Now showing items 5692-5711 of 13760

    • Is It Really SUMP Syndrome? A Case Report

      Suliman, Mohamed S; Singh, Monider M; Zaheer, Kamran; Malik, Saad Ullah; Abu-Hashyeh, Ahmad; Univ Arizona, Hematol & Oncol (CUREUS INC, 2019-10-04)
      Sump syndrome is a rare, long-term complication with a prevalence ranging from 0% to 9.6% in patients with a history of side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy. Choledochoduodenostomy was originally performed to achieve drainage of the common bile duct in high-risk patients with low morbidity, which was commonly done in the pre-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography era. “Sump” comes from the segment of the common bile duct between the anastomosis and the ampulla of Vater, which acts as a stagnant reservoir for debris, stones, and static bile. This predisposes patients to changes in the biliary tree with signs and symptoms in relation to that area. If left untreated, cholangitis, pancreatitis, hepatic abscesses, and secondary biliary cirrhosis can develop. Here, we have a case of a 77-year-old male with a history significant for choledochoduodenostomy, who presented with the clinical signs and symptoms of pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, and urinary tract infection. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings revealed choledocholithiasis and an enlarged common bile duct with smaller adjacent calculi along with pneumobilia consistent with sump syndrome. The patient’s clinical status improved without invasive measures being taken, i.e. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. He was subsequently discharged home after improving clinically and no invasive measures were pursued.
    • Is Plant Fitness Proportional to Seed Set? An Experiment and a Spatial Model

      Campbell, Diane R.; Brody, Alison K.; Price, Mary V.; Waser, Nickolas M.; Aldridge, George; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (UNIV CHICAGO PRESS, 2017-12)
      Individual differences in fecundity often serve as proxies for differences in overall fitness, especially when it is difficult to track the fate of an individual's offspring to reproductive maturity. Using fecundity may be biased, however, if density-dependent interactions between siblings affect survival and reproduction of offspring from high- and low-fecundity parents differently. To test for such density-dependent effects in plants, we sowed seeds of the wildflower Ipomopsis aggregata (scarlet gilia) to mimic partially overlapping seed shadows of pairs of plants, one of which produced twice as many seeds. We tested for differences in offspring success using a genetic marker to track offspring to flowering multiple years later. Without density dependence, the high-fecundity parent should produce twice as many surviving offspring. We also developed a model that considered the geometry of seed shadows and assumed limited survivors so that the number of juvenile recruits is proportional to the area. Rather than a ratio of 2:1 offspring success from high- versus low-fecundity parents, our model predicted a ratio of 1.42:1, which would translate into weaker selection. Empirical ratios of juvenile offspring and of flowers produced conformed well to the model's prediction. Extending the model shows how spatial relationships of parents and seed dispersal patterns modify inferences about relative fitness based solely on fecundity.
    • Is Public Management Neglecting the State?

      Milward, Brint; Jensen, Laura; Roberts, Alasdair; Dussauge-Laguna, Mauricio I.; Junjan, Veronica; Torenvlied, Rene; Boin, Arjen; Colebatch, H. K.; Kettl, Donald; Durant, Robert; et al. (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-07)
      Public management is a domain of research that is now roughly three decades old. Researchers in this area have made important advances in understanding about the performance of public organizations. But questions have been raised about the scope and methods of public management research (PMR). Does it neglect important questions about the development of major institutions of the modern state? Has it focused unduly on problems of the advanced democracies? Has it made itself irrelevant to public debates about the role and design of government, and the capacity of public institutions to deal with emerging challenges? This set of eight short essays were prepared for a roundtable held at the research conference of the PMR Association at the University of Aarhus in June 2016. Contributors were asked to consider the question: Is PMR neglecting the state?
    • Is there a context-dependent advantage of extra-pair mating in Tree Swallows?

      Belmaker, Amos; Hallinger, Kelly K.; Glynn, Rebecca A.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Winkler, David W.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (AMER ORNITHOLOGISTS UNION, 2018-10)
      The "good-genes'' hypothesis to explain female extra-pairmating states that females benefit from this behavior by acquiring better genes for their offspring. Despite extensive research, results are mixed, and the predictions of the good-genes hypothesis have beenmet in fewer than half of published papers. One possible explanation for this lack of consensus is that the benefits of extra-pair copulation are context-dependent. Here we use chick size, the probability of fledging, and telomeres, the protective caps of chromosomes, as markers for individual quality. Telomere length (TelL) integrates across many stressors and covaries with probability of survival and reproductive success. To test whether benefits to extra-pair (EP) matings are context-dependent we look at the telomere length of extra-pair and within-pair offspring (EPO and WPO, respectively) reared either in experimentally enlarged broods or in broods left at their natural size. We predicted that EPO would have longer telomeres than WPO, and that this difference would be more pronounced among nutritionally limited nestlings reared in enlarged broods. Contrary to our predictions, EP status did not predict chick size or TelL of nestlings reared in either treatment group. EPO from enlarged broods had a higher probability of fledging than similarly reared WPO, but this effect was only seen after a separate analysis per group and not in the full model. Even though these results give mixed support to the good-genes hypothesis they also highlight the difficulty in choosing the proper metric and context.
    • Is Tropical Cyclone Surge, Not Intensity, What Kills So Many People in South Asia?

      Seo, S. Niggol; Bakkensen, Laura A.; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy; Muaebak Institute of Global Warming Studies, Seoul, South Korea; School of Government and Public Policy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC, 2017-04)
      This paper statistically examines the hypothesis that the level of storm surge, not storm intensity, is primarily responsible for the large number of tropical cyclone fatalities in SouthAsia. Because the potential causal link between intensity and surge can confound statistical inference, the authors develop two fatality models using different assumptions on the relationship between storm surge and intensity. The authors find evidence that storm surge is a primary killer of people in South Asia relative to storm intensity. In a surge-pressure independence model, it is found that a 10-cm increase in storm surge results in a 14% increase in the number of fatalities. In a surge-pressure dependence model, a 10-cm increase in the level of surge not driven by minimumcentral pressure (MCP) leads to 9.9% increase in the number of fatalities. By contrast, a one-millibar (1 hPa) decrease in MCP leads to a 7.3% increase in the number of fatalities, some of which is also attributable to storm surge. In South Asia, adaptation strategies should target a higher level of storm surge instead of higher-intensity storms. Policies to combat surge include permanent relocation, temporary evacuation, changes in building structures, and coastal fortification.
    • Is tuberculosis health education reaching the public in China? A cross-sectional survey in Guizhou Province

      Chen, Wei; Li, Yang; Yang, Haiqin; Ehiri, John; Chen, Zaiping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Mei; Liu, Shili; Tang, He; Li, Ying; et al. (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-09-26)
      Background: Knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) is important for TB control, and China's national TB control guidelines emphasise TB health promotion. A 2010 national TB epidemiology survey showed that the general public had limited knowledge and awareness of TB. Objective: To assess the level of TB knowledge after 5 years of TB health promotion in Guizhou Province, one of the regions with the highest TB burden in China. Design and setting: A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10 237 residents of Guizhou Province from June to August 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with core TB knowledge and TB health education among respondents. Results: Overall, residents of Guizhou Province had inadequate knowledge of TB. The overall awareness of TB was 41.5%. Less than 30% of respondents were familiar with China's policy of free treatment for TB or knew that the disease could be cured. Factors associated with core TB knowledge included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, region, and having received TB health education. Women, older adults, people employed in non-government institutions, and those living in counties with low TB burdens had little access to TB health education, whereas people with higher education levels had greater access. Respondents' sources of TB knowledge did not necessarily match their preferred channels for delivery of TB health education. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that TB health education should be further strengthened in China and other countries with a high TB burden. TB health education programmes require further formative and implementation research in order to improve programme effectiveness.
    • Ischemic lesions, blood pressure dysregulation, and poor outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage

      Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Rosand, Jonathan; Norato, Gina; Dixon, Simone; Worrall, Bradford B.; James, Michael L.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Osborne, Jennifer; Vashkevich, Anastasia; et al. (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017-02-21)
      Objective: To evaluate the associations among diffusion- weighted imaging (DWI) lesions, blood pressure (BP) dysregulation, MRI markers of small vessel disease, and poor outcome in a large, prospective study of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: The Ethnic/ Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study is a multicenter, observational study of ICH among white, black, and Hispanic patients. Results: Of 600 patients, mean (6SD) age was 60.8 6 13.6 years, median (interquartile range) ICH volume was 9.1 mL (3.5- 20.8), and 79.6% had hypertension. Overall, 26.5% of cases had DWI lesions, and this frequency differed by race/ ethnicity (black 33.8%, Hispanic 24.9%, white 20.2%, overall p 5 0.006). A logistic regression model of variables associated with DWI lesions included lower age (odds ratio [ OR] 0.721, p 5 0.002), higher first recorded systolic BP (10- unit OR 1.12, p 5 0.002), greater change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) prior to the MRI (10- unit OR 1.10, p 5 0.037), microbleeds (OR 1.99, p 5 0.008), and higher white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score (1- unit OR 1.16, p 5 0.002) after controlling for race/ ethnicity, leukocyte count, and acute in- hospital antihypertensive treatment. A second model of variables associated with poor 90- day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale scores 4- 6) included DWI lesion count (OR 1.085, p 5 0.034) as well as age, ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale score, WMH score, race/ ethnicity, acute in- hospital antihypertensive treatment, and ICH location. Conclusions: These results support the hypotheses that acute BP dysregulation is associated with the development of DWI lesions in primary ICH and that DWI lesions are, in turn, associated with poor outcomes. Neurology r 2017; 88: 782- 788
    • Island biogeography and ecological modeling of the amblypygid Phrynus marginemaculatus in the Florida Keys archipelago

      Chapin, Kenneth J.; Winkler, Daniel E.; Wiencek, Patrick; Agnarsson, Ingi; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2018-09)
      Aim The biogeography of terrestrial organisms across the Florida Keys archipelago is poorly understood. We used population genetics and spatioecological modeling of the Amblypygi Phrynus marginemaculatus to understand the genetic structure and metapopulation dynamics of Keys populations that are otherwise isolated by human development and ocean. LocationMethodsThe Florida Keys archipelago and mainland Florida. We sequenced a 1,238bp fragment of mtDNA for 103 individuals of P.marginemaculatus from 13 sites in the Florida Keys and South Florida, binned into four regions. We used population genetic analyses to understand the population structure of the species throughout its US range. Furthermore, we used ecological modeling with climate, habitat, and human development data to develop habitat suitability estimates for the species. ResultsMain conclusionsWe found clear genetic structure between localities. The Lower Keys, in particular, support populations separate from those in other regions studied. Ecological modeling and genetic analyses showed the highest habitat suitability and genetic isolation in the Lower Keys, but urban development across the species range has resulted in the loss of most historical habitat. A mainland-metapopulation model best fits P.marginemaculatus gene flow patterns in the Florida Keys and mainland. Ocean currents likely play a role in metapopulation dynamics and gene flow for terrestrial Keys species like P.marginemaculatus, and genetic patterns also matched patterns consistent with geologic history. Suitable habitat, however, is limited and under threat of human destruction. The few remaining pockets of the most suitable habitat tend to occur in parks and protected areas. We argue that conservation efforts for this species and others in the terrestrial Florida Keys would benefit from a deeper understanding of the population genetic structure and ecology of the archipelago.
    • Islands in the desert for cavity‐nesting bees and wasps: Ecology, patterns of diversity, and conservation at oases of Baja California Peninsula

      Falcón‐Brindis, Armando; Jiménez Jiménez, María Luisa; Rodríguez‐Estrella, Ricardo; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (WILEY, 2019-12-17)
      Aims The oases of Baja California Peninsula (BCP) have been proposed as important hotspots of biodiversity that hold an exceptional richness in the middle of desert conditions. We tested the effect of habitat and anthropogenic disturbance on communities of cavity-nesting taxa, with specific emphasis on bees, wasps, and their natural enemies. Methods In oases of BCP and desert neighbor environments, trap-nesting taxa were evaluated in response to factors affecting the nest abundance, richness, and community structure. We used statistical models to find correlates of nest abundance and patterns of diversity, as well as ecological analyses to determine the effect of habitat and human disturbance on species diversity and community structure. Results Solar irradiation, distance to a perennial waterbody and relative humidity influenced the presence of nests, number of brood cells, and parasitism. In general, abundance, species richness, and parasitism were higher in oases, especially in those with less human disturbance. Bees did not discriminate between oases and deserts to nest, whereas mud-daubing wasps were more dependent of oases. The degree of anthropogenic disturbance did not affect the occurrence of parasitism, but it had an adverse effect on the parasitism intensity (number of attacked cells). The community structure was more complex and even in oases and low-disturbed sites. The similarity between sites did not exceed 30%, and the proportion of shared species between oases and deserts varied from 2.7% to 26.6%. Main conclusions The oases of Baja California are functioning as mesic islands in the desert, each oasis hosting a unique community of cavity-nesting taxa. About 65% of the nests and 50% of species occurred exclusively in the oasis. Thus, cavity-nesting species that depend on mesic conditions could be threatened if the oases of BCP disappear in the future. Local conditions in the oases and deserts of the BCP are shaping the community structure. However, large-scale factors such as climate can influence the seasonality and occurrence of species within the community of cavity-nesting dwellers. Since habitat loss and fragmentation can degrade the oases' functionality, strategies to maintain the ecosystem services of pollination and biological control should be included in the conservation programs of these fragile habitats.
    • Islands of ice on Mars and Pluto

      Sori, Michael M.; Bapst, Jonathan; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019)
      Ice sheets, such as the polar layered deposits (PLDs) of Mars, are of great interest as records of past climate. Smaller outlier ice deposits near the north and south PLDs are likely more sensitive to climate changes and thus may hold information about more recent climate history. However, the southern outlier deposits have largely remained unmapped and unanalyzed. Here, we identify 31 deposits near, but separated from, Mars's south PLDs, all of which are located within impact craters >15 km in diameter. On the basis of morphology, radar analysis, physical similarity to portions of the PLD margin, and overall similarity to previously described deposits in Mars's north polar region, we conclude that these deposits are primarily composed of water ice. An additional 66 craters contain smaller depositional features, some of which may be remnant ice deposits. The 31 outlier ice deposits represent a previously unquantified inventory of water on Mars, with a total volume between 15,000 and 38,000 km(3). In addition, we identify five analogous outlier nitrogen ice deposits located within impact craters near Sputnik Planitia, the large nitrogen ice sheet on Pluto. Although important differences exist between Mars and Pluto, broad physical similarities between the two cases suggest that the topography and microclimates of impact craters cause them to be favorable locations for volatile accumulation and/or retention throughout the Solar System.
    • Islet adaptations in fetal sheep persist following chronic exposure to high norepinephrine.

      Chen, Xiaochuan; Kelly, Amy C; Yates, Dustin T; Macko, Antoni R; Lynch, Ronald M; Limesand, Sean W; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Physiol (BIOSCIENTIFICA LTD, 2017-02)
      Complications in pregnancy elevate fetal norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Previous studies in NE-infused sheep fetuses revealed that sustained exposure to high NE resulted in lower expression of α2-adrenergic receptors in islets and increased insulin secretion responsiveness after acutely terminating the NE infusion. In this study, we determined if the compensatory increase in insulin secretion after chronic elevation of NE is independent of hyperglycemia in sheep fetuses and whether it is persistent in conjunction with islet desensitization to NE. After an initial assessment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) at 129 ± 1 days of gestation, fetuses were continuously infused for seven days with NE and maintained at euglycemia with a maternal insulin infusion. Fetal GSIS studies were performed again on days 8 and 12. Adrenergic sensitivity was determined in pancreatic islets collected at day 12. NE infusion increased (P < 0.01) fetal plasma NE concentrations and lowered (P < 0.01) basal insulin concentrations compared to vehicle-infused controls. GSIS was 1.8-fold greater (P < 0.05) in NE-infused fetuses compared to controls at both one and five days after discontinuing the infusion. Glucose-potentiated arginine-induced insulin secretion was also enhanced (P < 0.01) in NE-infused fetuses. Maximum GSIS in islets isolated from NE-infused fetuses was 1.6-fold greater (P < 0.05) than controls, but islet insulin content and intracellular calcium signaling were not different between treatments. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration for NE was 2.6-fold greater (P < 0.05) in NE-infused islets compared to controls. These findings show that chronic NE exposure and not hyperglycemia produce persistent adaptations in pancreatic islets that augment β-cell responsiveness in part through decreased adrenergic sensitivity.
    • Islet Harvest in Carbon Monoxide-Saturated Medium for Chronic Pancreatitis Patients Undergoing Islet Autotransplantation

      Wang, Hongjun; Gou, Wenyu; Strange, Charlie; Wang, Jingjing; Nietert, Paul J; Cloud, Colleen; Owzarski, Stefanie; Shuford, Betsy; Duke, Tara; Luttrell, Louis; et al. (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2019-12-30)
      Stresses encountered during human islet isolation lead to unavoidable beta-cell death after transplantation. This reduces the chance of insulin independence in chronic pancreatitis patients undergoing total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation. We tested whether harvesting islets in carbon monoxide-saturated solutions is safe and can enhance islet survival and insulin independence after total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation. Chronic pancreatitis patients who consented to the study were randomized into carbon monoxide (islets harvested in a carbon monoxide-saturated medium) or control (islets harvested in a normal medium) groups. Islet yield, viability, oxygen consumption rate, beta-cell death (measured by unmethylated insulin DNA), and serum cytokine levels were measured during the peri-transplantation period. Adverse events, metabolic phenotypes, and islet function were measured prior and at 6 months post-transplantation. No adverse events directly related to the infusion of carbon monoxide islets were observed. Carbon monoxide islets showed significantly higher viability before transplantation. Subjects receiving carbon monoxide islets had less beta-cell death, decreased CCL23, and increased CXCL12 levels at 1 or 3 days post transplantation compared with controls. Three in 10 (30%) of the carbon monoxide subjects and none of the control subjects were insulin independent. This pilot trial showed for the first time that harvesting human islets in carbon monoxide-saturated solutions is safe for total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation patients.
    • ISM Properties of a Massive Dusty Star-forming Galaxy Discovered at z ∼ 7

      Strandet, M. L.; Weiss, Axel; de Breuck, C.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, Manuel; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Bradford, C. M.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-06-15)
      We report the discovery and constrain the physical conditions of the interstellar medium of the highest-redshift millimeter-selected dusty star-forming galaxy to date, SPT-S J031132-5823.4 (hereafter SPT0311-58), at z = 6.900 +/- 0.002. SPT0311-58 was discovered via its 1.4 mm thermal dust continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT)-SZ survey. The spectroscopic redshift was determined through an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm frequency scan that detected CO(6-5), CO(7-6), and [C I](2-1), and subsequently was confirmed by detections of CO(3-2) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and[C II] with APEX. We constrain the properties of the ISM in SPT0311-58 with a radiative transfer analysis of the dust continuum photometry and the CO and [C I] line emission. This allows us to determine the gas content without ad hoc assumptions about gas mass scaling factors. SPT0311-58 is extremely massive, with an intrinsic gas mass of M-gas = 3.3 +/- 1.9 x 10(11) M-circle dot. Its large mass and intense star formation is very rare for a source well into the epoch of reionization.
    • The Iso2k database: a global compilation of paleo-δ18O and δ2H records to aid understanding of Common Era climate

      Konecky, Bronwen L.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Comas-Bru, Laia; Dassié, Emilie P.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Falster, Georgina M.; Fischer, Matt J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Jonkers, Lukas; et al. (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2020-09-23)
      Reconstructions of global hydroclimate during the Common Era (CE; the past similar to 2000 years) are important for providing context for current and future global environmental change. Stable isotope ratios in water are quantitative indicators of hydroclimate on regional to global scales, and these signals are encoded in a wide range of natural geologic archives. Here we present the Iso2k database, a global compilation of previously published datasets from a variety of natural archives that record the stable oxygen (delta O-18) or hydrogen (delta H-2) isotopic compositions of environmental waters, which reflect hydroclimate changes over the CE. The Iso2k database contains 759 isotope records from the terrestrial and marine realms, including glacier and ground ice (210); speleothems (68); corals, sclerosponges, and mollusks (143); wood (81); lake sediments and other terrestrial sediments (e.g., loess) (158); and marine sediments (99). Individual datasets have temporal resolutions ranging from sub-annual to centennial and include chronological data where available. A fundamental feature of the database is its comprehensive metadata, which will assist both experts and nonexperts in the interpretation of each record and in data synthesis. Key metadata fields have standardized vocabularies to facilitate comparisons across diverse archives and with climate-model-simulated fields. This is the first global-scale collection of water isotope proxy records from multiple types of geological and biological archives. It is suitable for evaluating hydroclimate processes through time and space using large-scale synthesis, model-data intercomparison and (paleo)data assimilation. The Iso2k database is available for download at (Konecky and McKay, 2020) and is also accessible via the NOAA/WDS Paleo Data landing page: (last access: 30 July 2020).
    • Isochronal age-mass discrepancy of young stars: SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectroscopy of the HIP 79124 triple system

      Asensio-Torres, Ruben; Currie, Thayne; Janson, Markus; Desidera, Silvano; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hodapp, Klaus; Brandt, Timothy D.; Guyon, Olivier; Lozi, Julien; Groff, Tyler; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2019-01-24)
      We present SCExAO/CHARIS 1.1-2.4 mu m integral field direct spectroscopy of the young HIP 79124 triple system. HIP 79124 is a member of the Scorpius-Centaurus association, consisting of an A0V primary with two low-mass companions at a projected separation of <1 ''. Thanks to the high quality wavefront corrections provided by SCExAO, both companions are decisively detected without the employment of any PSF-subtraction algorithm to eliminate quasi-static noise. The spectrum of the outer C object is very well matched by Upper Scorpius M4 +/- 0.5 standard spectra, with a T-eff = 2945 +/- 100 K and a mass of similar to 350 M-Jup. HIP 79124 B is detected at a separation of only 180 mas in a highly-correlated noise regime, and it falls in the spectral range M6 +/- 0.5 with T-eff = 2840 +/- 190 K and similar to 100 M-Jup. Previous studies of stellar populations in Sco-Cen have highlighted a discrepancy in isochronal ages between the lower-mass and higher-mass populations. This could be explained either by an age spread in the region, or by conventional isochronal models failing to reproduce the evolution of low-mass stars. The HIP 79124 system should be coeval, and therefore it provides an ideal laboratory to test these scenarios. We place the three components in a color-magnitude diagram and find that the models predict a younger age for the two low-mass companions (similar to 3 Myr) than for the primary star (similar to 6 Myr). These results imply that the omission of magnetic effects in conventional isochronal models inhibit them from reproducing early low-mass stellar evolution, which is further supported by the fact that new models that include such effects provide more consistent ages in the HIP 79124 system.
    • Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency Secondary to Chronic Opiate Use

      Raj, Rishi; Jacob, Aasems; Elshimy, Ghada; Smith, Jackson; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Endocrinol Diabet & Metab (CUREUS INC, 2020-07-19)
      Although opiate use can result in various endocrine disorders, isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency resulting in secondary adrenal insufficiency remains uncommon. We present a case of a 54-year-old woman with a history of chronic opiate use who presented with a four-month history of worsening fatigue and syncopal episodes. Laboratory workup revealed a low ACTH with low baseline cortisol and normal levels of rest of the anterior pituitary hormones. The imaging study did not reveal any pituitary abnormality. The patient was diagnosed with opiate-induced isolated ACTH deficiency. Her symptoms improved after treatment with hydrocortisone. This case would further improve clinician's awareness towards opiate-induced endocrinopathies, including isolated ACTH deficiency, which can present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, creating a diagnostic challenge.
    • Isolated cardiac tamponade following blunt trauma in an infant

      Maykowski, Philip; Bae, Jae-O.; Notrica, David M.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix (ELSEVIER, 2019-10)
      This is a case of a 6-month old female with no prior medical history who presented to the emergency department following a high-speed motor collision with ejection of an improperly installed car seat. The patient was hemodynamically unstable with tachycardia, poor perfusion, and marks from the car seat. A focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) ultrasound exam revealed no intraabdominal fluid, but evidence of cardiac tamponade which was confirmed by chest CT angiography. No cardiac or great vessel injury was present. A pericardial window was performed using a subxiphoid approach and 150 mLs of blood was drained resulting in immediate hemodynamic stabilization. The patient continued to improve from a cardiac stand point but her hospital course was complicated by iatrogenic right arm ischemia due to arterial line attempt. The patient was discharged after a 12-day hospital stay.
    • Isolating and Analyzing Protein Containing Granules from Cells

      Victor, Rachel A.; Thompson, Valery F.; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2021-03-19)
      Recent advancements in detection methods have made protein condensates, also called granules, a major area of study, but tools to characterize these assemblies need continued development to keep up with evolving paradigms. We have optimized a protocol to separate condensates from cells using chemical cross-linking followed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). After SEC fractionation, the samples can be characterized by a variety of approaches including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry. The protocol described here has been optimized for cultured mammalian cells and E. coli expressing recombinant proteins. Since the lysates are fractionated by size, this protocol can be modified to study other large protein assemblies, including the nuclear pore complex, and for other tissues or organisms. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: SEC separation of cross-linked mammalian cell lysates. Alternate Protocol: Preparation of non-crosslinked mammalian cells. Basic Protocol 2: SEC separation of E. coli lysate. Support Protocol 1: Detecting protein of interest by ELISA. Support Protocol 2: TCA precipitation of SEC fractions. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC
    • Isolation and characterization of 21 novel microsatellite loci in sailfish Istiophorus platypterus Shaw 1792 from a shotgun genomic library

      Rubio-Castro, G. G.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Quinonez-Velazquez, C.; Garcia-Rodriguez, F. J.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (WILEY, 2018-08)
    • Isolation and Characterization of Immune Suppressive Genes through Bioinformatic Analysis of Venom Glands Transcriptome of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

      Hussain, Fiaz; ul Abdin, Zain; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Jamil, Amer; Li, Xianchun; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (FRIENDS SCIENCE PUBL, 2019)
      Female parasitoid injects in its host a blend of reproductive secretions during oviposition containing mainly ovarian fluids and venom to circumvent the host immune response. In vitro studies have revealed that venom inhibits the motility and aggregation of the host larval hemocytes. Bioactive genes with immunosuppressive activity were investigated by screening of the venom gland Transcriptome of the wasp Bracon hebetor by using manual BLAST X analysis and functional annotation of the selected contigs. The 5' ends of the selected genes were obtained using RACER kit (Invitrogen) and full length genes were isolated. Cloning and sequencing of the genes were performed and further characterized using bioinformatic tools i.e., Expasy Translate Tool, Clustal Omega and SignalP. Deduced amino acid sequences of the isolated genes (Venom acid phosphatase, Tryptase-2 and CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase) showed significant homologies with other Braconid species, whereas Tiyptase-2 and CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase showed good secretory role. Further, in depth studies are required for the expression of isolated genes and their functional analysis. This is the first report of the characterization of immune suppressive genes from the venom gland of B. hebetor which may be useful for developing benign control tactics for insect pests of agricultural crops. (C) 2019 Friends Science Publishers