Now showing items 6756-6775 of 13757

    • Monitoring of Dust Devil Tracks Around the InSight Landing Site, Mars, and Comparison With In Situ Atmospheric Data

      Perrin, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Jacob, A.; Lucas, A.; Spiga, A.; Murdoch, N.; Lorenz, R.; Daubar, I. J.; Pan, L.; Kawamura, T.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-05)
      The NASA InSight mission on Mars is a unique opportunity to study atmospheric processes both from orbit and in situ observations. We use post-landing high-resolution satellite images to monitor dust devil activity during the first 8 months of the mission. We perform mapping and semiautomatic detection of newly formed dust devil tracks and analyze their characteristics (sizes, azimuths, distances, and directions of motion). We find a large number of tracks appearing shortly after landing, followed by a significant decrease of activity during late winter, then a progressive increase during early spring. New tracks are characterized by dark linear, to slightly curvilinear, traces ranging from a few to more than 10 m wide. Tracks are oriented in the ambient wind direction, according to measurements made by InSight's meteorological sensors. The systematic analysis of dust devil tracks is useful to have a better understanding of atmospheric and aeolian activity around InSight. Plain Language Summary The NASA InSight mission landed on Mars in November 2018. It carries weather and seismic stations that are now working continuously. We are also able to observe the InSight region from orbit using high-resolution satellite images that have been acquired regularly over the first year of the InSight mission. They show a lot of dark traces on the surface, which are caused by whirlwinds called dust devils raising dust into the air. This phenomenon is not observed at the same rate over the entire year, as it depends on atmospheric conditions that vary with season. Our study with satellite images allows us to understand the characteristics of dust devil tracks and compare them with related measurements from the weather station on board InSight. These two sets of observations are well correlated to each other and provide significant constraints to better characterize the atmospheric activity around InSight and in the region of Elysium Planitia, Mars.
    • Monitoring the Morphology of M87*in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope

      Univ Arizona, Steward Observ; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron; Univ Arizona, Data Sci Inst (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020)
      The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature-a ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry-and to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009-2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of similar to 40 mu as diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.
    • Monophasic action potential amplitude for substrate mapping

      Chinyere, Ikeotunye Royal; Hutchinson, Mathew; Moukabary, Talal; Lancaster, Jordan; Goldman, Steven; Juneman, Elizabeth; Univ Arizona, Sarver Heart Ctr; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2019-10-01)
      Although radiofrequency ablation has revolutionized the management of tachyarrhythmias, the rate of arrhythmia recurrence is a large drawback. Successful substrate identification is paramount to abolishing arrhythmia, and bipolar voltage electrogram's narrow field of view can be further reduced for increased sensitivity. In this report, we perform cardiac mapping with monophasic action potential (MAP) amplitude. We hypothesize that MAP amplitude (MAPA) will provide more accurate infarct sizes than other mapping modalities via increased sensitivity to distinguish healthy myocardium from scar tissue. Using the left coronary artery ligation Sprague-Dawley rat model of ischemic heart failure, we investigate the accuracy of in vivo ventricular epicardial maps derived from MAPA, MAP duration to 90% repolarization (MAPD90), unipolar voltage amplitude (UVA), and bipolar voltage amplitude (BVA) compared with gold standard histopathological measurement of infarct size. Numerical analysis reveals discrimination of healthy myocardium versus scar tissue using MAPD90 (P = 0.0158) and UVA (P < 0.001, n = 21). MAPA and BVA decreased between healthy and border tissue (P = 0.0218 and 0.0015, respectively) and border and scar tissue (P = 0.0037 and 0.0094, respectively). Contrary to our hypothesis, BVA mapping performed most accurately regarding quantifying infarct size. MAPA mapping may have high spatial resolution for myocardial tissue characterization but was quantitatively less accurate than other mapping methods at determining infarct size. BVA mapping's superior utility has been reinforced, supporting its use in translational research and clinical electrophysiology laboratories. MAPA may hold potential value for precisely distinguishing healthy myocardium, border zone, and scar tissue in diseases of disseminated fibrosis such as atrial fibrillation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Monophasic action potential mapping in a clinically relevant model of heart failure with potential implications for atrial fibrillation management.
    • Monopoles Loaded With 3-D-Printed Dielectrics for Future Wireless Intrachip Communications

      Wu, Junqiang; Kodi, Avinash Karanth; Kaya, Savas; Louri, Ahmed; Xin, Hao; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2017-12)
      We propose a novel antenna design enabled by 3-D printing technology for future wireless intrachip interconnects aiming at applications of multicore architectures and system-on-chips. In our proposed design we use vertical quarter-wavelength monopoles at 160 GHz on a ground plane to avoid low antenna radiation efficiency caused by the silicon substrate. The monopoles are surrounded by a specially designed dielectric property distribution. This additional degree of freedom in design enabled by 3-D printing technology is used to tailor the electromagnetic wave propagation. As a result, the desired wireless link gain is enhanced and the undesired spatial crosstalk is reduced. Simulation results show that the proposed dielectric loading approach improves the desired link gain by 8-15 dB and reduces the crosstalk by 9-23 dB from 155 to 165 GHz. As a proof-of-concept, a 60 GHz prototype is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Our measurement results match the simulation results and demonstrate 10-18 dB improvement of the desired link gain and 10-30 dB reduction in the crosstalk from 55 to 61 GHz. The demonstrated transmission loss of the desired link at a distance of 17 mm is only 15 dB, which is over 10 dB better than the previously reported work.
    • Monosialoganglioside-Containing Nanoliposomes Restore Endothelial Function Impaired by AL Amyloidosis Light Chain Proteins.

      Franco, Daniel A; Truran, Seth; Weissig, Volkmar; Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Karamanova, Nina; Senapati, Subhadip; Burciu, Camelia; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Blancas-Mejia, Luis M; Lindsay, Stuart; et al. (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-06-13)
      Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is associated with high mortality, especially in patients with advanced cardiovascular involvement. It is caused by toxicity of misfolded light chain proteins (LC) in vascular, cardiac, and other tissues. There is no treatment to reverse LC tissue toxicity. We tested the hypothesis that nanoliposomes composed of monosialoganglioside, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol (GM1 ganglioside-containing nanoliposomes [NLGM1]) can protect against LC-induced human microvascular dysfunction and assess mechanisms behind the protective effect.
    • Montane forest productivity across a semiarid climatic gradient

      Knowles, John F; Scott, Russell L; Biederman, Joel A; Blanken, Peter D; Burns, Sean P; Dore, Sabina; Kolb, Thomas E; Litvak, Marcy E; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (WILEY, 2020-09-04)
      High-elevation montane forests are disproportionately important to carbon sequestration in semiarid climates where low elevations are dry and characterized by low carbon density ecosystems. However, these ecosystems are increasingly threatened by climate change with seasonal implications for photosynthesis and forest growth. As a result, we leveraged eddy covariance data from six evergreen conifer forest sites in the semiarid western United States to extrapolate the status of carbon sequestration within a framework of projected warming and drying. At colder locations, the seasonal evolution of gross primary productivity (GPP) was characterized by a single broad maximum during the summer that corresponded to snow melt-derived moisture and a transition from winter dormancy to spring activity. Conversely, winter dormancy was transient at warmer locations, and GPP was responsive to both winter and summer precipitation such that two distinct GPP maxima were separated by a period of foresummer drought. This resulted in a predictable sequence of primary limiting factors to GPP beginning with air temperature in winter and proceeding to moisture and leaf area during the summer. Due to counteracting winter (positive) and summer (negative) GPP responses to warming, leaf area index and moisture availability were the best predictors of annual GPP differences across sites. Overall, mean annual GPP was greatest at the warmest site due to persistent vegetation photosynthetic activity throughout the winter. These results indicate that the trajectory of this region's carbon sequestration will be sensitive to reduced or delayed summer precipitation, especially if coupled to snow drought and earlier soil moisture recession, but summer precipitation changes remain highly uncertain. Given the demonstrated potential for seasonally offsetting responses to warming, we project that decadal semiarid montane forest carbon sequestration will remain relatively stable in the absence of severe disturbance.
    • Monte Carlo simulations of electron-sample interactions at phase boundaries and implications for automated mineralogy

      Barton, Isabel; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-08-15)
      Automated mineralogy instrumentation (QEMSCAN, MLA, TIMA) is routinely used for materials characterization in the mining industry. All current techniques identify minerals based on a combination of backscattered electron and chemical (energy-dispersive spectroscopy) signals read from the sample. Boundary zones, where two or more minerals are touching, yield signals that reflect a mix of the characteristics of multiple minerals and that may or may not match anything in the mineral database. These phase boundaries, varying in width, are known to cause errors in automated mineralogy analyses, but what mineral and boundary characteristics affect phase boundary width and how much error phase boundaries can cause remain poorly understood. New Monte Carlo modeling of electron-sample interactions at and near phase boundaries shows that the width of the zone of mixed signals, and hence the amount of error, depends on the grain size and texture of the sample; the densities of the minerals and the ionization potentials of their constituent elements; and the position and orientation of the boundary between the minerals, as well as various instrumental factors such as beam accelerating voltage. Error induced by phase boundaries is high when a high accelerating voltage is used to examine fine-grained samples with complex (intergrowth, exsolution) textures that involve low-density minerals with low-ionization-potential elements. Error is low when the sample is coarse-grained, lacks complex textural relationships that create boundary area, and consists of high-density minerals with high-ionization-potential elements, which have a higher electron stopping power and prevent the beam from spreading out as much. Where low- and high-density minerals are in contact at an angled boundary, the width of the boundary zone is low when the high-density mineral is on top and high when the low-density phase is on top. Calculations based on these simulations indicate that the amount of area that could fall within phase boundary zones depends strongly on grain size, shape, and width of boundary zone. Boundary phases may contribute significantly to overall analytical error for fine-grained minerals with low densities and composed of elements with low ionization potentials, but for most samples the boundary phase area is likely to be < 5% of the total surface area and the error relatively small. Errors induced by boundary phases will probably continue to annoy geometallurgists for some time, but with proper laboratory procedures for validating and cross-checking automated mineralogy results, they should not be a major component of error for most samples.
    • Montelukast Improves Symptoms and Lung Function in Asthmatic Women Compared With Men

      Esposito, Renata; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Giannattasio, Domenico; Ferrigno, Francesco; Liparulo, Angela; Rossi, Antonietta; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Sessa, Maurizio; Falciani, Maddalena; Berrino, Liberato; et al. (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-09-24)
      Purpose: Gender differences exist in the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases, partially due to the effects of sex hormones on the development of allergic manifestations. Women, compared with men, are more prone to suffer allergic asthma, experience difficulties in controlling asthma symptoms, and show adverse responses to drugs. However, there are knowledge gaps on the effectiveness of anti-leukotrienes drugs on lung function, symptoms, and pulmonary and systemic inflammation in adult asthmatic women compared with men. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the effectiveness of an anti-leukotrienes drug, montelukast (MS), in asthmatic adult women and men. Methods: Twenty-one asthmatic subjects (11 women and 10 men), who were on low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), were treated with MS. The optimal control of the symptoms was achieved in both groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. At enrollment, and after 13 weeks from the beginning of MS, pulmonary function tests and asthma control tests were performed, and the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophils levels were measured. Results: From baseline until the end of the study, women treated with MS + ICS had better control of the asthmatic symptoms, defined as higher asthma control test (ACT) score (17.00 +/- 1.07 to 23.36 +/- 0.45; p < 0.0015), improved pulmonary function [with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (from 77.25 +/- 6.79 to 103.88 +/- 6.24; p < 0.0077)], and forced vital capacity (from 91.95 +/- 6.81 to 113.17 +/- 4.79; p < 0.0183) compared with men. Interestingly, MS + ICS-treated women had significantly lower levels of blood eosinophils (from 5.27 +/- 0.30 to 3.30 +/- 0.31; p < 0.0449) and exhaled nitric oxide (from 44.70 +/- 7.30 to 25.20 +/- 3.90; p < 0.0294) compared with men. Conclusion: The treatment with MS, added to ICS, in women leads to better control of symptoms, better management of lung function, and decreased inflammation levels compared with ICS + MS treatment in men.
    • Monumental architecture at Aguada Fénix and the rise of Maya civilization

      Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Vázquez López, Verónica A; Fernandez-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Omori, Takayuki; Méndez Bauer, María Belén; García Hernández, Melina; Beach, Timothy; Cagnato, Clarissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-06-03)
      Archaeologists have traditionally thought that the development of Maya civilization was gradual, assuming that small villages began to emerge during the Middle Preclassic period (1000-350 bc; dates are calibrated throughout) along with the use of ceramics and the adoption of sedentism(1). Recent finds of early ceremonial complexes are beginning to challenge this model. Here we describe an airborne lidar survey and excavations of the previously unknown site of Aguada Fenix (Tabasco, Mexico) with an artificial plateau, which measures 1,400 m in length and 10 to 15 m in height and has 9 causeways radiating out from it. We dated this construction to between 1000 and 800 bc using a Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. To our knowledge, this is the oldest monumental construction ever found in the Maya area and the largest in the entire pre-Hispanic history of the region. Although the site exhibits some similarities to the earlier Olmec centre of San Lorenzo, the community of Aguada Fenix probably did not have marked social inequality comparable to that of San Lorenzo. Aguada Fenix and other ceremonial complexes of the same period suggest the importance of communal work in the initial development of Maya civilization. Lidar survey of the Maya lowlands uncovers the monumental site of Aguada Fenix, which dates to around 1000-800 bc and points to the role of communal construction in the development of Maya civilization.
    • Moral hazard in active asset management

      Brown, David C.; Davies, Shaun William; Eller College of Management, University of Arizona (ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2017-08)
      We consider a model of active asset management in which mutual fund managers exert unobservable effort to earn excess returns. Investors allocate capital to actively managed funds and passively managed products. In equilibrium, investors are indifferent between investing an additional dollar with an active manager or with a passively managed product. As passively managed products become more attractive to investors, active managers’ revenues from portfolio-management services fall, reducing their effort incentives. More-severe decreasing-returns-to-scale are also associated with reduced incentives and increased moral hazard. Performance-based fees and holdings-based data are all unlikely to mitigate moral hazard.
    • The Moral Incompetence of Anti-corruption Experts

      Juarez-Garcia, Mario I.; Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2021-01-19)
      This paper studies the lessons of principled anti-corruption experts who dared to fulfill their duty of justice in highly corrupt societies, through the true story of Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, the former Finance Minister of Nigeria. My thesis is that when principled anti-corruption experts are epistemic trespassers (when they fail to identify the limits of their skills), they show moral incompetence (the tendency of principled agents to bungle moral situations). Okonjo-Iweala shows moral incompetence in two ways: she misread the opposition to her strategies and misled other honest reformers. Both actions bungled her efforts to eradicate corruption inasmuch as they hindered the possibility of finding successful anti-corruption policies. Okonjo-Iweala’s moral incompetence is, I argue, the result of her epistemic trespassing that led her to act like an expert in an environment where she was not. I conclude that, in highly corrupt societies, principled anti-corruption experts should embrace moral humility, stop thinking that they are experts, and act more like students, asking questions and not rushing to think that they understand the answers. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.
    • The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

      Luong, Thang M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I; Lahmers, Timothy; Adams, David K.; Ochoa-Moya, Carlos A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, and Centro de la Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; et al. (AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC, 2017-09)
      Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during "historical past" (1950-70) and "present day" (1991-2010) periods. Severe weather events are the days on which the highest atmospheric instability and moisture occur within a long-term regional climate simulation. Simulations of severe weather event days are performed with convective-permitting (2.5 km) grid spacing, and these simulations are compared with available observed precipitation data to evaluate the model performance and to verify any statistically significant model-simulated trends in precipitation. Statistical evaluation of precipitation extremes is performed using a peaks-over-threshold approach with a generalized Pareto distribution. A statistically significant long-term increase in atmospheric moisture and instability is associated with an increase in extreme monsoon precipitation in observations and simulations of severe weather events, corresponding to similar behavior in station-based precipitation observations in the Southwest. Precipitation is becoming more intense within the context of the diurnal cycle of convection. The largest modeled increases in extreme-event precipitation occur in central and southwestern Arizona, where mesoscale convective systems account for a majority of monsoon precipitation and where relatively large modeled increases in precipitable water occur. Therefore, it is concluded that a more favorable thermodynamic environment in the southwestern United States is facilitating stronger organized monsoon convection during at least the last 20 years.
    • More of a Cause?

      Sartorio, Carolina; Univ Arizona, Dept Philosophy (WILEY, 2020-07)
      Does a person's liability to attack during a war depend on the nature of their individual causal contribution to the (unjust) threat posed? If so, how? The recent literature on the ethics of war has become increasingly focused on questions of this kind. According to some views on these matters, your liability hinges on the extent of your causal contribution: the larger your contribution to an unjust threat, the larger the amount of harm that we can impose on you in order to avert the threat. Some philosophers have suggested that we can ground a quite general principle of civilian immunity on this basis. But, do causal contributions really come in degrees? Can we make sense of a graded notion of causal contribution that can be relevant to debates about liability in war? I argue there is good reason to be sceptical. The appearance that causal contributions come in degrees is just an illusion that can be explained away.
    • More rapid C14 excursions in the tree-ring record: A record of different kind of solar activity at about 800 BC?

      Jull, A J Timothy; Panyushkina, Irina; Miyake, Fusa; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nakamura, Toshio; Mitsutani, Takumi; Lange, Todd E; Cruz, Richard J; Baisan, Chris; Janovics, Robert; et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, 2018)
      Two radiocarbon (14C) excursions are caused by an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short time scale found in the Late Holocene (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994), which are widely explained as due to extreme solar proton events (SPE). In addition, a larger event has also been reported at 5480 BC (Miyake et al. 2017a), which is attributed to a special mode of a grand solar minimum, as well as another at 660 BC (Park et al. 2017). Clearly, other events must exist, but could have different causes. In order to detect more such possible events, we have identified periods when the 14C increase rate is rapid and large in the international radiocarbon calibration (IntCal) data (Reimer et al. 2013). In this paper, we follow on from previous studies and identify a possible excur- sion starting at 814–813 BC, which may be connected to the beginning of a grand solar minimum associated with the beginning of the Hallstatt period, which is characterized by relatively constant 14C ages in the period from 800–400 BC. We compare results of annual 14C measurements from tree rings of sequoia (California) and cedar (Japan), and compare these results to other identified excursions, as well as geomagnetic data. We note that the structure of the increase from 813 BC is similar to the increase at 5480 BC, suggesting a related origin. We also assess whether there are different kinds of events that may be observed and may be consistent with different types of solar phenomena, or other explanations.
    • More replenishment than priming loss of soil organic carbon with additional carbon input

      Liang, Junyi; Zhou, Zhenghu; Huo, Changfu; Shi, Zheng; Cole, James R.; Huang, Lei; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Bo; Luo, Zhongkui; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-08-09)
      Increases in carbon (C) inputs to soil can replenish soil organic C (SOC) through various mechanisms. However, recent studies have suggested that the increased C input can also stimulate the decomposition of old SOC via priming. Whether the loss of old SOC by priming can override C replenishment has not been rigorously examined. Here we show, through data-model synthesis, that the magnitude of replenishment is greater than that of priming, resulting in a net increase in SOC by a mean of 32% of the added new C. The magnitude of the net increase in SOC is positively correlated with the nitrogen-to-C ratio of the added substrates. Additionally, model evaluation indicates that a two-pool interactive model is a parsimonious model to represent the SOC decomposition with priming and replenishment. Our findings suggest that increasing C input to soils likely promote SOC accumulation despite the enhanced decomposition of old C via priming.
    • More than 100 W, 18 cm Yb-doped phosphate fiber amplifier

      Kotov, Leonid V.; Akbulut, Mehmetcan; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Zong, Jie; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-03-07)
      Phosphate glass is an attractive material for rare-earth-doped fiber manufacturing because high doping levels are possible without introducing negative effects such as up-conversion or increased non-radiative recombination. In this paper we present a novel PM heavily Yb-doped polarization maintaining large mode area phosphate fiber and a > 100 W power level amplifier based on this fiber. The fiber was fabricated by a rod-in-tube technique. An 18 cm long piece of the fiber was used to build a high-power all-fiber amplifier. 106 W of output power at 1030 nm was achieved with 55 % slope efficiency with respect to the launched pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power ever demonstrated for short phosphate fiber lasers.
    • More than a decade in the making: A study of the implementation of India's Right to Information Act

      Relly, Jeannine E.; Rabbi, Md. Fazle; Sabharwal, Meghna; Pakanati, Rajdeep; Schwalbe, Ethan H.; Univ Arizona, Sch Journalism (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-12)
      India's progressive Right to Information Act (RTIA) is a global model. The RTIA was adopted a decade and a half ago to serve as a check on corruption and to advance democracy, citizen equity and public accountability. Little primary research has been conducted on the implementation of the RTIA. This research employs a socio-political and technocratic framework to study influences on RTIA implementation over time from the citizen requester 'demand-side' and the governmental 'supply-side' from an institutional development process perspective. Our constructivist approach utilizes in-depth semi-structured interviews from frequent information requesters and information commissioners (N = 114) and a new dataset of a random stratified sample of information commissioner decisions for release of information under the RTIA (N = 500). We found that political will, bureaucratic culture, and societal activism and engagement were the strongest overarching socio-political factors impacting implementation. Socio-political subfactors that appeared weak or wanting in the RTI regime were leadership, oversight, coordination, positive workplace incentives, reflexivity, and public information officer communication style with citizen requesters. Technocratic constraints, directly influenced by socio-political factors that impact implementation, included follow-through on administrative policies and rules, capacity building, monitoring, oversight, and sanctions. This study found that technocratic factors included in the institutional design of RTI legislation may not be sufficient for short-term institutional change in cultures of bureaucratic secrecy. However, coalitions of citizens, civil society organizations, media, engaged public officials, and interested politicians can drive a transparency agenda in a country when political will and bureaucratic leadership are weak. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    • Morpho-pomological and chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Iran

      Rahimi, Ali Mohammad; Jafarpour, Mehrdad; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci; Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25)
      This study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of five pomegranates fruit (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Iran. Significant differences were found among the pomegranate cultivars for many of the properties studied. Results showed that, in particular, fruit diameter ranged from 63.63 mm (Syah) to 79.29 mm (Rabab), fruit volume from 153.3 cm3 (Syah) to 293.3 cm3 (Rabab), fruit density from 0.93 g cm-3 (Rabab) to 1.13 g cm-3 (Torsh Sefeed). Although Syah showed the lowest fruit weight (144.8 g), fruit yield (8.28 ton ha–1) and fruit skin thickness (1.55 mm), Rabab had the highest fruit yield (27.1 ton ha–1) and fruit skin thickness (2.32 mm). Juice volume was between 61.1 and 67.0 cm3. Percent of aril ranged from 59.64% (Rabab) to 75.3% (Syah) and weight of aril was between 108.9 and 199.8 g. Also, results indicated that titratable acidity content varied from 0.39% (Syah) to 1.13% (Torsh Sefeed). The total soluble solids content varied from 12.67 ◦Brix (Torsh Sefeed) to 15.67 ◦Brix (Zardeh Anar), pH values from 3.05 to 3.77, Electrical conductivity values from 2.8 to 3.14 dSm-1 and vitamin C content from 59.25 to 69.52 mg 100g1. The anthocyanins content was observed between 80.36 (Syah) and 216.97 (Zardeh Anar). The antioxidant activity of pomegranate cultivars ranged from 27.24% (Syah) to 84.04% (Torsh Sefeed). These results demonstrated that the cultivar was the major factor which influences the morpho-pomological and chemical (especially, antioxidant activity), properties in pomegranates.
    • Morphology Dependence of Stellar Age in Quenched Galaxies at Redshift ∼1.2:Massive Compact Galaxies Are Older than More Extended Ones

      Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Bezanson, Rachel; Cappelluti, Nico; Cassata, Paolo; Liu, Teng; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Vanzella, Eros; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-30)
      We report the detection of morphology-dependent stellar age in massive quenched galaxies (QGs) at z similar to 1.2. The sense of the dependence is that compact QGs are 0.5-2 Gyr older than normal-sized ones. The evidence comes from three different age indicators-D(n)4000, H-delta, and fits to spectral synthesis models-applied to their stacked optical spectra. All age indicators consistently show that the stellar populations of compact QGs are older than those of their normal-sized counterparts. We detect weak [O II] emission in a fraction of QGs, and the strength of the line, when present, is similar between the two samples; however, compact galaxies exhibit a. significantly lower frequency of [O II] emission than normal ones. Fractions of both samples are individually detected in 7Ms Chandra X-ray images (luminosities similar to 10(40) - 10(41) erg s(-1)). The 7Ms stacks of nondetected galaxies show similarly low luminosities in the soft band only, consistent with a hot gas origin for the X-ray emission. While both [O II] emitters and nonemitters are also X-ray sources among normal galaxies, no compact galaxy with [O II] emission is an X-ray source, arguing against an active galactic nucleus (AGN) powering the line in compact galaxies. We interpret the [O II] properties as further evidence that compact galaxies are older and further along in. the process of quenching star formation and suppressing gas accretion. Finally, we argue that the older age of compact QGs is evidence of progenitor bias: compact QGs simply reflect the smaller sizes of galaxies at their earlier quenching epoch, with stellar density most likely having nothing directly to do with cessation of star formation.