Now showing items 4889-4908 of 13755

    • The host exosome pathway underpins biogenesis of the human cytomegalovirus virion

      Turner, Declan L; Korneev, Denis V; Purdy, John G; de Marco, Alex; Mathias, Rommel A; Univ Arizona, Dept Immunobiol; Univ Arizona, BIO5 Inst (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-09-10)
      Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects over half the world's population, is a leading cause of congenital birth defects, and poses serious risks for immuno-compromised individuals. To expand the molecular knowledge governing virion maturation, we analysed HCMV virions using proteomics, and identified a significant proportion of host exosome constituents. To validate this acquisition, we characterized exosomes released from uninfected cells, and demonstrated that over 99% of the protein cargo was subsequently incorporated into HCMV virions during infection. This suggested a common membrane origin, and utilization of host exosome machinery for virion assembly and egress. Thus, we selected a panel of exosome proteins for knock down, and confirmed that loss of 7/9 caused significantly less HCMV production. Saliently, we report that VAMP3 is essential for viral trafficking and release of infectious progeny, in various HCMV strains and cell types. Therefore, we establish that the host exosome pathway is intrinsic for HCMV maturation, and reveal new host regulators involved in viral trafficking, virion envelopment, and release. Our findings underpin future investigation of host exosome proteins as important modulators of HCMV replication with antiviral potential.
    • Host Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase limits viral replication by regulating phospholipid synthesis.

      Zhang, Zhenlu; He, Guijuan; Han, Gil-Soo; Zhang, Jiantao; Catanzaro, Nicholas; Diaz, Arturo; Wu, Zujian; Carman, George M; Xie, Lianhui; Wang, Xiaofeng; et al. (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-04)
      Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] takes place in membrane-bound viral replication complexes (VRCs). Formation of VRCs requires virus-mediated manipulation of cellular lipid synthesis. Here, we report significantly enhanced brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication and much improved cell growth in yeast cells lacking PAH1 (pah1Δ), the sole yeast ortholog of human LIPIN genes. PAH1 encodes Pah1p (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase), which converts phosphatidate (PA) to diacylglycerol that is subsequently used for the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. Inactivation of Pah1p leads to altered lipid composition, including high levels of PA, total phospholipids, ergosterol ester, and free fatty acids, as well as expansion of the nuclear membrane. In pah1Δ cells, BMV replication protein 1a and double-stranded RNA localized to the extended nuclear membrane, there was a significant increase in the number of VRCs formed, and BMV genomic replication increased by 2-fold compared to wild-type cells. In another yeast mutant that lacks both PAH1 and DGK1 (encodes diacylglycerol kinase converting diacylglycerol to PA), which has a normal nuclear membrane but maintains similar lipid compositional changes as in pah1Δ cells, BMV replicated as efficiently as in pah1Δ cells, suggesting that the altered lipid composition was responsible for the enhanced BMV replication. We further showed that increased levels of total phospholipids play an important role because the enhanced BMV replication required active synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid. Moreover, overexpression of a phosphatidylcholine synthesis gene (CHO2) promoted BMV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PAH1 or plant PAH1 orthologs inhibited BMV replication in yeast or Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Competing with its host for limited resources, BMV inhibited host growth, which was markedly alleviated in pah1Δ cells. Our work suggests that Pah1p promotes storage lipid synthesis and thus represses phospholipid synthesis, which in turn restricts both viral replication and cell growth during viral infection.
    • Host signaling and EGR1 transcriptional control of human cytomegalovirus replication and latency

      Buehler, Jason; Carpenter, Ethan; Zeltzer, Sebastian; Igarashi, Suzu; Rak, Michael; Mikell, Iliyana; Nelson, Jay A; Goodrum, Felicia; Univ Arizona, BIO5 Inst; Univ Arizona, Dept Immunobiol (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-11-14)
      Sustained phosphotinositide3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is critical to the maintenance of alpha and beta herpesvirus latency. We have previously shown that the beta-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), regulates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upstream of PI3K, to control states of latency and reactivation. How signaling downstream of EGFR is regulated and how this impacts CMV infection and latency is not fully understood. We demonstrate that CMV downregulates EGFR early in the productive infection, which blunts the activation of EGFR and its downstream pathways in response to stimuli. However, CMV infection sustains basal levels of EGFR and downstream pathway activity in the context of latency in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Inhibition of MEK/ERK, STAT or PI3K/AKT pathways downstream of EGFR increases viral reactivation from latently infected CD34(+) HPCs, defining a role for these pathways in latency. We hypothesized that CMV modulation of EGFR signaling might impact viral transcription important to latency. Indeed, EGF-stimulation increased expression of the UL138 latency gene, but not immediate early or early viral genes, suggesting that EGFR signaling promotes latent gene expression. The early growth response-1 (EGR1) transcription factor is induced downstream of EGFR signaling through the MEK/ERK pathway and is important for the maintenance of hematopoietic stemness. We demonstrate that EGR1 binds the viral genome upstream of UL138 and is sufficient to promote UL138 expression. Further, disruption of EGR1 binding upstream of UL138 prevents the establishment of latency in CD34(+) HPCs. Our results indicate a model whereby UL138 modulation of EGFR signaling feeds back to promote UL138 gene expression and suppression of replication for latency. By this mechanism, the virus has hardwired itself into host cell biology to sense and respond to changes in homeostatic host cell signaling.
    • Host-free biofilm culture of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” the bacterium associated with Huanglongbing

      Ha, Phuc T.; He, Ruifeng; Killiny, Nabil; Brown, Judith K.; Omsland, Anders; Gang, David R.; Beyenal, Haluk; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (Elsevier BV, 2019-12)
      Inability to culture the phloem-restricted alpha-proteobacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (“Ca. L. asiaticus”) or the closely related species (“Candidatus Liberibacter americanus” and “Candidatus Liberibacter africanus”) that are associated with Huanglongbing (HLB) hampers the development of effective long-term control strategies for this devastating disease. Here we report successful establishment and long-term maintenance of host-free “Ca. L. asiaticus” cultures, with the bacterium growing within cultured biofilms derived from infected citrus tissue. The biofilms were grown in a newly designed growth medium under specific conditions. The initial biofilm-based culture has been successfully maintained for over two years and has undergone over a dozen subcultures. Multiple independent cultures have been established and maintained in a biofilm reactor system, opening the door to the development of pure culture of “Ca. L. asiaticus” and the use of genetics-based methods to understand and mitigate the spread of HLB.
    • The HOSTS survey for exo-zodiacal dust: preliminary results and future prospects

      Ertel, Steve; Hinz, Phil; Defrère, Denis; Mennesson, Bertrand; Kennedy, Grant; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Phillip, Willems A.; Absil, Olivier; Arbo, Paul; Bailey, Vanessa P.; et al. (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2018-07-24)
      The presence of large amounts of dust in the habitable zones of nearby stars is a significant obstacle for future exo-Earth imaging missions. We executed the HOSTS (Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems) survey to determine the typical amount of such exozodiacal dust around a sample of nearby main sequence stars. The majority of the data have been analyzed and we present here an update of our ongoing work. Nulling interferometry in N band was used to suppress the bright stellar light and to detect faint, extended circumstellar dust emission. We present an overview of the latest results from our ongoing work. We find seven new N band excesses in addition to the high confidence confirmation of three that were previously known. We find the first detections around Sun-like stars and around stars without previously known circumstellar dust. Our overall detection rate is 23%. The inferred occurrence rate is comparable for early type and Sun-like stars, but decreases from 71(-20)(+11) % for stars with previously detected mid- to far-infrared excess to 11(-4)(+9) % for stars without such excess, confirming earlier results at high confidence. For completed observations on individual stars, our sensitivity is five to ten times better than previous results. Assuming a lognormal luminosity function of the dust, we find upper limits on the median dust level around all stars without previously known mid to far infrared excess of 11.5 zodis at 95% confidence level. The corresponding upper limit for Sun-like stars is 16 zodis. An LBTI vetted target list of Sun-like stars for exo-Earth imaging would have a corresponding limit of 7.5 zodis. We provide important new insights into the occurrence rate and typical levels of habitable zone dust around main sequence stars. Exploiting the full range of capabilities of the LBTI provides a critical opportunity for the detailed characterization of a sample of exozodiacal dust disks to understand the origin, distribution, and properties of the dust.
    • The HOSTS Survey for Exozodiacal Dust: Observational Results from the Complete Survey

      Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Mennesson, B.; Kennedy, G. M.; Danchi, W. C.; Gelino, C.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mazoyer, J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04)
      The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) enables nulling interferometric observations across the N band (8 to 13 mu m) to suppress a star's bright light and probe for faint circumstellar emission. We present and statistically analyze the results from the LBTI/Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems survey for exozodiacal dust. By comparing our measurements to model predictions based on the solar zodiacal dust in the N band, we estimate a 1 sigma median sensitivity of 23 zodis times the solar system dust surface density in its habitable zone (HZ; 23 zodis) for early-type stars and 48 zodis for Sun-like stars, where 1 zodi is the surface density of HZ dust in the solar system. Of the 38 stars observed, 10 show significant excess. A clear correlation of our detections with the presence of cold dust in the systems was found, but none with the stellar spectral type or age. The majority of Sun-like stars have relatively low HZ dust levels (best-fit median: 3 zodis, 1 sigma upper limit: 9 zodis, 95% confidence: 27 zodis based on our N band measurements), while similar to 20% are significantly more dusty. The solar system's HZ dust content is consistent with being typical. Our median HZ dust level would not be a major limitation to the direct imaging search for Earth-like exoplanets, but more precise constraints are still required, in particular to evaluate the impact of exozodiacal dust for the spectroscopic characterization of imaged exo-Earth candidates.
    • The HOSTS Survey—Exozodiacal Dust Measurements for 30 Stars

      Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Mennesson, B.; Kennedy, G. M.; Danchi, W. C.; Gelino, C.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Rieke, G.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-05)
      The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems survey searches for dust near the habitable zones (HZs) around nearby, bright main-sequence stars. We use nulling interferometry in the N band to suppress the bright stellar light and to probe for low levels of HZ dust around the 30 stars observed so far. Our overall detection rate is 18%, including four new detections, among which are the first three around Sun-like stars and the first two around stars without any previously known circumstellar dust. The inferred occurrence rates are comparable for early-type and Sun-like stars, but decrease from 60(-21)(+16)% for stars with previously detected cold dust to 8(-3)(+10)% for stars without such excess, confirming earlier results at higher sensitivity. For completed observations on individual stars, our sensitivity is five to ten times better than previous results. Assuming a lognormal excess luminosity function, we put upper limits on the median HZ dust level of 13 zodis (95% confidence) for a sample of stars without cold dust and of 26 zodis when focusing on Sun-like stars without cold dust. However, our data suggest that a more complex luminosity function may be more appropriate. For stars without detectable Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) excess, our upper limits are almost reduced by a factor of two, demonstrating the strength of LBTI target vetting for future exo-Earth imaging missions. Our statistics are limited so far, and extending the survey is critical to informing the design of future exo-Earth imaging surveys.
    • Hot Corinos Chemical Diversity: Myth or Reality?

      De Simone, Marta; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Codella, Claudio; Svoboda, Brian E.; Chandler, Claire; Bouvier, Mathilde; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Caselli, Paola; Favre, Cecile; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-06-08)
      After almost 20 years of hunting, only about a dozen hot corinos, hot regions enriched in interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs), are known. Of them, many are binary systems with the two components showing drastically different molecular spectra. Two obvious questions arise. Why are hot corinos so difficult to find and why do their binary components seem chemically different? The answer to both questions could be a high dust opacity that would hide the molecular lines. To test this hypothesis, we observed methanol lines at centimeter wavelengths, where dust opacity is negligible, using the Very Large Array interferometer. We targeted the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A binary system, for which one of the two components, 4A1, has a spectrum deprived of iCOMs lines when observed at millimeter wavelengths, while the other component, 4A2, is very rich in iCOMs. We found that centimeter methanol lines are similarly bright toward 4A1 and 4A2. Their non-LTE analysis indicates gas density and temperature (>= 2 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 100-190 K), methanol column density (similar to 10(19) cm(-2)), and extent (similar to 35 au in radius) similar in 4A1 and 4A2, proving that both are hot corinos. Furthermore, the comparison with previous methanol line millimeter observations allows us to estimate the optical depth of the dust in front of 4A1 and 4A2, respectively. The obtained values explain the absence of iCOMs line emission toward 4A1 at millimeter wavelengths and indicate that the abundances toward 4A2 are underestimated by similar to 30%. Therefore, centimeter observations are crucial for the correct study of hot corinos, their census, and their molecular abundances.
    • Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections

      Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab, Sonett Space Sci Bldg (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-02-11)
      To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to similar to 80 per cent shortward of 180 angstrom in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as similar to 22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.
    • Housing Status in Post-Soviet Contexts: A Multi-dimensional Measurement Approach

      Zavisca, Jane; Gerber, Theodore P; Suh, Hyungjun; Univ Arizona, Coll Social & Behav Sci (SPRINGER, 2020-10-10)
      This study draws on a novel survey in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Ukraine to develop a framework for conceptualizing and measuring housing status, a multi-dimensional construct reflecting positions in a housing stratification order. We employ structural equation modeling to confirm whether our measures reflect distinct dimensions of housing status. We validate our measurement approach by testing for distinct dimensional effects on subjective housing wellbeing. Our novel measures of housing tenure, quantity, quality, and wellbeing reflect post-Soviet intra-household differences in property rights; the cultural premium placed on having a room of one's own; constellations of amenities and comforts comprising quality; and the significance of a sense of autonomy for subjective housing wellbeing. Results demonstrate that the three dimensions of housing status-tenure, quality, and quantity-exert independent effects on subjective housing wellbeing, with consistent effects across the four study countries. Our systematic attention to measurement of housing status in post-Soviet conditions models an approach that scholars could adapt for other contexts, including but not limited to other post-communist societies.
    • How a bird is an island

      Lapoint, Richard; Whiteman, Noah; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, 1041 E Lowell St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA (BioMed Central, 2012)
      Replicate adaptive radiations occur when lineages repeatedly radiate and fill new but similar niches and converge phenotypically. While this is commonly seen in traditional island systems, it may also be present in host-parasite relationships, where hosts serve as islands. In a recent article in BMC Biology, Johnson and colleagues have produced the most extensive phylogeny of the avian lice (Ischnocera) to date, and find evidence for this pattern. This study opens the door to exploring adaptive radiations from a novel host-parasite perspective.See research article: webcite
    • How Alfvén waves energize the solar wind: heat versus work

      Perez, Jean C.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; Martinović, Mihailo M.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-04-14)
      A growing body of evidence suggests that the solar wind is powered to a large extent by an Alfvén-wave (AW) energy flux. AWs energize the solar wind via two mechanisms: heating and work. We use high-resolution direct numerical simulations of reflection-driven AW turbulence (RDAWT) in a fast-solar-wind stream emanating from a coronal hole to investigate both mechanisms. In particular, we compute the fraction of the AW power at the coronal base (PAWb) that is transferred to solar-wind particles via heating between the coronal base and heliocentric distance r, which we denote by χH(r), and the fraction that is transferred via work, which we denote by χW(r). We find that χW(rA) ranges from 0.15 to 0.3, where rA is the Alfvén critical point. This value is small compared with one because the Alfvén speed vA exceeds the outflow velocity U at r<rA, so the AWs race through the plasma without doing much work. At r>rA, where vA<U, the AWs are in an approximate sense ‘stuck to the plasma’, which helps them do pressure work as the plasma expands. However, much of the AW power has dissipated by the time the AWs reach r=rA, so the total rate at which AWs do work on the plasma at r>rA is a modest fraction of PAWb. We find that heating is more effective than work at r<rA, with χH(rA) ranging from 0.5 to 0.7. The reason that χH≥0.5 in our simulations is that an appreciable fraction of the local AW power dissipates within each Alfvén-speed scale height in RDAWT, and there are a few Alfvén-speed scale heights between the coronal base and rA. A given amount of heating produces more magnetic moment in regions of weaker magnetic field. Thus, paradoxically, the average proton magnetic moment increases robustly with increasing r at r>rA, even though the total rate at which AW energy is transferred to particles at r>rA is a small fraction of PAWb.
    • How Algorithms Discriminate Based on Data they Lack: Challenges, Solutions, and Policy Implications

      Univ Arizona, Sch Informat Ctr Digital Soc & Data Studies, Ctr Digital Soc & Data Studies (PENN STATE UNIV PRESS, 2018)
      Organizations often employ data-driven models to inform decisions that can have a significant impact on people's lives (e.g., university admissions, hiring). In order to protect people's privacy and prevent discrimination, these decision-makers may choose to delete or avoid collecting social category data, like sex and race. In this article, we argue that such censoring can exacerbate discrimination by making biases more difficult to detect. We begin by detailing how computerized decisions can lead to biases in the absence of social category data and in some contexts, may even sustain biases that arise by random chance. We then show how proactively using social category data can help illuminate and combat discriminatory practices, using cases from education and employment that lead to strategies for detecting and preventing discrimination. We conclude that discrimination can occur in any sociotechnical system in which someone decides to use an algorithmic process to inform decision-making, and we offer a set of broader implications for researchers and policymakers.
    • How Americans communicate affection: findings from a representative national sample

      Floyd, Kory; Morman, Mark T; Maré, Jeannette; Holmes, Elizabeth; University of Arizona (Routledge, 2021-07-21)
      Humans are highly social beings who need intimate relationships to thrive and survive. Integral to human physical and emotional wellness is the need for affection. A substantial body of evidence has found that expressing and receiving affection with significant others is associated with a multitude of positive health outcomes. The primary goal of the current study was to create a generalizable typology of affectionate behaviors embedded within close relationships and experienced within the daily lives of U.S. American adults from across the country. The study identified 13 discrete forms of daily affectionate communication. Implications for such a typology of daily affection within the United States are discussed. © 2021 Eastern Communication Association.
    • How culture, institutions, and individuals shape the evolving gender gap in science and mathematics: An equity provocation for the scientific community

      Lozano, G.I.; Department of Mathematics, Center for University Education Scholarship, The University of Arizona (De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2021)
      This essay contextualizes recently measured global gender gaps in science and mathematics within three different themes relevant for enhancing equity in science: journal peer review policies, academic service at US higher education institutions, and parental leave policies and usage. The article aims to problematize potential approaches for reducing such gender gaps, and thus build capacity to advance evidence-grounded transformative change. Framed as an equity provocation for the science community, this piece hopes to elicit productive thought and evidence-based action through informed perspective taking. The vision is not just to enhance gender equity in science and mathematics, but also to ensure the continued quality and relevance of our scientific endeavors for today's diverse and global world. © 2021 IUPAC & De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. For more information, please visit: 2021.
    • How do Australian podiatrists manage patients with diabetes? The Australian diabetic foot management survey

      Quinton, T. R.; Lazzarini, P. A.; Boyle, F. M.; Russell, A. W.; Armstrong, D. G.; Department of Prosthetics, Orthotics, & Podiatry, Princess Alexandra Hospital; School of Population Health, The University of Queensland; Allied Health Research Collaborative, Metro North Hospital & Health Service, Queensland Health; School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology; Department of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Princess Alexandra Hospital; et al. (BioMed Central, 2015)
      BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot complications are the leading cause of lower extremity amputation and diabetes-related hospitalisation in Australia. Studies demonstrate significant reductions in amputations and hospitalisation when health professionals implement best practice management. Whilst other nations have surveyed health professionals on specific diabetic foot management, to the best of the authors' knowledge this appears not to have occurred in Australia. The primary aim of this study was to examine Australian podiatrists' diabetic foot management compared with best practice recommendations by the Australian National Health Medical Research Council. METHODS: A 36-item Australian Diabetic Foot Management survey, employing seven-point Likert scales (0 = Never; 7 = Always) to measure multiple aspects of best practice diabetic foot management was developed. The survey was briefly tested for face and content validity. The survey was electronically distributed to Australian podiatrists via professional associations. Demographics including sex, years treating patients with diabetes, employment-sector and patient numbers were also collected. Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to test differences between sub-groups. RESULTS: Three hundred and eleven podiatrists responded; 222 (71%) were female, 158 (51%) from the public sector and 11-15 years median experience. Participants reported treating a median of 21-30 diabetes patients each week, including 1-5 with foot ulcers. Overall, participants registered median scores of at least "very often" (>6) in their use of most items covering best practice diabetic foot management. Notable exceptions were: "never" (1 (1 - 3)) using total contact casting, "sometimes" (4 (2 - 5)) performing an ankle brachial index, "sometimes" (4 (1 - 6)) using University of Texas Wound Classification System, and "sometimes" (4 (3 - 6) referring to specialist multi-disciplinary foot teams. Public sector podiatrists reported higher use or access on all those items compared to private sector podiatrists (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first baseline information on Australian podiatrists' adherence to best practice diabetic foot guidelines. It appears podiatrists manage large caseloads of people with diabetes and are generally implementing best practice guidelines recommendations with some notable exceptions. Further studies are required to identify barriers to implementing these recommendations to ensure all Australians with diabetes have access to best practice care to prevent amputations.
    • How Do Mothers and Fathers Interact With Their Children After An Injury? Exploring the Role of Parental Acute Stress, Optimism, and Self-Efficacy

      Mangelsdorf, Shaminka N; Mehl, Matthias R; Qiu, Jianrong; Alisic, Eva; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-04-01)
      Objective In the aftermath of a child injury, children and parents can jointly experience acute stress symptoms. Optimism and self-efficacy might buffer against post-traumatic stress disorder. Knowing that children are innately receptive to parent modeling, we were interested in exploring how parent acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy might transpire in parent-child interactions and whether any differences existed between mothers and fathers. Methods We recruited 71 families of seriously injured children who were hospitalized for at least 24hr. Parents completed self-report measures of acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy. Children wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR(2)); Mehl, M. R. [2017]. The electronically activated recorder (EAR): A method for the naturalistic observation of daily social behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26, 184-190) for a 2-day period postdischarge. The EAR recorded ambient sounds for 30s every 5min. The audio recordings were transcribed and coded. We derived a percentage of time spent with each parent (interaction time), and average ratings of the emotional tone of voice for each speaker. Results Overall, parental acute stress and self-efficacy were not associated with interaction time or emotional tone, and parents generally spent less time with older children. Compared to fathers, mothers spent significantly more time with their child, particularly for daughters, but mothers did not differ from fathers in emotional tone, acute stress, optimism, or self-efficacy. For mothers, optimism may be associated with greater interaction time and more positive emotional tone. Conclusions The present study highlighted parent gender differences in time spent with children and enabled the inclusion of more fathers using a naturalistic observational tool.
    • How do non-human primates represent others' awareness of where objects are hidden?

      Horschler, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.; MacLean, Evan L.; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona; Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona; College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-07)
      Although non-human primates (NHPs) generally appear to predict how knowledgeable agents use knowledge to guide their behavior, the cognitive mechanisms that enable this remain poorly understood. We assessed the conditions under which NHPs' representations of an agent's awareness break down. Free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) watched as an agent observed a target object being hidden in one of two boxes. While the agent could no longer see the boxes, the box containing the object flipped open and the object either changed in size/shape (Experiment 1) or color (Experiment 2). Monkeys looked longer when the agent searched for the object incorrectly rather than correctly following the color change (a non-geometric manipulation), but not the size/shape change (a geometric manipulation). Even though the agent maintained knowledge of the object's location in both cases, monkeys no longer expected the agent to search correctly after it had been geometrically (but not non-geometrically) manipulated. Experiment 3 confirmed that monkeys were sensitive to the color manipulation used in Experiment 2, making it unlikely that a failure to perceive the color manipulation accounted for our findings. Our results show that NHPs do not always expect that knowledgeable agents will act on their knowledge to obtain their goals, consistent with heuristic-based accounts of how NHPs represent others' mental states. These findings also suggest that geometric changes that occur outside the agent's perceptual access may disrupt attribution of awareness more so than non-geometric changes. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
    • How do pharmacists use and recommend vitamins, minerals, herbals and other dietary supplements?

      Marupuru, Srujitha; Axon, David Rhys; Slack, Marion K; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (BMC, 2019-08-22)
      Background Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including vitamins, minerals, herbals, and other dietary supplements, is widespread in the United States (ranging from 24% in Hispanics to 50% in American Indians). Pharmacists are an accessible source for healthcare information, but little is known about their use of CAM products and to whom they would recommend these products. Methods A cross-sectional survey was sent via email to pharmacists licensed in one state in the United States in 2015. The survey included items about their use of 10 vitamins and minerals, and 21 herbal or other dietary supplements, as well as reasons for use, conditions used to treat, if they would recommend the product to patients, family, or friends, their perception of CAM safety and effectiveness, and four demographic questions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and a chi-square test was used to determine differences between pharmacists' use of vitamins/minerals and herbals/other dietary supplements. The a priori alpha level was 0.05. Results A total of 639 pharmacists completed the survey. Female pharmacists used vitamins/minerals (p = 0.031) and herbals/others (p = 0.039) more than male pharmacists. Older pharmacists used herbals/others more than younger pharmacists (p < 0.001). Fifty-nine percent thought the dietary supplements in the survey were safe while 32% reported they were effective. Seventy-eight percent of respondents reported use of any vitamin or mineral product versus 42% who reported use of any herbal or other dietary supplement. Commonly used products included: multivitamins (91%), vitamin C (71%), fish oil (65%), probiotics (53%), and fiber (53%). The most commonly reported reason for use was general health and wellness (17-90%). Pharmacists most commonly recommend fiber/psyllium (94%) and calcium (90%) to patients, family, and friends. Conclusions Pharmacists in this survey selectively used vitamins, minerals, herbals and other dietary supplements, and recommended some of the more commonly used products to patients, family and friends. This is valuable information given that pharmacists are frontline healthcare professionals who may be asked to provide advice about these products.
    • How do third parties affect compliance in the trade regime?

      Kucik, J.; Peritz, L.; School of Government and Public Policy, James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona (University of Chicago Press, 2021)
      A core insight of the literature on dispute settlement at the World Trade Organization (WTO) is that third party countries help enforce the organization’s multilateral objectives, including the fundamental principle of nondiscrimination. Little is known, however, about when countries comply with WTO rulings and whether these bystander states play a role. We introduce new data on compliance, measured as whether losing countries make tangible domestic reforms to bring policy in line with WTO rulings. We show that compliance is significantly less likely in disputes with more third parties. Using a variety of estimation techniques, including controlling for nonrandom selection into legal rulings, we demonstrate a robust correlation between third party participation and noncompliance. Our findings highlight a risk of stringent enforcement and suggest that compliance problems threaten to undercut the operation of the multilateral trade regime. © 2021 by the Southern Political Science Association. All rights reserved.