Now showing items 5581-5600 of 14021

    • Initiation, Response, Follow-up and Beyond: Analyzing Dialogue Around Difficulty in a Tutorial Setting

      Jaeger, Elizabeth L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Teaching Learning & Sociocultural Studies (UNIV PITTSBURGH, UNIV LIBRARY SYSTEM, 2019)
      With the advent of Common Core-based assessments, and resulting concerns about academic achievement, more and more students may require the level of instructional intensity tutoring affords. The extent of knowledge regarding the discourse that occurs within the tutoring context is, however, limited. As a result, it is difficult to envision and implement a protocol that incorporates responsive tutor/tutee interaction. This article describes an analysis of discourse patterns that occur as a tutor responded to student difficulty. The study is framed using Bakhtin's concept of dialogue-the ways in which interactions are influenced by the joint speaker/listener identity that is characteristic of interlocutors-and the way this played out in a dialogic instructional context. Excerpts from eight previous tutoring studies served as a foundation for the present research. The primary data source for the analysis was start-to-finish audio-recordings of 40 hours of instruction with two fourth grade readers. After preliminary open coding, overarching categories such as questioning, providing information, and demonstrating strategy use-and more detailed codes within these categories-were applied to the transcripts. Major findings demonstrated that: (a) the tutor's moves were varied and balanced and differed somewhat from child to child, (b) some interactional sequences appeared more effective than others depending on the topic and child, and (c) interactions in this setting differed in important ways from those found in the research literature. I argue here that the dialogic characteristics of tutor/tutee interactions served the children involved and should serve as the basis for additional tutoring protocols.
    • Injection with toxoplasma gondii protein affects neuron health and survival

      Mendez, O.A.; Machado, E.F.; Lu, J.; Koshy, A.A.; Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona; College of Nursing, University of Arizona; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona; Department of Neurology, University of Arizona (eLife Sciences Publications Ltd, 2021)
      Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes a long-term latent infection of neurons. Using a custom MATLAB-based mapping program in combination with a mouse model that allows us to permanently mark neurons injected with parasite proteins, we found that Toxoplasma-injected neurons (TINs) are heterogeneously distributed in the brain, primarily localizing to the cortex followed by the striatum. In addition, we determined that cortical TINs are commonly (>50%) excitatory neurons (FoxP2+) and that striatal TINs are often (>65%) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) (FoxP2+). By performing single neuron patch-clamping on striatal TINs and neighboring uninfected MSNs, we discovered that TINs have highly aberrant electrophysiology. As approximately 90% of TINs will die by 8 weeks post-infection, this abnormal physiology suggests that injection with Toxoplasma protein— either directly or indirectly— affects neuronal health and survival. Collectively, these data offer the first insights into which neurons interact with Toxoplasma and how these interactions alter neuron physiology in vivo. © 2021, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Injection-Induced Earthquakes on Complex Fault Zones of the Raton Basin Illuminated by Machine-Learning Phase Picker and Dense Nodal Array

      Wang, Ruijia; Schmandt, Brandon; Zhang, Miao; Glasgow, Margaret; Kiser, Eric; Rysanek, Sarah; Stairs, Ryan; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-07)
      Seismicity in the Raton Basin over the past two decades suggests reactivation of basement faults due to waste-water injection. In the summer of 2018, 96 short period three-component nodal instruments were installed in a highly active region of the basin for a month. A machine-learning based phase picker (PhaseNet) was adopted and identified millions of picks, which were associated into events using an automated algorithm-REAL (Rapid Earthquake Association and Location). After hypocenter relocation with hypoDD, the earthquake catalog contains 9,259 M-L-2.2 to 3 earthquakes focused at depths of 4-6 km. Magnitude of completeness (Mc) varies from -1 at nighttime to -0.5 in daytime, likely reflecting noise variation modulated by wind. The clustered hypocenters with variable depths and focal mechanisms suggest a complex network of basement faults. Frequency-magnitude statistics and the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity are comparable to tectonic systems.
    • Injection-Locked, Single Frequency, Multi-core Yb-doped Phosphate Fiber Laser

      Demir, V; Akbulut, M; Nguyen, D T; Kaneda, Y; Neifeld, M; Peyghambarian, N; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-01-23)
      For the first time, we demonstrate injection locking and single frequency operation of a multi-core Yb-doped phosphate fiber laser (MCF). The 19 MCF laser cores operated in CW mode at 1030 nm. Each laser core was locked to the frequency and polarization of the single-frequency master laser, and produced milliwatts of power with similar lasing thresholds. The pump beam was homogenized with a simple technique to increase uniform lasing behavior of the cores. This behavior was verified using a MCF laser model developed in-house. This unique MCF laser can be useful for applications of coherent, coupled oscillator networks, for example in an all-optical coherent Ising machine configuration.
    • Injury talk: spontaneous parent–child conversations in the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event

      Alisic, Eva; Gunaratnam, Shaminka; Barrett, Anna; Conroy, Rowena; Jowett, Helen; Bressan, Silvia; Babl, Franz E; McClure, Roderick; Anderson, Vicki; Mehl, Matthias R; et al. (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-11)
      Background: While talking about traumatic experiences is considered central to psychological recovery, little is known about how these conversations occur in daily life. Objective: We investigated spontaneous injury talk among parents and children in the aftermath of a child's hospitalisation due to physical trauma, and its relationship with children's socioemotional functioning. Methods In a prospective naturalistic observation study, we audio-sampled the daily life of 71 families with the Electronically Activated Recorder after their child (3-16 years old) was discharged from hospital. We collected close to 20 000 snippets of audio information, which were double-coded for conversation characteristics, and measured children's socioemotional functioning with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 6 weeks and 3 months postinjury. Findings The children were involved in injury talk for, on average, 46 min/day, 9 min of which referred to emotions. Children had significantly more injury conversations with their mothers than with their fathers. The tone of injury conversations was significantly more positive than that of non-injury conversations. More direct injury talk was associated with fewer problems on the emotion subscale of the SDQ at 3 months. Other associations between aspects of injury talk and children's socioemotional functioning were mostly non-significant, although they appeared to be stronger at 3 months than at 6 weeks. Conclusions Families spontaneously talked about the injury and associated issues for about the same amount of time per day as a therapist might within a session (a 'therapy hour'). Clinical implications Making full use of naturally occurring injury talk may be a valuable direction for parent and family-focused post-injury interventions. However, the study design prevents causal inference, and further exploration is warranted.
    • Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

      Wilson, J. Keaton; Woods, H. Arthur; Univ Arizona, Ctr Insect Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-12-13)
      Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems.
    • Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite Farm Children

      Stein, Michelle M.; Hrusch, Cara L.; Gozdz, Justyna; Igartua, Catherine; Pivniouk, Vadim; Murray, Sean E.; Ledford, Julie G.; Marques dos Santos, Mauricius; Anderson, Rebecca L.; Metwali, Nervana; et al. (MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC, 2016-08-04)
      BACKGROUND The Amish and Hutterites are U.S. agricultural populations whose lifestyles are remarkably similar in many respects but whose farming practices, in particular, are distinct; the former follow traditional farming practices whereas the latter use industrialized farming practices. The populations also show striking disparities in the prevalence of asthma, and little is known about the immune responses underlying these disparities. METHODS We studied environmental exposures, genetic ancestry, and immune profiles among 60 Amish and Hutterite children, measuring levels of allergens and endotoxins and assessing the microbiome composition of indoor dust samples. Whole blood was collected to measure serum IgE levels, cytokine responses, and gene expression, and peripheral-blood leukocytes were phenotyped with flow cytometry. The effects of dust extracts obtained from Amish and Hutterite homes on immune and airway responses were assessed in a murine model of experimental allergic asthma. RESULTS Despite the similar genetic ancestries and lifestyles of Amish and Hutterite children, the prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization was 4 and 6 times as low in the Amish, whereas median endotoxin levels in Amish house dust was 6.8 times as high. Differences in microbial composition were also observed in dust samples from Amish and Hutterite homes. Profound differences in the proportions, phenotypes, and functions of innate immune cells were also found between the two groups of children. In a mouse model of experimental allergic asthma, the intranasal instillation of dust extracts from Amish but not Hutterite homes significantly inhibited airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia. These protective effects were abrogated in mice that were deficient in MyD88 and Trif, molecules that are critical in innate immune signaling. CONCLUSIONS The results of our studies in humans and mice indicate that the Amish environment provides protection against asthma by engaging and shaping the innate immune response.
    • The Inner 25 au Debris Distribution in the ϵ Eri System

      Su, Kate Y. L.; De Buizer, James M.; Rieke, George H.; Krivov, Alexander V.; Löhne, Torsten; Marengo, Massimo; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Ballering, Nicholas P.; Vacca, William D.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-04-25)
      Debris disk morphology is wavelength dependent due to the wide range of particle sizes and size-dependent dynamics influenced by various forces. Resolved images of nearby debris disks reveal complex disk structures that are difficult to distinguish from their spectral energy distributions. Therefore, multi-wavelength resolved images of nearby debris systems provide an essential foundation to understand the intricate interplay between collisional, gravitational, and radiative forces that govern debris disk structures. We present the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 35 mu m resolved disk image of is an element of Eri, the closest debris disk around a star similar to the early Sun. Combining with the Spitzer resolved image at 24 mu m and 15-38 mu m excess spectrum, we examine two proposed origins of the inner debris in is an element of Eri: (1) in situ planetesimal belt(s) and (2) dragged-in grains from the cold outer belt. We find that the presence of in situ dust-producing planetesmial belt(s) is the most likely source of the excess emission in the inner 25 au region. Although a small amount of dragged-in grains from the cold belt could contribute to the excess emission in the inner region, the resolution of the SOFIA data is high enough to rule out the possibility that the entire inner warm excess results from dragged-in grains, but not enough to distinguish one broad inner disk from two narrow belts.
    • The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

      Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-06-21)
      The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.
    • An Inner Disk in the Large Gap of the Transition Disk SR 24S

      Pinilla, Paola; Benisty, Myriam; Cazzoletti, Paolo; Harsono, Daniel; Pérez, Laura M.; Tazzari, Marco; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Dept Astron (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-06-07)
      We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 observations at 2.75 mm of the transition disk around SR 24S, with an angular resolution of similar to 0 ''.11 x 0 '' 09. and a peak signal-to-noise ratio of similar to 24. We detect an inner disk and a mostly symmetric ring-like structure that peaks at similar to 0 ''.32, which is similar to 37 au at a distance of similar to 114.4 pc. The full width at half maximum of this ring is similar to 28 au. We analyze the observed structures by fitting the dust continuum visibilities using different models for the intensity profile, and compare with previous ALMA observations of the same disk at 0.45 and 1.30 mm. We qualitatively compare the results of these fits with theoretical predictions of different scenarios for the formation of a cavity or large gap. The comparison of the dust continuum structure between different ALMA bands indicates that photoevaporation and the dead zone can be excluded as leading mechanisms for the cavity formation in the SR 24S disk, leaving the planet scenario (single or multiple planets) as the most plausible mechanism. We compared the 2.75 mm emission with published (sub) centimeter data and find that the inner disk is likely tracing dust thermal emission. This implies that any companion in the system should allow dust to move inwards throughout the gap and replenish the inner disk. In the case of one single planet, this puts strong constraints on the mass of the potential planet inside the cavity and the disk viscosity of about less than or similar to 5 M(Jup )and alpha similar to 10(-4)-10(-3), respectively.
    • Inner mean-motion resonances with eccentric planets: a possible origin for exozodiacal dust clouds

      Faramaz, V.; Ertel, S.; Booth, M.; Cuadra, J.; Simmonds, C.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Dept Astron (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-02-21)
      High levels of dust have been detected in the immediate vicinity of many stars, both young and old. A promising scenario to explain the presence of this short-lived dust is that these analogues to the zodiacal cloud (or exozodis) are refilled in situ through cometary activity and sublimation. As the reservoir of comets is not expected to be replenished, the presence of these exozodis in old systems has yet to be adequately explained. It was recently suggested that mean-motion resonances with exterior planets on moderately eccentric (e(p) greater than or similar to 0.1) orbits could scatter planetesimals on to cometary orbits with delays of the order of several 100 Myr. Theoretically, this mechanism is also expected to sustain continuous production of active comets once it has started, potentially over Gyr time-scales. We aim here to investigate the ability of this mechanism to generate scattering on to cometary orbits compatible with the production of an exozodi on long time-scales. We combine analytical predictions and complementary numerical N-body simulations to study its characteristics. We show, using order of magnitude estimates, that via this mechanism, low-mass discs comparable to the Kuiper belt could sustain comet scattering at rates compatible with the presence of the exozodis which are detected around Solar-type stars, and on Gyr time-scales. We also find that the levels of dust detected around Vega could be sustained via our proposed mechanism if an eccentric Jupiter-like planet were present exterior to the system's cold debris disc.
    • Inner structure- and surface-controlled hollow MnO nanocubes for high sensitive MR imaging contrast effect

      Kukreja, Aastha; Kang, Byunghoon; Han, Seungmin; Shin, Moo-Kwang; Son, Hye Young; Choi, Yuna; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Univ Arizona, Dept Surg (SPRINGER, 2020-05-12)
      Manganese oxide (MnO) nanocubes were fabricated and their surface were modified by ligand encapsulation or ligand exchange, to render them water-soluble. And then, MnO formed the hollow structure by etching using acidic solution (phthalate buffer, pH 4.0). Depending on the ligand of the MnO surface, it increases the interaction between MnO and water molecules. Also, the hollow structure of MnO, as well as the ligand, can greatly enhance the accessibility of water molecules to metal ions by surface area-to-volume ratio. These factors provide high R1 relaxation, leading to strong T1 MRI signal. We have confirmed T1-weighted MR contrast effect using 4-kinds of MnO nanocubes (MnOEn, MnOEnHo, MnOEx and MnOExHo). They showed enough a MR contrast effect and biocompatibility. Especially, among them, MnOExHo exhibited high T1 relaxivity (r1) (6.02 mM-1 s-1), even about 1.5 times higher sensitivity than commercial T1 MR contrast agents. In vitro/in vivo studies have shown that MnOExHo provides highly sensitive T1-weighted MR imaging, thereby improving diagnostic visibility at the disease site.
    • Innovation on the Reservation: Information Technology and Health Systems Research among the Papago Tribe of Arizona, 1965-1980

      Greene, Jeremy A.; Braitberg, Victor; Bernadett, Gabriella Maya; Univ Arizona, Honors Coll (UNIV CHICAGO PRESS, 2020-09)
      In May 1973 a new collaboration between NASA, the Indian Health Service, and the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company promised to transform the way members of the Papago (now Tohono O'odham) Tribe of southern Arizona accessed modern medicine. Through a system of state-of-the-art microwave relays, slow-scan television links, and Mobile Health Units, the residents of the third-largest American Indian reservation began to access physicians remotely via telemedical encounters instead of traveling to distant hospitals. Examining the history of the STARPAHC (Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care) project from the perspective of NASA and its contractors, from the perspective of the Indian Health Service, and from the perspective of O'odham engineers and health professionals offers a new focus, emphasizing the American Indian reservation as a site of medical research and technological development in the late twentieth century, with specific attention to the promise of information technology to address health disparities and the role of American Indians as actors in the late twentieth-century history of science, technology, and medicine.
    • Innovations to expand drone data collection and analysis for rangeland monitoring

      Gillan, J.K.; Ponce-Campos, G.E.; Swetnam, T.L.; Gorlier, A.; Heilman, P.; McClaran, M.P.; School of Natural Resources & Environment, University of Arizona; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2021)
      In adaptive management of rangelands, monitoring is the vital link that connects management actions with on-the-ground changes. Traditional field monitoring methods can provide detailed information for assessing the health of rangelands, but cost often limits monitoring locations to a few key areas or random plots. Remotely sensed imagery, and drone-based imagery in particular, can observe larger areas than field methods while retaining high enough spatial resolution to estimate many rangeland indicators of interest. However, the geographic extent of drone imagery products is often limited to a few hectares (for resolution ≤1 cm) due to image collection and processing constraints. Overcoming these limitations would allow for more extensive observations and more frequent monitoring. We developed a workflow to increase the extent and speed of acquiring, processing, and analyzing drone imagery for repeated monitoring of two common indicators of interest to rangeland managers: vegetation cover and vegetation heights. By incorporating a suite of existing technologies in drones (real-time kinematic GPS), data processing (automation with Python scripts, high performance computing), and cloud-based analysis (Google Earth Engine), we greatly increased the efficiency of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting high volumes of drone imagery for rangeland monitoring. End-to-end, our workflow took 30 d, while a workflow without these innovations was estimated to require 141 d to complete. The technology around drones and image analysis is rapidly advancing which is making high volume workflows easier to implement. Larger quantities of monitoring data will significantly improve our understanding of the impact management actions have on land processes and ecosystem traits. © 2021 The Authors.
    • Innovative Approaches to Emergency Medical Services Fellowship Challenges

      Weston, Benjamin; Gaither, Joshua; Schulz, Kevin; Srinivasan, Saranya; Smith, Jennifer; Colella, M. Riccardo; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Emergency Med (WESTJEM, 2020-02-21)
      Introduction: Since the development of an Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited emergency medical services (EMS) fellowship, there has been little published literature on effective methods of content delivery or training modalities. Here we explore a variety of innovative approaches to the development and revision of the EMS fellowship curriculum. Methods: Three academic, university-based ACGME-accredited EMS fellowship programs each implemented an innovative change to their existing training curricula. These changes included the following: a novel didactic curriculum delivery modality and evaluation; implementation of a distance education program to improve EMS fellows' rural EMS experiences; and modification of an existing EMS fellowship curriculum to train a non-emergency medicine physician. Results: Changes made to each of the above EMS fellowship programs addressed unique challenges, demonstrating areas of success and promise for more generalized implementation of these curricula. Obstacles remain in tailoring the described curricula to the needs of each unique institution and system. Conclusion: Three separate curricula and program changes were implemented to overcome specific challenges and achieve educational goals. It is our hope that our shared experiences will enable others in addressing common barriers to teaching the EMS fellowship core content and share similar innovative approaches to educational challenges.
    • Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

      Harshman, D. K.; Rao, B. M.; McLain, J. E.; Watts, G. S.; Yoon, J.-Y.; Biomedical Engineering Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, The University of Arizona; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center and Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona; Arizona Cancer Center and Department of Pharmacology, The University of Arizona; Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, The University of Arizona (AAAS, 2015-09-04)
      Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections.
    • Innovative software simulation techniques to design specular curved baffle designs in ground- and space-based telescopes

      Ding, Yitian; Bushroe, Frederick; Pau, Stanley; Gauvin, Michael; Univ Arizona, James C Wyant Coll Opt Sci (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-09-11)
      We investigated several curved vane baffle designs coated with specular black paint as an inexpensive manufacturing alternative to traditional diffuse baffles vanes to reduce stray light and heat due to absorption in a standard Cassegrain telescope design configuration. The heat absorption is a very large problem in infrared systems and the specular designs solve this part of the problem. Our study involved simulating two different types of baffle systems, diffuse and specular painted vanes on the main barrel baffle. The first type of baffle consisted of evenly and non-evenly spaced diffusely black coated straight planar vanes on the main barrel baffle and a second type using specular black paint on curved vanes. TracePro, a stray light simulation software from Lambda Research Corporation, was used to simulate and compare each of the nine baffle systems for stray light rejection. The diffuse black painted straight vane baffle design was used as the baseline design to compare results to the other eight designs. In all designs except for the baseline design, TracePro's local downhill simplex optimization method was used to optimize each vane curvature and spacing in the main barrel baffle to reject incoming stray light. These curved vanes were designed to reject stray light back out of the main barrel baffle rather than to be absorbed by diffuse black paint.
    • An Innovative United States–Mexico Community Outreach Initiative for Hispanic and Latino People in the United States: A Collaborative Public Health Network

      Flynn, Michael A.; Rodriguez Lainz, Alfonso; Lara, Juanita; Rosales, Cecilia; Feldstein, Federico; Dominguez, Ken; Wolkin, Amy; Sierra Medal, Ivan Roberto; Tonda, Josana; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-21)
      Collaborative partnerships are a useful approach to improve health conditions of disadvantaged populations. The Ventanillas de Salud (VDS) (“Health Windows”) and Mobile Health Units (MHUs) are a collaborative initiative of the Mexican government and US public health organizations that use mechanisms such as health fairs and mobile clinics to provide health information, screenings, preventive measures (eg, vaccines), and health services to Mexican people, other Hispanic people, and underserved populations (eg, American Indian/Alaska Native people, geographically isolated people, uninsured people) across the United States. From 2013 through 2019, the VDS served 10.5 million people (an average of 1.5 million people per year) at Mexican consulates in the United States, and MHUs served 115 461 people from 2016 through 2019. We describe 3 community outreach projects and their impact on improving the health of Hispanic people in the United States. The first project is an ongoing collaboration between VDS and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address occupational health inequities among Hispanic people. The second project was a collaboration between VDS and CDC to provide Hispanic people with information about Zika virus infection and health education. The third project is a collaboration between MHUs and the University of Arizona to provide basic health services to Hispanic communities in Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona. The VDS/MHU model uses a collaborative approach that should be further assessed to better understand its impact on both the US-born and non–US-born Hispanic population and the public at large in locations where it is implemented. © 2021, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health.
    • Inorganic and organic carbon and nitrogen uptake strategies of picoplankton groups in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean

      Berthelot, Hugo; Duhamel, Solange; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Maguer, Jean‐François; Cassar, Nicolas; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The University of Arizona (Wiley, 2021-08-13)
      Picoplankton populations dominate the planktonic community in the surface oligotrophic ocean. Yet, their strategies in the acquisition and the partitioning of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are poorly described. Here, we measured at the single-cell level the uptake of dissolved inorganic C (C-fixation), C-leucine, N-leucine, nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), and N-urea in pigmented and nonpigmented picoplankton groups at six low-N stations in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Our study highlights important differences in trophic strategies between Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, photosynthetic pico-eukaryotes, and nonpigmented prokaryotes. Nonpigmented prokaryotes were characterized by high leucine uptake rates, nonsignificant C-fixation and relatively low NH4+, N-urea, and NO3− uptake rates. Nonpigmented prokaryotes contributed to 7% ± 3%, 2% ± 2%, and 9% ± 5% of the NH4+, NO3−, and N-urea community uptake, respectively. In contrast, pigmented groups displayed relatively high C-fixation rates, NH4+ and N-urea uptake rates, but lower leucine uptake rates than nonpigmented prokaryotes. Synechococcus and photosynthetic pico-eukaryotes NO3− uptake rates were higher than Prochlorococcus ones. Pico-sized pigmented groups accounted for a significant fraction of the community C-fixation (63% ± 27%), NH4+ uptake (47% ± 27%), NO3− uptake (62% ± 49%), and N-urea uptake (81% ± 35%). Interestingly, Prochlorococcus and photosynthetic pico-eukaryotes showed a greater reliance on C- and N-leucine than Synechococcus on average, suggesting a greater reliance on organic C and N sources. Taken together, our single-cell results decipher the wide diversity of C and N trophic strategies between and within marine picoplankton groups, but a clear partitioning between pigmented and nonpigmented groups still remains.
    • Inpatient Burden and Mortality of Goodpasture's Syndrome in the United States: Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2003-2014

      Kaewput, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Boonpheng, Boonphiphop; Ungprasert, Patompong; Bathini, Tarun; Chewcharat, Api; Srivali, Narat; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Univ Arizona, Dept Internal Med (MDPI, 2020-02-06)
      Background: Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, small vessel vasculitis. Given its rarity, data on its inpatient burden and resource utilization are lacking. We conducted this study aiming to assess inpatient prevalence, mortality, and resource utilization of Goodpasture's syndrome in the United States. Methods: The 2003-2014 National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patients with a principal diagnosis of Goodpasture's syndrome. The inpatient prevalence, clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, end-organ failure, mortality, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization cost were studied. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 964 patients were admitted in hospital with Goodpasture's syndrome as the principal diagnosis, accounting for an overall inpatient prevalence of Goodpasture's syndrome among hospitalized patients in the United States of 10.3 cases per 1,000,000 admissions. The mean age of patients was 54 ± 21 years, and 47% were female; 52% required renal replacement therapy, whereas 39% received plasmapheresis during hospitalization. Furthermore, 78% had end-organ failure, with renal failure and respiratory failure being the two most common end-organ failures. The in-hospital mortality rate was 7.7 per 100 admissions. The factors associated with increased in-hospital mortality were age older than 70 years, sepsis, the development of respiratory failure, circulatory failure, renal failure, and liver failure, whereas the factors associated with decreased in-hospital mortality were more recent year of hospitalization and the use of therapeutic plasmapheresis. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days. The median hospitalization cost was $75,831. Conclusion: The inpatient prevalence of Goodpasture's syndrome in the United States is 10.3 cases per 1,000,000 admissions. Hospitalization of patients with Goodpasture's syndrome was associated with high hospital inpatient utilization and costs.