Now showing items 5611-5630 of 13761

    • Intraindividual Behavioral Variability Predicts Foraging Outcome in a Beach-dwelling Jumping Spider

      Lichtenstein, James L. L.; Chism, Gregory T.; Kamath, Ambika; Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Univ Arizona, Grad Interdisciplinary Program Entomol & Insect (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-12-22)
      Animal personality, defined as consistent differences between individuals in behavior, has been the subject of hundreds if not thousands of papers. However, little work explores the fitness consequences of variation in behavior within individuals, or intraindividual variability (IIV). We probe the effects of behavioral IIV on predator-prey interaction outcomes in beach-dwelling jumping spiders (Terralonus californicus). Prior studies have found that spiders with higher body condition (body mass relative to size) behave more variably. Thus, we hypothesized that jumping spider activity level IIV would relate positively to foraging performance. To address this, we tested for associations between activity IIV, average activity level, and two measures of foraging success in laboratory mesocosms: change in spider mass and the number of prey killed. Activity IIV positively correlated with the mass that spiders gained from prey, but not with the number of prey killed. This suggests that spiders with high IIV consumed a greater proportion of their prey or used less energy. Interestingly, average activity level (personality) predicted neither metric of foraging success, indicating that behavioral IIV can predict metrics of success that personality does not. Therefore, our findings suggest that IIV should be considered alongside personality in studies of predator-prey interactions.
    • Intraoperative visualization of plasmon resonant liposomes using augmented microscopy

      Watson, Jeffrey R.; Garland, Summer; Romanowski, Marek; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn; The Univ. of Arizona (United States); The Univ. of Arizona (United States); The Univ. of Arizona (United States) (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2017-02-08)
      Plasmon resonance associated with nanoparticles of gold can enable photothermal ablation of tissues or controlled drug release with exquisite temporal and spatial control. These technologies may support many applications of precision medicine. However, clinical implementations of these technologies will require new methods of intraoperative imaging and guidance. Near-infrared laser surgery is a prime example that relies on improved image guidance. Here we set forth applications of augmented microscopy in guiding surgical procedures employing plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes. Absorption of near-infrared laser light is the first step in activation of various diagnostic and therapeutic functions of these novel functional nanoparticles. Therefore, we demonstrate examples of near-infrared visualization of the laser beam and gold-coated liposomes. The augmented microscope proves to be a promisingimage guidance platform for a range of image-guided medical procedures.
    • Intraperitoneal injections as an alternative method for micro-CT contrast enhanced detection of murine liver tumors

      Sweeney, Nathan; Marchant, Stephen; Martinez, Jesse D; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Canc Biol Grad Interdisciplinary Program; Univ Arizona, Cell & Mol Med (FUTURE SCI LTD, 2019-05-03)
      Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) coupled with tissue, or vascular, specific contrast agent has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting and monitoring tumor growth in the liver of murine animals. Intravenous injections of contrast agents can be technically challenging and lead to errors that can considerably influence the outcome of a preclinical study, prompting an alternative method. Here we assessed the effectiveness of intraperitoneal injections of polyiodinated triglycerides emulsions (FenestraLC) in micro-CT imaging of young SCID (8 weeks) and old BALB/c (48 weeks) mice with xenograft or carcinogen-induced liver tumors, respectively, and determined an optimal acquisition time. Utilizing an intraperitoneal injection is a viable alternative administration route for using Fenestrain detection and quantification of murine liver tumor burden. METHOD SUMMARY We report that intraperitoneal injections of polyiodinated triglycerides emulsions are a suitable alternative to the intravenous administration route in detecting and quantifying murine liver tumor burden.
    • The Intraseasonal and Interannual Variability of Arctic Temperature and Specific Humidity Inversions

      Yu, Lejiang; Yang, Qinghua; Zhou, Mingyu; Zeng, Xubin; Lenschow, Donald H.; Wang, Xianqiao; Han, Bo; Univ Arizona, Dept Atmospher Sci (MDPI, 2019-04-22)
      Temperature and humidity inversions are common in the Arctic's lower troposphere, and are a crucial component of the Arctic's climate system. In this study, we quantify the intraseasonal oscillation of Arctic temperature and specific humidity inversions and investigate its interannual variability using data from the Surface Heat Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment from October 1997 to September 1998 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA)-interim for the 1979-2017 period. In January 1998, there were two noticeable elevated inversions and one surface inversion. The transitions between elevated and surface-based inversions were associated with the intraseasonal variability of the temperature and humidity differences between 850 and 950 hPa. The self-organizing map (SOM) technique is utilized to obtain the main modes of surface and elevated temperature and humidity inversions on intraseasonal time scales. Low (high) pressure and more (less) cloud cover are related to elevated (surface) temperature and humidity inversions. The frequency of strong (weak) elevated inversions over the eastern hemisphere has decreased (increased) in the past three decades. The wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD) during their positive phases have a significant effect on the occurrence of surface and elevated inversions for two Nodes only.
    • Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Congenital Parvovirus Myocarditis

      Kurland, Yonatan; Kylat, Ranjit I.; Johnson, Drew C.; Barber, Brent J.; Bedrick, Alan D.; Bader, Mohammad Y.; Univ Arizona, Arizona Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Pediat; Univ Arizona, Arizona Hlth Sci Ctr, Sect Neonatal Perinatal Med & Dev Biol; Univ Arizona, Arizona Hlth Sci Ctr, Sect Pediat Cardiol (GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, 2018-01-18)
      Congenital parvovirus infection has a diverse presentation ranging from asymptomatic infants to intrauterine demise secondary to red cell aplasia or myocarditis. Treatment is aimed at correcting anemia with intrauterine and postnatal transfusions. We report a case of fetal hydrops with severe atrioventricular regurgitation and myocardial dysfunction secondary to parvovirus infection in a preterm infant. Myocarditis and myocardial dysfunction responded to immunoglobulin administration.
    • Intravenous Immunoglobulin-Induced Pulmonary Embolism: It Is Time to Act!

      Bilal, Jawad; Riaz, Irbaz B; Hill, Jennifer L; Zangeneh, Tirdad T; Univ Arizona, Dept Internal Med (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016-08)
      Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common clinical problem affecting 600,000 patients per year in the United States. Although the diagnosis can be easily confirmed by imaging techniques, such as computed tomographic angiography of the chest, the identification of underlying mechanism leading to PE is important for appropriate duration of anticoagulation, and prevention of subsequent episodes. The differential diagnosis of underlying mechanism is broad and must include careful review of medication history. Drug-related thromboembolic disease can be easily missed and may have catastrophic consequences. The identification of the culprit drug is important for prevention of subsequent episodes and choosing appropriate duration of anticoagulation. We report a case of a middle-aged man who developed PE after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin.
    • Intravenous peramivir vs oral oseltamivir in high-risk emergency department patients with influenza: Results from a pilot randomized controlled study

      Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Dugas, Andrea F; LoVecchio, Frank; McBryde, Breana; Ricketts, Erin P; Saliba-Shaw, Kathryn; Rothman, Richard E; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Emergency Med (WILEY, 2020-10-02)
      Background Peramivir offers a single-dose intravenous (IV) treatment option for influenza (vs 5-day oral dosing for oseltamivir). We sought to compare outcomes of emergency department (ED) patients at high risk for influenza complications treated with IV peramivir vs oral oseltamivir. Methods During the 2015-16 and 2016-17 influenza seasons, adult patients in two US EDs were randomized to either oral oseltamivir or IV peramivir treatment group. Eligibility included positive molecular influenza test; met CDC criteria for antiviral treatment; able to provide informed consent and agree to follow-up assessment. Outcomes were measured by clinical end-point indicators, including FLU-PRO Score, Ordinal Scale, Patient Global Impression on Severity Score, and Karnofsky Performance Scale for 14 days. Non-inferiorttest was performed to assess comparative outcomes between the two groups. Results Five hundred and seventy-five (68%) of 847 influenza-positive patients were approached. Two hundred and eighty-four met enrollment criteria and 179 were enrolled; of these 95 (53%) were randomized to peramivir, and 84 to oseltamivir. Average FLU-PRO score at baseline was similar (peramivir: 2.67 vs oseltamivir: 2.52); the score decreased over time for both groups (day 5: peramivir: 1.71 vs oseltamivir: 1.62; day 10: peramivir: 1.48 vs oseltamivir: 1.37; day 14: peramivir: 1.40 vs oseltamivir: 1.33; allP < .05 for significantly non-inferior). Influenza-related complications were similar between two groups (All: peramivir: 31% vs oseltamivir: 21%,P > .05; pneumonia: peramivir: 11% vs oseltamivir: 14%,P > .05). Conclusions Clinical outcomes of influenza-infected patients treated with single-dose IV peramivir were comparable to those treated with oral oseltamivir, suggesting potential utility of peramivir for influenza-infected patients in the ED.
    • Intra‐Annual Climate Anomalies in Northwestern North America Following the 1783–1784 CE Laki Eruption

      Edwards, Julie; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Zambri, Brian; Andreu‐Hayles, Laia; Oelkers, Rose; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; von Arx, Georg; School of Geography, Development, and Environment, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-12-14)
      The 1783–1784 CE Laki eruption in Iceland was one of the largest, in terms of the mass of SO2 emitted, high-latitude eruptions in the last millennium, but the seasonal and regional climate response was heterogeneous in space and time. Although the eruption did not begin until early June, tree-ring maximum latewood density (MXD) reconstructions from Alaska suggest that the entire 1783 summer was extraordinarily cold. We use high-resolution quantitative wood anatomy, climate model simulations, and proxy systems modeling to resolve the intra-annual climate effects of the Laki eruption on temperatures over northwestern North America. We measured wood anatomical characteristics of white spruce (Picea glauca) trees from two northern Alaska sites. Earlywood cell characteristics of the 1783 ring are normal, while latewood cell wall thickness is significantly and anomalously reduced compared to non-eruption years. Combined with complementary evidence from climate model experiments and proxy systems modeling, these features indicate an abrupt and premature cessation of cell wall thickening due to a rapid temperature decrease toward the end of the growing season. Reconstructions using conventional annual resolution MXD likely over-estimate total growing season cooling in this year, while ring width fails to capture this abrupt late-summer volcanic signal. Our study has implications not only for the interpretation of the climatic impacts of the Laki eruption in North America, but more broadly demonstrates the importance of timing and internal variability when comparing proxy temperature reconstructions and climate model simulations. It further demonstrates the value of developing cellular-scale tree-ring proxy measurements for paleoclimatology. © 2020. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
    • The Intricate Structure of HH 508, the Brightest Microjet in the Orion Nebula

      Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-02-21)
      We present Magellan adaptive optics Ha imaging of HH 508, which has the highest surface brightness among protostellar jets in the Orion Nebula. We find that HH 508 actually has a shorter component to the west, and a longer and knotty component to the east. The east component has a kink at 0.'' 3 from the jet-driving star theta(1) Ori B-2, so it may have been deflected by the wind/radiation from the nearby theta(1) Ori B1B5. The origin of both components is unclear, but if each of them is a separate jet, then theta(1) Ori B-2 may be a tight binary. Alternatively, HH 508 may be a slow-moving outflow, and each component represents an illuminated cavity wall. The ionization front surrounding theta(1) Ori B2B3 does not directly face theta(1) Ori B1B5, suggesting that the EUV radiation from theta(1) Ori C plays a dominant role in affecting the morphology of proplyds even in the vicinity of theta(1) Ori B1B5. Finally, we report an Ha blob that might be ejected by the binary proplyd LV 1.
    • Intrinsic alignment in redMaPPer clusters – II. Radial alignment of satellites towards cluster centres

      Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E; Chen, Yen-Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-03)
      We study the orientations of satellite galaxies in redMaPPer clusters constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at 0.1 < z < 0.35 to determine whether there is any preferential tendency for satellites to point radially towards cluster centres. We analyse the satellite alignment (SA) signal based on three shape measurement methods (re-Gaussianization, de Vaucouleurs, and isophotal shapes), which trace galaxy light profiles at different radii. The measured SA signal depends on these shape measurement methods. We detect the strongest SA signal in isophotal shapes, followed by de Vaucouleurs shapes. While no net SA signal is detected using re-Gaussianization shapes across the entire sample, the observed SA signal reaches a statistically significant level when limiting to a subsample of higher luminosity satellites. We further investigate the impact of noise, systematics, and real physical isophotal twisting effects in the comparison between the SA signal detected via different shape measurement methods. Unlike previous studies, which only consider the dependence of SA on a few parameters, here we explore a total of 17 galaxy and cluster properties, using a statistical model averaging technique to naturally account for parameter correlations and identify significant SA predictors. We find that the measured SA signal is strongest for satellites with the following characteristics: higher luminosity, smaller distance to the cluster centre, rounder in shape, higher bulge fraction, and distributed preferentially along the major axis directions of their centrals. Finally, we provide physical explanations for the identified dependences and discuss the connection to theories of SA.
    • Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters – I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites

      Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen-Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Baxter, Eric J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-11-21)
      The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94 817 members within 0.1 < z < 0.35, based on the red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes and the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centring probability, and redder colour. Satellites with redder colour, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation towards their central galaxy major axes. Finally, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.
    • The Intrinsic Characteristics of Galaxies on the SFR–M ∗ Plane at 1.2 < z < 4: I. The Correlation between Stellar Age, Central Density, and Position Relative to the Main Sequence

      Lee, Bomee; Giavalisco, Mauro; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Williams, Christina C.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Koekemoer, A.; Straughn, Amber N.; Guo, Yicheng; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-01-31)
      We use the deep CANDELS observations in the GOODS North and South fields to revisit the correlations between stellar mass (M-*), star formation rate (SFR) and morphology, and to introduce a fourth dimension, the mass-weighted stellar age, in galaxies at 1.2 < z < 4. We do this by making new measures of M-*, SFR, and stellar age thanks to an improved SED fitting procedure that allows various star formation history for each galaxy. Like others, we find that the slope of the main sequence (MS) of star formation in the (M-*; SFR) plane bends at high mass. We observe clear morphological differences among galaxies across the MS, which also correlate with stellar age. At all redshifts, galaxies that are quenching or quenched, and thus old, have high Sigma(1) (the projected density within the central 1 kpc), while younger, star-forming galaxies span a much broader range of Sigma(1), which includes the high values observed for quenched galaxies, but also extends to much lower values. As galaxies age and quench, the stellar age and the dispersion of Sigma(1) for fixed values of M* shows two different regimes: one at the low-mass end, where quenching might be driven by causes external to the galaxies; the other at the high-mass end, where quenching is driven by internal causes, very likely the mass given the low scatter of Sigma(1) (mass quenching). We suggest that the monotonic increase of central density as galaxies grow is one manifestation of a more general phenomenon of structural transformation that galaxies undergo as they evolve.
    • THE INTRINSIC EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

      Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Goulding, Andy D.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-07-14)
      An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.
    • The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

      Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-05-25)
      The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at similar to 20 mu m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a. minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at lambda similar to 20-100 mu m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.
    • The intrinsic reddening of the Magellanic Clouds as traced by background galaxies – I. The bar and outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

      Bell, Cameron P M; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Wright, A H; Rubele, Stefano; Nidever, David L; Tatton, Ben L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Ivanov, Valentin D; Subramanian, Smitha; Oliveira, Joana M; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-08-23)
      We present a method to map the total intrinsic reddening of a foreground extinguishing medium via the analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of background galaxies. In this pilot study, we implement this technique in two distinct regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) – the bar and the southern outskirts – using a combination of optical and near-infrared ugrizYJKs broad-band imaging. We adopt the lephare χ2-minimization SED-fitting routine and various samples of galaxies and/or quasi-stellar objects to investigate the intrinsic reddening. We find that only when we construct reddening maps using objects classified as galaxies with low levels of intrinsic reddening (i.e. ellipticals/lenticulars and early-type spirals), the resultant maps are consistent with previous literature determinations, i.e. the intrinsic reddening of the SMC bar is higher than that in the outer environs. We employ two sets of galaxy templates – one theoretical and one empirical – to test for template dependences in the resulting reddening maps and find that the theoretical templates imply systematically higher reddening values by up to 0.20 mag in E(B − V). A comparison with previous reddening maps, based on the stellar components of the SMC, typically shows reasonable agreement. There is, however, significant variation amongst the literature reddening maps as to the level of intrinsic reddening associated with the bar. Thus, it is difficult to unambiguously state that instances of significant discrepancies are the result of appreciable levels of dust not accounted for in some literature reddening maps or whether they reflect issues with our adopted methodology.
    • The intrinsic reddening of the Magellanic Clouds as traced by background galaxies – II. The Small Magellanic Cloud

      Bell, Cameron P M; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Wright, A H; Rubele, Stefano; Nidever, David L; Tatton, Ben L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Zaritsky, Dennis; Choi, Yumi; Choudhury, Samyaday; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-09-21)
      We present a map of the total intrinsic reddening across similar or equal to 34 deg(2) of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) derived using optical (ugriz) and near-infrared (IR; YJK(s)) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of background galaxies. The reddening map is created using a subsample of 29 274 galaxies with low levels of intrinsic reddening based on the LEPHARE chi(2) minimization SED-fitting routine. We find statistically significant enhanced levels of reddening associated with the main body of the SMC compared with regions in the outskirts [Delta E(B - V) similar or equal to 0.3 mag]. A comparison with literature reddening maps of the SMC shows that, after correcting for differences in the volume of the SMC sampled, there is good agreement between our results and maps created using young stars. In contrast, we find significant discrepancies between our results and maps created using old stars or based on longer wavelength far-IR dust emission that could stem from biased samples in the former and uncertainties in the far-IR emissivity and the optical properties of the dust grains in the latter. This study represents one of the first large-scale categorizations of extragalactic sources behind the SMC and as such we provide the LEPHARE outputs for our full sample of similar to 500 000 sources.
    • Intrinsically disordered RGG/RG domains mediate degenerate specificity in RNA binding

      Ozdilek, Bagdeser A.; Thompson, Valery F.; Ahmed, Nasiha S.; White, Connor I.; Batey, Robert T.; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem; Univ Arizona, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-07-27)
      RGG/RG domains are the second most common RNA binding domain in the human genome, yet their RNA-binding properties remain poorly understood. Here, we report a detailed analysis of the RNA binding characteristics of intrinsically disordered RGG/RG domains from Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), FMRP and hnRNPU. For FUS, previous studies defined RNA binding as mediated by its well-folded domains; however, we show that RGG/RG domains are the primary mediators of binding. RGG/RG domains coupled to adjacent folded domains can achieve affinities approaching that of full-length FUS. Analysis of RGG/RG domains from FUS, FMRP and hnRNPU against a spectrum of contrasting RNAs reveals that each display degenerate binding specificity, while still displaying different degrees of preference for RNA.
    • Introducing Explorer of Taxon Concepts with a case study on spider measurement matrix building

      Cui, Hong; Xu, Dongfang; Chong, Steven S.; Ramirez, Martin; Rodenhausen, Thomas; Macklin, James A.; Ludäscher, Bertram; Morris, Robert A.; Soto, Eduardo M.; Koch, Nicolás Mongiardino; et al. (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2016-11-17)
      Background: Taxonomic descriptions are traditionally composed in natural language and published in a format that cannot be directly used by computers. The Exploring Taxon Concepts (ETC) project has been developing a set of web-based software tools that convert morphological descriptions published in telegraphic style to character data that can be reused and repurposed. This paper introduces the first semi-automated pipeline, to our knowledge, that converts morphological descriptions into taxon-character matrices to support systematics and evolutionary biology research. We then demonstrate and evaluate the use of the ETC Input Creation - Text Capture - Matrix Generation pipeline to generate body part measurement matrices from a set of 188 spider morphological descriptions and report the findings. Results: From the given set of spider taxonomic publications, two versions of input (original and normalized) were generated and used by the ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation tools. The tools produced two corresponding spider body part measurement matrices, and the matrix from the normalized input was found to be much more similar to a gold standard matrix hand-curated by the scientist co-authors. Special conventions utilized in the original descriptions (e.g., the omission of measurement units) were attributed to the lower performance of using the original input. The results show that simple normalization of the description text greatly increased the quality of the machine-generated matrix and reduced edit effort. The machine-generated matrix also helped identify issues in the gold standard matrix. Conclusions: ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation are low-barrier and effective tools for extracting measurement values from spider taxonomic descriptions and are more effective when the descriptions are self-contained. Special conventions that make the description text less self contained challenge automated extraction of data from biodiversity descriptions and hinder the automated reuse of the published knowledge. The tools will be updated to support new requirements revealed in this case study.
    • Introducing Social Breathing: A Model of Engaging in Relational Systems

      Kaiser, N.; Butler, E.; Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
      We address what it means to “engage in a relationship” and suggest Social Breathing as a model of immersing ourselves in the metaphorical social air around us, which is necessary for shared intention and joint action. We emphasize how emergent properties of social systems arise, such as the shared culture of groups, which cannot be reduced to the individuals involved. We argue that the processes involved in Social Breathing are: (1) automatic, (2) implicit, (3) temporal, (4) in the form of mutual bi-directional interwoven exchanges between social partners and (5) embodied in the coordination of the brains and behaviors of social partners. We summarize cross-disciplinary evidence suggesting that these processes involve a multi-person whole-brain-body network which is critical for the development of both we-ness and relational skills. We propose that Social Breathing depends on each individual’s ability to sustain multimodal interwovenness, thus providing a theoretical link between social neuroscience and relational/multi-person psychology. We discuss how the model could guide research on autism, relationships, and psychotherapy. © Copyright © 2021 Kaiser and Butler.
    • Introducing Spatially Distributed Fire Danger from Earth Observations (FDEO) Using Satellite-Based Data in the Contiguous United States

      Farahmand, Alireza; Stavros, E. Natasha; Reager, John T.; Behrangi, Ali; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (MDPI, 2020-04-16)
      Wildfire danger assessment is essential for operational allocation of fire management resources; with longer lead prediction, the more efficiently can resources be allocated regionally. Traditional studies focus on meteorological forecasts and fire danger index models (e.g., National Fire Danger Rating System-NFDRS) for predicting fire danger. Meteorological forecasts, however, lose accuracy beyond 10 days; as such, there is no quantifiable method for predicting fire danger beyond 10 days. While some recent studies have statistically related hydrologic parameters and past wildfire area burned or occurrence to fire, no study has used these parameters to develop a monthly spatially distributed predictive model in the contiguous United States. Thus, the objective of this study is to introduce Fire Danger from Earth Observations (FDEO), which uses satellite data over the contiguous United States (CONUS) to enable two-month lead time prediction of wildfire danger, a sufficient lead time for planning purposes and relocating resources. In this study, we use satellite observations of land cover type, vapor pressure deficit, surface soil moisture, and the enhanced vegetation index, together with the United States Forest Service (USFS) verified and validated fire database (FPA) to develop spatially gridded probabilistic predictions of fire danger, defined as expected area burned as a deviation from "normal". The results show that the model predicts spatial patterns of fire danger with 52% overall accuracy over the 2004-2013 record, and up to 75% overall accuracy during the fire season. Overall accuracy is defined as number of pixels with correctly predicted fire probability classes divided by the total number of the studied pixels. This overall accuracy is the first quantified result of two-month lead prediction of fire danger and demonstrates the potential utility of using diverse observational data sets for use in operational fire management resource allocation in the CONUS.