• Genetic Color Polymorphism of the Whitelined Sphinx Moth larva (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

      Francois, C. L.; Davidowitz, G.; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-08)
      For a trait to be considered polymorphic, it must fulfill both genetic and ecological criteria. Genetically, a polymorphic trait must have multiple heritable variants, potentially from the same female, in high-enough frequency as to not be due to mutation. Ecologically, in a single wild population, these variants must co-occur, and be capable of interbreeding. Polymorphism is frequently considered in the context of either geographical cause or genetic consequence. However, the incorporation of both in a single study can facilitate our understanding of the role that polymorphism may play in speciation. Here, we ask if the two color morphs (green and yellow) exhibited by larvae of the whitelined sphinx moth, Hyles lineata (Fabricius), co-occur in wild populations, in what frequencies, and whether they are genetically determined. Upon confirmation from field surveys that the two color morphs do co-occur in wild populations, we determined heritability. We conducted a series of outcrosses, intercrosses and backcrosses using individuals that had exhibited yellow or green as laboratory-reared larvae. Ratios of yellow:green color distribution from each familial cross were then compared with ratios one would expect from a single gene, yellow-recessive model using a two-sided binomial exact test.The offspring from several crosses indicate that the yellow and green coloration is a genetic polymorphism, primarily controlled by one gene in a single-locus, two-allele Mendelian-inheritance pattern. Results further suggest that while one gene primarily controls color, there may be several modifier genes interacting with it.
    • A Gut Analysis Technique for Pinpointing Egg-Specific Predation Events

      Hagler, James R; Mostafa, Ayman M; Univ Arizona, Cooperat Extens; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-06-07)
      A universal food immunomarking technique (UFIT) is described for postmortem gut analysis detection of predation on the egg stage of Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae). Collops vittatus Say (Coleoptera: Melyridae) and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were fed a single L. hesperus egg that was marked with rabbit and chicken sera proteins. The protein-marked egg remnants were detectable in the guts of the majority of the predators by each sera-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3 to 6 h after a feeding event. A novel technique was then developed to expose protein-marked eggs to predators that simulated the L. hesperus endophytic oviposition behavior. The procedure entailed embedding L. hesperus eggs in an artificial substrate that mimicked the stem of a plant. A predator feeding choice study was then conducted in cages that contained a cotton plant and artificial stems containing endophytic (concealed) and exophytic (exposed) egg patches. The endophytic and exophytic egg treatments were marked with chicken and rabbit protein, respectively. The gut analyses revealed that higher proportions of both predator populations contained remnants of the exophytic egg treatment and L. hesperus eggs were more vulnerable to C. vittatus than H. convergens. This study shows how the UFIT can be used to pinpoint stage-specific feeding activity on two distinct egg exposure treatments (endophytic and exophytic) of the same species.
    • Heat stress: physiology of acclimation and adaptation

      Collier, Robert J; Baumgard, Lance H; Zimbelman, Rosemarie B; Xiao, Yao; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-10-29)
    • How Do Mothers and Fathers Interact With Their Children After An Injury? Exploring the Role of Parental Acute Stress, Optimism, and Self-Efficacy

      Mangelsdorf, Shaminka N; Mehl, Matthias R; Qiu, Jianrong; Alisic, Eva; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-04-01)
      Objective In the aftermath of a child injury, children and parents can jointly experience acute stress symptoms. Optimism and self-efficacy might buffer against post-traumatic stress disorder. Knowing that children are innately receptive to parent modeling, we were interested in exploring how parent acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy might transpire in parent-child interactions and whether any differences existed between mothers and fathers. Methods We recruited 71 families of seriously injured children who were hospitalized for at least 24hr. Parents completed self-report measures of acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy. Children wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR(2)); Mehl, M. R. [2017]. The electronically activated recorder (EAR): A method for the naturalistic observation of daily social behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26, 184-190) for a 2-day period postdischarge. The EAR recorded ambient sounds for 30s every 5min. The audio recordings were transcribed and coded. We derived a percentage of time spent with each parent (interaction time), and average ratings of the emotional tone of voice for each speaker. Results Overall, parental acute stress and self-efficacy were not associated with interaction time or emotional tone, and parents generally spent less time with older children. Compared to fathers, mothers spent significantly more time with their child, particularly for daughters, but mothers did not differ from fathers in emotional tone, acute stress, optimism, or self-efficacy. For mothers, optimism may be associated with greater interaction time and more positive emotional tone. Conclusions The present study highlighted parent gender differences in time spent with children and enabled the inclusion of more fathers using a naturalistic observational tool.
    • Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

      Wilson, J. Keaton; Woods, H. Arthur; Univ Arizona, Ctr Insect Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-12-13)
      Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems.
    • Iron and Ferritin Deposition in the Ovarian Tissues of the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)

      Geiser, Dawn L; Thai, Theresa N; Love, Maria B; Winzerling, Joy J; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Dept Nutr Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-10-13)
      Dengue, yellow fever, and Zika are viruses transmitted by yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti [Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae)], to thousands of people each year. Mosquitoes transmit these viruses while consuming a blood meal that is required for oogenesis. Iron, an essential nutrient from the blood meal, is required for egg development. Mosquitoes receive a high iron load in the meal; although iron can be toxic, these animals have developed mechanisms for dealing with this load. Our previous research has shown iron from the blood meal is absorbed in the gut and transported by ferritin, the main iron transport and storage protein, to the ovaries. We now report the distribution of iron and ferritin in ovarian tissues before blood feeding and 24 and 72 h post-blood meal. Ovarian iron is observed in specific locations. Timing post-blood feeding influences the location and distribution of the ferritin heavy-chain homolog, light-chain homolog 1, and light-chain homolog 2 in ovaries. Understanding iron deposition in ovarian tissues is important to the potential use of interference in iron metabolism as a vector control strategy for reducing mosquito fecundity, decreasing mosquito populations, and thereby reducing transmission rates of vector-borne diseases.
    • Ironic Consumption

      Warren, Caleb; Mohr, Gina S; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-08-07)
      Ironic consumption refers to using a product (brand, style, behavior, etc.) with the intent of signaling a meaning (identity, message, belief, etc.) that reverses the conventional meaning of the product. We report five studies showing that people are more likely to think that a consumer is using a product ironically when the product is incongruent with the consumer's known identity or beliefs. The impression that ironic consumers make on an observer depends on the observer's relationship with the consumed product. When a consumer uses a product associated with the observer's in-group (e.g., wearing a "Powered by Kale" shirt in front of a vegan), observers have a less favorable impression if they believe the consumer is using the product ironically. Conversely, when a consumer uses a product that is not associated with the observer's in-group (e.g., wearing a "Powered by Kale" shirt in front of a meat-eater), observers have a more favorable impression if they believe the consumer is using the product ironically. Collectively, our studies suggest that consumers can use products ironically to selectively signal one meaning to an in-group (who is likely to detect irony), and another to out-groups (who are unlikely to detect irony).
    • Objectively Measured Social Integration Is Associated With an Immune Risk Phenotype Following Marital Separation

      Hasselmo, Karen; Mehl, Matthias R; Tackman, Allison M; Carey, Angela L; Wertheimer, Anne M; Stowe, Raymond P; Sbarra, David A; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Geriatr Gen Internal Med & Palliat Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-02)
      Background Close relationships play an integral role in human development, and robust evidence links marital separation and divorce to poor health outcomes. Social integration may play a key role in this association. In many ways, the study of marital separation and divorce provides an ideal model system for a more complete understanding of the association between life stress and physical health. Purpose The current study investigated associations among objectively measured social integration, psychological distress, and biomarkers of immune health in recently separated adults (N = 49). Methods We collected four measures of immune functioning-interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and antibody titers to latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-that were combined to yield a viral-Immune Risk Profile. To assess how variability in social integration is associated with immunological correlates following the end of a marriage, we incorporated observational ecological momentary assessment data using a novel methodology (the Electronically Activated Recorder). Results We found that objectively measured social behaviors are associated with concurrent viral-Immune Risk Profile scores over and above the effects of psychological distress and that psychological distress may be linked to biomarkers of immune health through social integration. Conclusions This research expands current knowledge of biomarkers of immune health after divorce and separation and includes a new methodology for objective measures of social engagement.
    • Real supermodels wear wool: summarizing the impact of the pregnant sheep as an animal model for adaptive fetal programming

      Beede, Kristin A; Limesand, Sean W; Petersen, Jessica L; Yates, Dustin T; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-06-25)
      Implications: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) continues to be a global epidemic that is associated with high early-life mortality rates and greater risk for developing metabolic disorders that lower length and quality of life in affected individuals. Fetal programming of muscle growth and metabolic function associated with IUGR is often comparable among nonlitter bearing mammalian species, which allows much of the information learned in domestic animal models to be applicable to humans (and other animals). Recent studies in sheep models of IUGR have begun to uncover the molecular mechanisms linking adaptive fetal programming and metabolic dysfunction. Targets of adaptive fetal programming indicated by sheep studies include adrenergic and inflammatory pathways that regulate skeletal muscle growth and glucose metabolism. Adaptive changes in these pathways represent potential focus areas for prenatal interventions or postnatal treatments to improve outcomes in IUGR-born offspring.
    • Risk Management with Supply Contracts

      Almeida, Heitor; Hankins, Kristine Watson; Williams, Ryan; Univ Arizona (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017-12)
      Purchase obligations are forward contracts with suppliers and are used more broadly than traded commodity derivatives. This paper is the first to document that these contracts are a risk management tool and have a material impact on corporate hedging activity. Firms that expand their risk management options following the introduction of steel futures contracts substitute financial hedging for purchase obligations. Contracting frictions, such as bargaining power and settlement risk, as well as potential hold-up issues associated with relationship-specific investment, affect the use of purchase obligations in the cross-section, as well as how firms respond to the introduction of steel futures.
    • School Opportunity Hoarding? Racial Segregation and Access to High Growth Schools

      Hanselman, Paul; Fiel, Jeremy E.; University of Arizona (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-12-17)
      Persistent school segregation may allow advantaged groups to hoard educational opportunities and consign minority students to lower-quality educational experiences. Although minority students are concentrated in low-achieving schools, relatively little previous research directly links segregation to measures of school quality based on student achievement growth, which more plausibly reflect learning opportunities. Using a dataset of public elementary schools in California, this study provides the first analysis detailing the distribution of a growth-based measure of school quality using standard inequality indices, allowing disparities to be decomposed across geographic and organizational scales. We find mixed support for the school opportunity hoarding hypothesis. We find small White and Asian advantages in access to high-growth schools, but most of the inequality in exposure to school growth is within racial groups. Growth-based disparities both between and within groups tend to be on a more local scale than disparities in absolute achievement levels, focusing attention on within-district policies to mitigate school-based inequalities in opportunities to learn.
    • Serum Amyloid P Component and Systemic Fungal Infection: Does It Protect the Host or Is It a Trojan Horse?

      Klotz, Stephen A.; Sobonya, Richard E.; Lipke, Peter N.; Garcia-Sherman, Melissa C.; Univ Arizona, Div Infect Dis; Univ Arizona, Dept Pathol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-05)
      It is a striking observation that tissue of patients invaded by the deep mycoses often lacks evidence of an inflammatory response. This lack of host response is often attributed to neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy. However, systematic studies do not support this simplistic explanation. However, invasive fungal lesions are characterized by abundant fungal functional amyloid, which in turn is bound by serum amyloid P component (SAP). We postulate that SAP is important in the local immune response in invasive fungal infections. The interaction between fungal functional amyloid, SAP, and the immune response in deep mycoses is discussed.
    • SMARCB1 Gene Mutation Predisposes to Earlier Development of Glioblastoma: A Case Report of Familial GBM

      Mukherjee, Sanjib; Stroberg, Edana; Wang, Fengfei; Morales, Linden; Shan, Yuan; Rao, Arundhati; Huang, Jason H; Wu, Erxi; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Univ Arizona, Sch Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-03-13)
      Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive adult brain tumor. While GBM typically occurs sporadically, familial GBM can be associated with certain hereditary disorders and isolated familial GBMs in the absence of syndrome are rare. Relevant hereditary factors have remained elusive in these cases. Understanding specific genetic abnormality may potentially lead to better treatment strategies in these patients. Here, we analyzed GBM tissue from our patient and 2 afflicted family members, with next generation sequencing to better understand the genetic alterations associated with this disease development. DNA was extracted and sequenced and the data were then analyzed. Results revealed 2 common mutations in afflicted family members; PDGFRA and HRAS. In addition, both siblings showed a mutation of the SMARCB1 gene. The sister of our patient exhibited a homozygous mutation, while our patient had heterozygous mutation of this gene in the tumor tissue. This result suggests that mutation of SMARCB1, either alone or in the presence of PDGFRA and HRAS mutations, is associated with earlier onset GBM.
    • Smoking and Physical Activity Explain the Increased Mortality Risk Following Marital Separation and Divorce: Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

      Bourassa, Kyle J; Ruiz, John M; Sbarra, David A; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-03-01)
      Background Marital separation and divorce are associated with an increased risk of early mortality, but the specific biobehavioral pathways that explain this association remain largely unknown. Purpose This study sought to identify the putative psychological, behavioral, and biomarker variables that can help explain the association of being separated or divorced and increased risk for early mortality. Methods Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a representative community sample of aging adults (N = 5,786), we examined the association of marital status and life satisfaction, health behaviors measured 2 years later, biomarkers measured 4 years later, and mortality outcomes from the subsequent 4 years. Results Consistent with prior literature, older adults who were separated/divorced evidenced greater risk of mortality relative to those in intact marriages over the study period, OR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.15, 1.86]. Marital status was associated with lower levels of life satisfaction, beta = -0.22 [-0.25, -0.19] and greater likelihood of smoking 2 years later beta = 0.17 [0.13, 0.21]. Lower life satisfaction predicted less frequent physical activity 2 years later, beta = 0.07 [0.03, 0.10]. Smoking, but not physical activity, predicted poorer lung functioning 2 years later, beta = -0.43 [-0.51, -0.35], and poorer lung function predicted increased likelihood of mortality over the following 4 years, beta = -0.15 [-0.27, -0.03]. There was a significant total indirect effect of marital status on mortality through these psychological, behavioral, and biomarker variables, beta = 0.03 [0.01, 0.05], which fully explained this mortality risk. Conclusions For separated/divorced adults, differences in life satisfaction predict health behaviors associated with poorer long-term lung function, and these intermediate variables help explain the association between marital dissolution and increased risk of earlier mortality. In a large sample of older adults, the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation and divorce is fully accounted for by psychological wellbeing, physical activity, and smoking.
    • Social Distancing as a Health Behavior: County-Level Movement in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic Is Associated with Conventional Health Behaviors

      Bourassa, Kyle J; Sbarra, David A; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-08)
      Background Social distancing-when people limit close contact with others outside their household-is a primary intervention available to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of social distancing is unlikely to change until effective treatments or vaccines become widely available. However, relatively little is known about how best to promote social distancing. Applying knowledge from social and behavioral research on conventional health behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity) to support public health efforts and research on social distancing is promising, but empirical evidence supporting this approach is needed. Purpose We examined whether one type of social distancing behavior-reduced movement outside the home-was associated with conventional health behaviors. Method We examined the association between GPS-derived movement behavior in 2,858 counties in USA from March 1 to April 7, 2020 and the prevalence of county-level indicators influenced by residents' conventional health behaviors. Results Changes in movement were associated with conventional health behaviors, and the magnitude of these associations were similar to the associations among the conventional health behaviors. Counties with healthier behaviors-particularly less obesity and greater physical activity-evidenced greater reduction in movement outside the home during the initial phases of the pandemic in the USA. Conclusions Social distancing, in the form of reduced movement outside the home, is associated with conventional health behaviors. Existing scientific literature on health behavior and health behavior change can be more confidently used to promote social distancing behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Socioeconomic and Human Behavioral Factors Associated With Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Immature Habitat in Tucson, AZ

      Walker, Kathleen R; Williamson, Daniel; Carrière, Yves; Reyes-Castro, Pablo A; Haenchen, Steven; Hayden, Mary H; Jeffrey Gutierrez, Eileen; Ernst, Kacey C; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Univ Arizona, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018-07)
      Aedes aegypti (L.; Diptera: Culicidae) has been established in the southwestern United States for several decades, but relationships between humans and mosquitoes in this arid region are not well-characterized. In August 2012, the outdoor premises of 355 houses within 20 neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona were surveyed for containers that could provide larval habitat for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. At the same time, a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire was administered to a resident of each house surveyed for immature mosquitoes. The KAP questionnaire assessed respondents' knowledge and concerns about vector-borne illnesses as well as practices they used to avoid mosquitoes. Of the houses surveyed, 91% had at least one container present, and 64% had at least one container with standing water. On average, each house had 2.2 containers with water at the time of the survey. The overall House Index (proportion of premises surveyed with at least one container with Ae. aegypti immatures present) was 13%. Based on questionnaire responses, there was a significant positive association between the number of residents in the home and the odds of finding Ae. aegypti positive containers on the premises, while household income showed a significant negative association. The reported frequency of checking for standing water was also significantly associated with the odds of finding immatures, although the nature of this association was ambiguous. Flower pots were the principal type of container with Ae. aegypti larvae. These findings show that larval habitat is widely available even in an arid environment and city with good housing and sanitation infrastructure.
    • A swine model of soy protein–induced food allergenicity: implications in human and swine nutrition

      Radcliffe, John Scott; Brito, Luiz F; Reddivari, Lavanya; Schmidt, Monica; Herman, Eliot M; Schinckel, Allan P; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-06-25)
      Implications: Basic digestive processes result in the breakdown of most foodborne antigens; however, a small proportion of food-derived antigens cross the intestinal barrier leading to a brief period of hypersensitivity that is usually followed by the development of oral tolerance. A shift from oral tolerance to sensitization marks the potential for clinical allergy development. The anatomical, physiological, histological, genomic homology, and immunological similarity between pigs and humans make pigs a better model than traditional rodent species to study food allergies and intervention strategies. A subset of pigs naturally develop soy allergies making them an ideal model for soy allergies.
    • A Tendency-Transformational Model of Enharmonic Modulations and Related Phenomena

      Muniz, John; Univ Arizona, Mus Theory (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019)
      This article proposes a model of enharmonic modulations based on transformations in resolution tendency. This model is an alternative to standard notational accounts of enharmonicism. The article explores similarities between enharmonic modulations and other musical phenomena involving tendency transformations. The model is applied in analyses of harmony, motive, and text in several nineteenth-century works.
    • The Transmission of Multigenerational Educational Inequality

      Fiel, Jeremy E; Univ Arizona, Dept Sociol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019)
      This study explores the transmission of educational inequality across three generations in the U.S. It addresses two common problems in analyses of multigenerational inequality: omitted mechanisms of indirect transmissions through grandparents’ early influences on parents, and theoretically problematic tests of direct effects based on non-zero residual grandparent-child associations. The first problem leads to upwardly biased direct effect estimates; analyses that control for parents’ attributes and experiences during their own childhood eliminate most grandparent-child educational associations. Conversely, the second problem can obscure direct effects. This study avoids inferring direct effects from residual grandparent-child associations by assessing the explanatory power of measured child attributes that constitute likely mechanisms of direct effects. It finds little evidence of direct effects overall, although there is some indication of direct effects on bachelor’s degree attainment among those with the most educated grandparents. The findings also speak to potential mechanisms of direct and indirect educational transmissions.
    • Treatment for Early, Uncomplicated Coccidioidomycosis: What Is Success?

      Galgiani, John N; Blair, Janis E; Ampel, Neil M; Thompson, George R; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Valley Fever Ctr Excellence; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-09-23)
      The care of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis remains challenging. Such infections produce a variety of signs, symptoms, and serologic responses that cause morbidity in patients and concern in treating clinicians for the possibility of extrapulmonary dissemination. Illness may be due to ongoing fungal growth that produces acute inflammatory responses, resulting in tissue damage and necrosis, and for this, administering an antifungal drug may be of benefit. In contrast, convalescence may be prolonged by other immunologic reactions to infection, even after fungal replication has been arrested, and in those situations, antifungal therapy is unlikely to yield clinical improvement. In this presentation, we discuss what findings are clinical indicators of fungal growth and what other sequelae are not. Understanding these differences provides a rational management strategy for deciding when to continue, discontinue, or reinstitute antifungal treatments.