaluate non-medical knowledge-based skills are perceived by EM residents to provide meaningful feedback and add valuable information for the biannual review process.
    • Tangiball: Foot-Enabled Embodied Tangible Interaction with a Ball in Virtual Reality

      Bozgeyikli, Lai Lila; Bozgeyikli, Evren; University of Arizona, School of Information (IEEE, 2022-03)
      Interaction with tangible user interfaces (TUIs) in virtual reality (VR) is known to offer several benefits in terms of user experience. Incorporating identical-formed tangible objects for foot-enabled embodied interaction in VR is not a well-researched area. To address this gap, in this study, we explored foot-enabled embodied interaction in VR through a room-scale tangible soccer game (Tangiball). Users interacted with a physical ball with their feet in real time by seeing its virtual counterpart inside a VR head mounted display (HMD). Tangiball included a custom-built transparent physical ball, inside which motion trackers were secured using custom 3D-printed attachments. A between-subjects user study was performed with 40 participants, in which Tangiball was compared with the control condition of foot-enabled embodied interaction with a purely virtual ball. The results revealed that tangible interaction improved user performance and presence significantly, while no difference in terms of motion sickness was detected between the tangible and virtual versions. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of Tangiball along with implications of the user study results.