Now showing items 5989-6008 of 13760

    • Linking landscape-scale conservation to regional and continental outcomes for a migratory species

      Mattsson, B. J.; Devries, J. H.; Dubovsky, J. A.; Semmens, D.; Thogmartin, W. E.; Derbridge, J. J.; Lopez-Hoffman, L.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-03)
      Land-use intensification on arable land is expanding and posing a threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services worldwide. We develop methods to link funding for avian breeding habitat conservation and management at landscape scales to equilibrium abundance of a migratory species at the continental scale. We apply this novel approach to a harvested bird valued by birders and hunters in North America, the northern pintail duck (Anas acuta), a species well below its population goal. Based on empirical observations from 2007-2016, habitat conservation investments for waterfowl cost $313 M and affected <2% of the pintail's primary breeding area in the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada. Realistic scenarios for harvest and habitat conservation costing an estimated $588 M (2016 USD) led to predicted pintail population sizes <3 M when assuming average parameter values. Accounting for parameter uncertainty, converting 70-100% of these croplands to idle grassland (cost: $35.7B-50B) is required to achieve the continental population goal of 4 M individuals under the current harvest policy. Using our work as a starting point, we propose continued development of modeling approaches that link conservation funding, habitat delivery, and population response to better integrate conservation efforts and harvest management of economically important migratory species.
    • Linking NO and N 2 O emission pulses with the mobilization of mineral and organic N upon rewetting dry soils

      Leitner, Sonja; Homyak, Peter M.; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Eberwein, Jennifer; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Schimel, Joshua P.; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017-12)
      Drying and rewetting of soils triggers a cascade of physical, chemical, and biological processes; understanding these responses to varying moisture levels becomes increasingly important in the context of changing precipitation patterns. When soils dry and water content decreases, diffusion is limited and substrates can accumulate. Upon rewetting, these substrates are mobilized and can energize hot moments of intense biogeochemical cycling, leading to pulses of trace gas emissions. Until recently, it was difficult to follow the rewetting dynamics of nutrient cycling in the field without physically disturbing the soil. Here we present a study that combines real-time trace gas measurements with high-resolution measurements of diffusive nutrient fluxes in intact soils. Our goal was to distinguish the contribution of different inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) forms to the rewetting substrate flush and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Diffusive flux of N-bearing substrates (NO2-, NO3-, NHS and amino acids) was determined in situ in hourly resolution using a microdialysis approach. We conducted an irrigation experiment in a semi-arid California grassland at the end of the dry season, and followed soil N flux and N trace gas emissions over the course of 30 h post-wetting. Upon rewetting, both inorganic and organic N diffused through the soil, with inorganic N contributing most to the rewetting N flush. Emissions of NO and N2O rapidly increased and remained elevated for the duration of our measurements, whereas diffusive soil N flux was characterized by large temporal variation. Immediately after rewetting, NO3- contributed 80% to the total diffusive N flux but was consumed rapidly, possibly due to fast microbial uptake or denitrification. Ammonium flux contributed only similar to 10% to the initial diffusive N flux, but it dominated total N diffusion 27 h post-wetting, coinciding with peak N-gas emissions. This suggests nitrification may control most of the N trace gases produced during the late stages of a rewetting pulse. Nitrite contributed only 1% to total N diffusion and did not show a clear temporal pattern. Amino acids contributed roughly as much as NH4+ to the initial diffusive N flux, but the organic N pulse was short-lived, indicating that organic N did not contribute substantially to N-gas formation shortly after rewetting at our study site. Our results support the hypothesis that in semi-arid environments N-bearing substrates concentrate during dry periods and, upon rewetting, can lead to pulses of NO and N2O when they react chemically or are transformed by microorganisms. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Linking Residential Parking to Automobile Transportation Impact Outcomes at a Development Level

      Currans, Kristina M.; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; Iroz-Elardo, Nicole; School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, University of Arizona (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-11-05)
      Although there exists a well-studied relationship between parking policies and automobile demand, conventional practices evaluating the transportation impacts of new land development tend to ignore this. In this paper, we: (a) explore literature linking parking policies and vehicle use (including vehicle trip generation, vehicle miles traveled [VMT], and trip length) through the lens of development-level evaluations (e.g., transportation impact analyses [TIA]); (b) develop a conceptual map linking development-level parking characteristics and vehicle use outcomes based on previously supported theory and frameworks; and (c) evaluate and discuss the conventional approach to identify the steps needed to operationalize this link, specifically for residential development. Our findings indicate a significant and noteworthy dearth of studies incorporating parking constraints into travel behavior studies—including, but not limited to: parking supply, costs or pricing, and travel demand management strategies such as the impacts of (un)bundled parking in housing costs. Disregarding parking in TIAs ignores a significant indicator in automobile use. Further, unconstrained parking may encourage increases in car ownership, vehicle trips, and VMT in areas with robust alternative-mode networks and accessibility, thus creating greater demand for vehicle travel than would otherwise occur. The conceptual map offers a means for operationalizing the links between: the built environment; socio-economic and demographic characteristics; fixed and variable travel costs; and vehicle use. Implications for practice and future research are explored.
    • Linking simulations and experiments for the multiscale tracking of thermally induced martensitic phase transformation in NiTi SMA

      Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N; Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona; Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-01)
      Martensitic phase transformation in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) occurs over a hierarchy of spatial scales, as evidenced from observed multiscale patterns of the martensitic phase fraction, which depend on the material microstructure and on the size of the SMA specimen. This paper presents a methodology for the multiscale tracking of the thermally induced martensitic phase transformation process in NiTi SMA. Fine scale stochastic phase field simulations are coupled to macroscale experimental measurements through the compound wavelet matrix method (CWM). A novel process for obtaining CWM fine scale wavelet coefficients is used that enhances the effectiveness of the method in transferring uncertainties from fine to coarse scales, and also ensures the preservation of spatial correlations in the phase fraction pattern. Size effects, well-documented in the literature, play an important role in designing the multiscale tracking methodology. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to verify the phase field simulations in terms of different statistical measures and to demonstrate size effects at the nanometer scale. The effects of thermally induced martensite phase fraction uncertainties on the constitutive response of NiTi SMA is demonstrated.
    • Linking snowfall and snow accumulation to generate spatial maps of SWE and snow depth

      Broxton, Patrick D.; Dawson, Nicholas; Zeng, Xubin; Univ Arizona, Dept Atmospher Sci; Department of Atmospheric Sciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Atmospheric Sciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Atmospheric Sciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2016-06)
      It is critically important but challenging to estimate the amount of snow on the ground over large areas due to its strong spatial variability. Point snow data are used to generate or improve (i.e., blend with) gridded estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) by using various forms of interpolation; however, the interpolation methodologies often overlook the physical mechanisms for the snow being there in the first place. Using data from the Snow Telemetry and Cooperative Observer networks in the western United States, we show that four methods for the spatial interpolation of peak of winter snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth based on distance and elevation can result in large errors. These errors are reduced substantially by our new method, i.e., the spatial interpolation of these quantities normalized by accumulated snowfall from the current or previous water years. Our method results in significant improvement in SWE estimates over interpolation techniques that do not consider snowfall, regardless of the number of stations used for the interpolation. Furthermore, it can be used along with gridded precipitation and temperature data to produce daily maps of SWE over the western United States that are comparable to existing estimates (which are based on the assimilation of much more data). Our results also show that not honoring the constraint between SWE and snowfall when blending in situ data with gridded data can lead to the development and propagation of unrealistic errors.
    • Linking the Unitary Paradigm to Policy through a Synthesis of Caring Science and Integrative Nursing

      Koithan, Mary S.; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Watson, Jean; Colleges of Nursing and Medicine, University of Arizona; Colleges of Nursing and Medicine, University of Arizona; Center for Spirituality & Healing and School of Nursing, University of Minnesota; Watson Caring Science Institute (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2017-06-21)
      The principles of integrative nursing and caring science align with the unitary paradigm in a way that can inform and shape nursing knowledge, patient care delivery across populations and settings, and new healthcare policy. The proposed policies may transform the healthcare system in a way that supports nursing praxis and honors the discipline’s unitary paradigm. This call to action provides a distinct and hopeful vision of a healthcare system that is accessible, equitable, safe, patient-centered, and affordable. In these challenging times, it is the unitary paradigm and nursing wisdom that offer a clear path forward.
    • Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

      Buck, Donald W.; Herbst, Karen L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Banner Univ Med Ctr (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016-09)
      Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic "column leg" appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.
    • Lipedema: friend and foe

      Torre, Yanira Sanchez-De la; Wadeea, Rita; Rosas, Victoria; Herbst, Karen L; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, TREAT Program (WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2018-03-09)
      Background: Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods: The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema. Results: Lipedema is a foe because lifestyle change does not reduce lipedema fat, the fat is painful, can become obese, causes gait and joint abnormalities, fatigue, lymphedema and psychosocial distress. Hypermobility associated with lipedema can exacerbate joint disease and aortic disease. In contrast, lipedema fat can be a friend as it is associated with relative reductions in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. In new data collected, lipedema was associated with a low risk of diabetes (2%), dyslipidemia (11.7%) and hypertension (13%) despite an obese average body mass index (BMI) of 35.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2). Conclusion: Lipedema is a painful psychologically distressing fat disorder, more foe than friend especially due to associated obesity and lymphedema. More controlled studies are needed to study the mechanisms and treatments for lipedema.
    • Lipid Biomarker Record Documents Hydroclimatic Variability of the Mississippi River Basin During the Common Era

      Munoz, Samuel E.; Porter, Trevor J.; Bakkelund, Aleesha; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Dee, Sylvia G.; Hamilton, Brynnydd; Giosan, Liviu; Tierney, Jessica E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-06)
      Floods and droughts in the Mississippi River basin are perennial hazards that cause severe economic disruption. Here we develop and analyze a new lipid biomarker record from Horseshoe Lake (Illinois, USA) to evaluate the climatic conditions associated with hydroclimatic extremes that occurred in this region over the last 1,800 years. We present geochemical proxy evidence of temperature and moisture variability using branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic composition (delta H-2(wax)) and use isotope-enabled coupled model simulations to diagnose the controls on these proxies. Our data show pronounced warming during the Medieval era (CE 1000-1,600) that corresponds to midcontinental megadroughts. Severe floods on the upper Mississippi River basin also occurred during the Medieval era and correspond to periods of enhanced warm-season moisture. Our findings imply that projected increases in temperature and warm-season precipitation could enhance both drought and flood hazards in this economically vital region. Plain Language Summary The Mississippi River basin is an economically vital region for industry and agriculture, but it is prone to disruptive flooding and drought. Here we use organic molecules preserved in a lake sediment core to reconstruct the temperature and seasonal moisture patterns of the last 1,800 years. Our reconstruction shows that the Medieval period (ca. CE 1000-1,600) was relatively warm and that warmer temperatures in this region are associated with increased frequencies of severe droughts and floods. These findings generally support climate model projections of increasing drought and flood hazard in the Mississippi River basin as a result of anthropogenic climate change.
    • Lipid Residues Preserved in Sheltered Bedrock Features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

      Buonasera, Tammy; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (UNIV EDINBURGH, SCH HISTORY, CLASSICS & ARCHAEOLOGY, 2016-10-31)
      Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.
    • The lipidated connexin mimetic peptide SRPTEKT-Hdc is a potent inhibitor of Cx43 channels with specificity for the pS368 phospho-isoform

      Cotter, Maura L; Boitano, Scott; Lampe, Paul D; Solan, Joell L; Vagner, Josef; Ek-Vitorin, Jose F; Burt, Janis M; Univ Arizona, Dept Pharmacol; Univ Arizona, Bio5 Inst; Univ Arizona, Asthma & Airway Dis Res Ctr; et al. (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2019-10-07)
      Connexin (Cx) mimetic peptides derived from extracellular loop II sequences (e.g., Gap27: SRPTEKTIFII; Peptide5: VDCFLSRPTEKT) have been used as reversible, Cx-specific blockers of hemichannel (HCh) and gap junction channel (GJCh) function. These blockers typically require high concentrations (~5 µM, <1 h for HCh; ~100 µM, >1 h for GJCh) to achieve inhibition. We have shown that addition of a hexadecyl (Hdc) lipid tail to the conserved SRPTEKT peptide sequence (SRPTEKT-Hdc) results in a novel, highly efficacious, and potent inhibitor of mechanically induced Ca2+-wave propagation (IC50 64.8 pM) and HCh-mediated dye uptake (IC50 45.0 pM) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing rat Cx43 (MDCK43). The lack of similar effect on dye coupling (NBD-MTMA) suggested channel conformation-specific inhibition. Here we report that SRPTEKT-Hdc inhibition of Ca2+-wave propagation, dye coupling, and dye uptake depended on the functional configuration of Cx43 as determined by phosphorylation at serine 368 (S368). Ca2+-wave propagation was enhanced in MDCK cells expressing single-site mutants of Cx43 that mimicked (MDCK43-S368D) or favored (MDCK43-S365A) phosphorylation at S368. Furthermore, SRPTEKT-Hdc potently inhibited GJCh-mediated Ca2+-wave propagation (IC50 230.4 pM), dye coupling, and HCh-mediated dye uptake in MDCK43-S368D and -S365A cells. In contrast, Ca2+-wave propagation, dye coupling, and dye uptake were largely unaffected (IC50 12.3 μM) by SRPTEKT-Hdc in MDCK43-S368A and -S365D cells, mutations that mimic or favor dephosphorylation at S368. Together, these data indicate that SRPTEKT-Hdc is a potent inhibitor of physiological Ca2+-wave signaling mediated specifically by the pS368 phosphorylated form of Cx43.
    • Lipidomics reveals how the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum manipulates host energy stores for its young

      Wang, Jiale; Jin, Hongxia; Schlenke, Todd; Yang, Yi; Wang, Fang; Yao, Hongwei; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gongyin; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (ELSEVIER, 2020-05-11)
      Endoparasitoid wasps inject venom along with their eggs to adjust the physiological and nutritional environment inside their hosts to benefit the development of their offspring. In particular, wasp venoms are known to modify host lipid metabolism, lipid storage in the fat body, and release of lipids into the hemolymph, but how venoms accomplish these functions remains unclear. Here, we use an UPLC-MS-based lipidomics approach to analyze the identities and concentrations of lipids in both fat body and hemolymph of host cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) infected by the pupal endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum. During infection, host fat body levels of highly unsaturated, soluble triacylglycerides (TAGs) increased while less unsaturated, less soluble forms decreased. Furthermore, in infected host hemolymph, overall levels of TAG and phospholipids (the major component of cell membranes) increased, suggesting that fat body cells are destroyed and their contents are dispersed. Altogether, these data suggest that wasp venom induces host fat body TAGs to be transformed into lower melting point (more liquid) forms and released into the host hemolymph following infection, allowing simple absorption and nutritional acquisition by wasp larvae. Finally, cholesteryl esters (CEs, a dietary lipid derived from cholesterol) increased in host hemolymph following infection with no concomitant decrease in host cholesterol, implying that the wasp may provide this necessary food resource to its offspring via its venom. This study provides novel insight into how parasitoid infection alters lipid metabolism in insect hosts, and begins to uncover the wasp venom proteins responsible for host physiological changes and offspring development.
    • Lipuite, a new manganese phyllosilicate mineral from the N'Chwaning III mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa

      Gu, Xiangping; Yang, Hexiong; Xie, Xiande; van Nieuwenhuizen, Jaco J.; Downs, Robert T.; Evans, Stanley H.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (MINERALOGICAL SOC, 2019-02-26)
      A new phyllosilicate mineral, lipuite (IMA2014-085), has been discovered from the N'Chwaning III mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. It occurs as platy, tabular, or granular crystals and veined agglomerate in association with Mn-bearing sugilite, taniajacoite, pectolite, richterite, norrishite and namansilite. Lipuite is dark red-brown with vitreous lustre, red streak, an estimated Mohs hardness of 5 and the measured density is 2.83(3) g/cm(3). It is biaxial (+) and characterised by bright red to dark red colour in thin section with measured refractive indices in white light: alpha= 1.635(1), beta= 1.653(1), gamma = 1.670(1) and 2V = 86(2)degrees. The Raman spectra of lipuite are composed of over 21 bands at 109, 146, 162, 183, 206, 244, 288, 342, 362, 455, 496, 520, 552, 613, 669, 886, 930, 971, 1097, 3487 and 3540 cm(-1). The empirical formula from microprobe analyses is (based on total number of cations = 27.5 and structural refinement): K1.12Na8.16(Mn4.77Fe0.07)(Sigma 4)Mg-.(84)0(.44)[Si11.97O30(OH)(4)](PO4)(0.94)O-2(OH)(2 center dot)4H(2)O. The idealised formula is: KNa(8)Mn5(3+)Mg(0.5)Si(12)O(30)(OH)(4)] (PO4)O-2(OH)(2)center dot 4H(2)O. Lipuite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 9.080(3), b = 12.222(3), c = 17.093(5) angstrom, V = 1897.0(9) angstrom(3) and Z = 2. The strongest powder X-ray diffraction peaks [d, angstrom (I) (hkl)] are: 9.965(40)(011), 2.938(33)(310), 2.895(100)(311), 2.777(38)(224), 2.713(53)(320), 2.483(32)(126), 2.086(35)(046) and 1.534(40)(446). The crystal structure of lipuite is characterised by sheets of SiO4 tetrahedra that are linked together along [010] by K+, Na+, Mn3+, Mg2+ and P5+ cations, as well as hydrogen bonds. These tetrahedral sheets consist of 14-membered rings of SiO4 tetrahedra that zigzag along [100]. The two independent Mn3+ cations are both octahedrally coordinated. They form five-membered, edge-shared octahedral clusters between the SiO4 tetrahedral sheets. Lipuite represents a rather unique structure type and its silicate tetrahedral sheets can be considered a derivative of the silicate sheets in mica.
    • Liquid amphiphilic polymer for effective airborne dust suppression

      Lee, Taehee; Park, Junhyeok; Knoff, David S.; Kim, Kwangmin; Kim, Minkyu; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn; Univ Arizona, BIO5 Inst (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019-12-02)
      Airborne dust is a byproduct of natural and artificial occurrences, including high winds in arid regions and human activities, and it affects most of the world's population. Watering is the most general practice for reducing airborne dust by wetting the surface of the dust source to agglomerate dust particles via the capillary effect, increasing the aerodynamic diameter of (ultra)fine particles and reducing dust emission. However, the short-term effectiveness due to fast water evaporation, requiring frequent watering, is a major disadvantage. Herein, we utilized biocompatible liquid polymers as additives in water to prolong moist conditions of dust sources due to their liquid state. After the water evaporated, the liquid polymers maintained moisture on the dust sources, resulting in significantly reduced (ultra)fine particle emissions and extended effectiveness compared to conventional water treatment. Interestingly, we observed greater dust suppressive effectiveness with liquid amphiphilic polymer than liquid hydrophilic polymer because of the synergistic effect of the liquid state and amphiphilic property of the polymer. Translating lab-scale experiments to pilot-scale field-testing confirmed the potential for utilizing biocompatible liquid amphiphilic polymers to advance airborne dust suppression technology.
    • Liquid polymeric materials for optical nano-bio sensing

      Garan, Jacob; Melzer, Jeffrey E.; McLeod, Euan; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (SPIE, 2017-02-16)
      Detecting, counting, and sizing nanoparticles is a key problem in biomedical, environmental, and materials synthesis fields. Here we demonstrate a cost-effective and high-performance approach that uses wide-field microscopy enabled by the combination of inline lensfree holography, pixel super-resolution, and vapor-condensed nano-scale lenses (nanolenses). These nanolenses are composed of liquid polyethylene glycol (PEG) that self-assembles in situ around particles of interest. A nanolens around each particle generates a more substantial phase shift than the native object alone, making it more easily detectible in the imaging system. This latest generation of lensfree holographic microscope incorporates more precise temperature control and utilizes a hermetically sealed chamber allowing for a controlled, repeatable environment for simultaneous hologram measurements and nanolens formation. To further enhance the sensitivity of our system, we have compared the performance of two different pixel super-resolution algorithms: shiftand- add and gradient descent. It was found that the gradient descent approach provides the highest resolution. Detection and localization results for 1 μm, 400 nm, and 100 nm particles are presented.
    • Listening to Family Life After Serious Pediatric Injury: A Study of Four Cases

      Mangelsdorf, Shaminka N; Conroy, Rowena; Mehl, Matthias R; Norton, Peter J; Alisic, Eva; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (WILEY, 2019-09-10)
      Following a serious child injury, the entire family can be affected. Gaining an understanding of family support, interactions, and stress levels can help clinicians tailor treatment. Presently, these factors are assessed mainly via self-reports and structured observations. We aimed to explore the value of naturalistic observation of postinjury parent-child interactions, in order to highlight how clinicians might use these data in their practice. Our qualitative study involved an in-depth analysis of four cases from the Ear for Recovery project, against the backdrop of the larger sample's characteristics. Children who had been hospitalized with a serious injury wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR). Over a two-day period postdischarge, the EAR recorded 30-second audio "snippets" every 5 minutes. Families also completed self-report measures on family functioning, child stress and social support, parent stress, optimism, and self-efficacy. For each case, two coders independently used an ethnographic method, integrating self-report measures, family and injury characteristics, audio recordings, and transcripts to mimic integration of information within clinical practice. The coders then reached consensus on the main themes for each case through discussion. Families showed substantial variation in their communication in terms of content, tone, and frequency, including moments of conflict, humor, and injury-related conversations. We explored how these recorded interactions converged with and diverged from the self-report data. The EAR provided an opportunity for rich descriptions of individual families' communication and activities, yielding potential clinical information that may be otherwise difficult or impractical to obtain.
    • Listening to Heartbeat: the pulse of ecofeminism in a picturebook

      Ryman, Cynthia K.; Department of Education (TLS), University of Arizona (Routledge, 2021-02-11)
      Using an ecofeminist theoretical frame along with critical content analysis of visual images, this article examines the environmental discourse of the picturebook, Heartbeat, written and illustrated by Evan Turk (2018). In this picturebook, Turk uses the heartbeat, the history, and the song of a whale to draw the reader into a sense of cosmic interconnectivity with nature. This critical content analysis of Heartbeat seeks to extend the research on evaluating environmental children’s literature by taking a deeper look at the specific ways the images and text in Heartbeat provide a unique and much needed counter-narrative to the devaluation and domination of nature. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
    • Lithium mineral evolution and ecology: comparison with boron and beryllium

      Grew, Edward S.; Hystad, Grete; Toapanta, Myriam P. C.; Eleish, Ahmed; Ostroverkhova, Aleksandra; Golden, Joshua; Hazen, Robert M.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (E SCHWEIZERBARTSCHE VERLAGSBUCHHANDLUNG, 2019-07)
      The idea that the mineralogical diversity now found at or near Earth's surface was not present for much of the Earth's history is the essence of mineral evolution, and the geological histories of the 118 Li, 120 Be, and 296 B minerals are not exceptions. Present crustal concentrations are generally too low for Li, Be, and B minerals to form (except tourmaline); this requires further enrichment by 1-2 orders of magnitude by processes such as partial melting and mobilization of fluids. As a result, minerals containing essential Li and Be are first reported in the geologic record at 3.0-3.1 Ga, later than Li-free tourmaline at 3.6 Ga. Spikes in species diversification coincides with increases in preserved juvenile crust and supercontinent assembly during the Precambrian Eon, followed by accelerated diversification during the Phanerozoic Eon. Mineral ecology concerns the present-day distribution, diversity, complexity, and abundance of minerals, including estimates of Earth's total mineral endowment, most recently by using large number of rare events (LNRE) models. Using Poisson-lognormal distribution and Bayesian methods, LNRE modeling yields an estimate of 1200-1500 total B mineral species, nearly triple the similar to 500 species estimate made in 2017, and from similar to 700 to similar to 800 total species for Li and Be. In considering how the total number of mineral species came to be present in Earth's crust, it is important to keep in mind the distinctions and the interplay between two very different histories: the geologic history of mineral formation, and the human history of mineral discovery. Mineral diversity has increased both with geologic time and with historic time, but only the latter strictly pertains to the accumulation curves that result from LNRE modeling. The Li minerals reported from the most localities would be expected to be discovered earliest in the historic search for new minerals and to have appeared earliest in Earth's history. However, data on Li minerals imply that factors other than number of present-day localities, at present totaling 3208 mineral/locality counts, play a major role in mineral ecology. More significant are the unique formation conditions at a handful of localities that produced a diverse suite of Li minerals rarely replicated elsewhere. The resulting present day non-random distribution of minerals contributes significantly to differences in the probabilities among species being discovered, which can have a profound impact on LNRE modeling.
    • Lithographic manufacturing of adaptive optics components

      Scott, R. Phillip; Jean, Madison; Johnson, Lee; Gatlin, Ridley; Bronson, Ryan; Milster, Tom; Hart, Michael; Univ Arizona, Ctr Opt Sci, 1630 E Univ Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2017)
      Adaptive optics systems and their laboratory test environments call for a number of unusual optical components. Examples include lenslet arrays, pyramids, and Kolmogorov phase screens. Because of their specialized application, the availability of these parts is generally limited, with high cost and long lead time, which can also significantly drive optical system design. These concerns can be alleviated by a fast and inexpensive method of optical fabrication. To that end, we are exploring direct-write lithographic techniques to manufacture three different custom elements. We report results from a number of prototype devices including 1, 2, and 3 wave Multiple Order Diffractive (MOD) lenslet arrays with 0.75 mm pitch and phase screens with near Kolmogorov structure functions with a Fried length r(0) around 1 mm. We also discuss plans to expand our research to include a diffractive pyramid that is smaller, lighter, and more easily manufactured than glass versions presently used in pyramid wavefront sensors. We describe how these components can be produced within the limited dynamic range of the lithographic process, and with a rapid prototyping and manufacturing cycle. We discuss exploratory manufacturing methods, including replication, and potential observing techniques enabled by the ready availability of custom components.
    • Lithospheric Architecture of the Paranapanema Block and Adjacent Nuclei Using Multiple-Frequency P-Wave Seismic Tomography

      Affonso, G.M.P.C.; Rocha, M.P.; Costa, I.S.L.; Assumpção, M.; Fuck, R.A.; Albuquerque, D.F.; Portner, D.E.; Rodríguez, E.E.; Beck, S.L.; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      We present a new P-wave seismic tomographic model for the region of the Paraná Basin and surroundings using a multiple-frequency approach, providing better resolution than previous regional studies. We processed a total of 62,692 cross-correlation delays for P, PKIKP, PcP, and PP phases distributed among 1,081 events using six different central frequencies (0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.50, and 1 Hz). We merged our data with a previous multiple-frequency study of the Amazonian Craton to cover regions outside of the study area, obtaining a total of 75,187 cross-correlation delays. The data used are from the stations of the Brazilian Seismographic Network, and mainly from a temporary network (XC network) installed exclusively to study the region. The basement of the Paraná Basin is represented as a NE-SW trending P-wave high-velocity anomaly, extending from the northern limit of the basin to the southwestern border of Brazil, consistent with previous reports. The limit between this block and the São Francisco Craton is characterized by decreased amplitude of the P-wave high-velocity anomaly. Synthetic tests show that a narrow boundary between these two blocks displays the same behavior. At the southeastern portion of this anomaly, decreasing amplitude is consistent with the limit of the Luiz Alves Craton, which was also corroborated by synthetic tests. The northern portion of the Rio Apa Block agrees with a previous tomographic model, confirming that it does not extend under the Pantanal Basin, however, in our model this structure does not extend as far south. © 2021. The Authors.