• The anti-tumor efficacy of 2-deoxyglucose and D-allose are enhanced with p38 inhibition in pancreatic and ovarian cell lines

      Malm, S. W.; Hanke, N. T.; Gill, A.; Carbajal, L.; Baker, A. F.; College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona; College of Medicine, University of Arizona Cancer Center (BioMed Central, 2015)
      PURPOSE: The anti-tumor activity of glucose analogs 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) and D-allose was investigated alone or in combination with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB202190 or platinum analogs as a strategy to pharmacologically target glycolytic tumor phenotypes. METHODS: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein accumulation in pancreatic cell lines treated with SB202190 alone and in combination with glucose analogs was analyzed by Western blot. HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity was measured in MIA PaCa-2 cells stably transfected with a hypoxia response element luciferase reporter following treatment with glucose analogs alone, and in combination with SB202190. Induction of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was measured by Western blot in the MIA PaCa-2 cells. In vitro anti-proliferative activity of 2-DG and D-allose alone, or in combination with oxaliplatin (pancreatic cell lines), cisplatin (ovarian cell lines), or with SB202190 were investigated using the MTT assay. RESULTS: SB202190 decreased HIF-1alpha protein accumulation and transcriptional activity. 2-DG demonstrated greater anti-proliferative activity than D-allose. Pre-treatment with SB202190 enhanced activity of both 2-DG and D-allose in MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3, ASPC-1, and SK-OV-3 cells. The combination of D-allose and platinum agents was additive to moderately synergistic in all but the OVCAR-3 and HEY cells. SB202190 pre-treatment further enhanced activity of D-allose and 2-DG with platinum agents in most cell lines investigated. CONCLUSIONS: SB202190 induced sensitization of tumor cells to 2-DG and D-allose may be partially mediated by inhibition of HIF-1alpha activity. Combining glucose analogs and p38 MAPK inhibitors with chemotherapy may be an effective approach to target glycolytic tumor phenotypes.