This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.


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Recent Submissions

  • A Deliberate Bit Flipping Coding Scheme for Data-Dependent Two-Dimensional Channels

    Bahrami, Mohsen; Vasic, Bane; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-02)
    In this paper, we present a deliberate bit flipping (DBF) coding scheme for binary two-dimensional (2-D) channels, where specific patterns in channel inputs are the significant cause of errors. The idea is to eliminate a constrained encoder and, instead, embed a constraint into an error correction codeword that is arranged into a 2-D array by deliberately flipping the bits that violate the constraint. The DBF method relies on the error correction capability of the code being used so that it should be able to correct both deliberate errors and channel errors. Therefore, it is crucial to flip minimum number of bits in order not to overburden the error correction decoder. We devise a constrained combinatorial formulation for minimizing the number of flipped bits for a given set of harmful patterns. The generalized belief propagation algorithm is used to find an approximate solution for the problem. We evaluate the performance gain of our proposed approach on a data-dependent 2-D channel, where 2-D isolated-bits patterns are the harmful patterns for the channel. Furthermore, the performance of the DBF method is compared with classical 2-D constrained coding schemes for the 2-D no isolated-bits constraint on a memoryless binary symmetric channel.
  • An open, scalable, and flexible framework for automated aerial measurement of field experiments

    Schnaufer, Christophe; Pistorius, Julian L.; LeBauer, David S.; Univ Arizona (SPIE, 2020-05-19)
    Unoccupied areal vehicles (UAVs or drones) are increasingly used in field research. Drones capable of routinely and consistently capturing high quality imagery of experimental fields have become relatively inexpensive. However, converting these images into scientifically useable data has become a bottleneck. A number of tools exist to support this work ow, but there is no framework for making these tools interopreable, sharable, and scalable. Here we present an initial draft of the Drone Processing Pipeline (DPP), a framework for processing agricultural research imagery that supports best practices and interoperability. DPP emphasizes open software and data that can be shared among and used in whole or part by the research community. We are building the DPP as a distributed, scalable, and flexible pipeline for converting drone imagery into orthomosaics, point clouds, and plot level statistics. Our intent is not to replace, but to integrate components from the emerging ecosystem of utilities with a focus on end-to-end automation and scalability. The initial focus of DPP is the measurements of experimental plots in field research. In the future we expect that standardization will enable new scientific discovery by facilitating collaboration and sharing of software and data. Our vision is to create a processing pipeline that is open, flexible, extensible, portable, and automated. With modern tools, deploying a pipeline on a laptop or HPC should only take a single command. Running a pipeline and publishing data should require only input data and a defined work flow.
  • Searching for Planets Orbiting α Cen A with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Beichman, Charles; Ygouf, Marie; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Mawet, Dimitri; Yung, Yuk; Choquet, Elodie; Kervella, Pierre; Boccaletti, Anthony; Belikov, Ruslan; Lissauer, Jack J.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-01)
    a Centauri A is the closest solar-type star to the Sun and offers an excellent opportunity to detect the thermal emission of a mature planet heated by its host star. The MIRI coronagraph on the James Webb Space Telescope can search the 1-3 au (1"-2") region around a Cen A which is predicted to be stable within the a Cen AB system. We demonstrate that with reasonable performance of the telescope and instrument, a 20 hr program combining on-target and reference star observations at 15.5 pm could detect thermal emission from planets as small as 5 R. Multiple visits every 3-6 months would increase the geometrical completeness, provide astrometric confirmation of detected sources, and push the radius limit down to 3 R. An exozodiacal cloud only a few times brighter than our own should also be detectable, although a sufficiently bright cloud might obscure any planet present in the system. While current precision radial velocity (PRV) observations set a limit of 50-100 Mjs, at 1-3 au for planets orbiting a Cen A, there is a broad range of exoplanet radii up to 10 Rjs, consistent with these mass limits. A carefully planned observing sequence along with state-of-the-art postprocessing analysis could reject the light from a Cen A at the level of 10-5 at 1"-2" and minimize the influence of a Cen B located 7"-8" away in the 2022-2023 timeframe. These space-based observations would complement on-going imaging experiments at shorter wavelengths as well as PRV and astrometric experiments to detect planets dynamically. Planetary demographics suggest that the likelihood of directly imaging a planet whose mass and orbit are consistent with present PRV limits is small, 5%, and possibly lower if the presence of a binary companion further reduces occurrence rates. However, at a distance of just 1.34 pc, a Cen A is our closest sibling star and certainly merits close scrutiny.
  • Clinical and Polysomnographic Correlates of Subjective Sleepiness in Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Omobomi, Olabimpe; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Quan, Stuart F; Univ Arizona, Asthma & Airway Dis Res Ctr (Springer Singapore, 2019-06-19)
    Purpose: The decision to treat mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often hinges on the presence of subjective daytime sleepiness. This study was done to identify clinical and polysomnographic features which correlate with subjective sleepiness in mild OSA. Methods: Utilizing data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study, 199 participants with mild OSA were identified. Participants were grouped as "sleepy" or "non-sleepy" based on their responses to a question regarding excessive daytime sleepiness, and Epworth Sleepiness Scores. We compared demographic, clinical and baseline polysomnographic data between the groups. Results: The prevalence of subjective sleepiness was 74.4%. The sleepy group was younger (46.1 ± 12.6 vs. 53.3 ± 13.1 years, p=0.001), reported lower quality of life (4.5 ± 0.69 vs. 4.9 ± 0.61, p=0.0002), had higher depression scores (5.4 ± 4.7 vs. 3.1 ± 3.5, p=0.003) and reported more naps per week (2.6 ± 2.9 vs. 1.3 ± 1.9, p=0.01). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were notably higher in the sleepy (254.2 ± 106 vs. 220.4 ± 114 min, p=0.08) and (80.2 ± 12.6 vs. 75.7 ± 14.9 %, p=0.06), approaching statistical significance. The non-sleepy group had slightly higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI: 12.2 ± 1.5 vs. 11.2 ± 2.4 events/hour, p=0.01) and worse desaturation indices. Conclusions: Subjective sleepiness in mild OSA is associated with younger age, worsened mood and quality of life. This study suggests that evidence of increased sleep drive on polysomnography may correlate with subjective sleepiness in mild OSA.
  • Can Sural Fasciocutaneous Flaps Be Effective in Patients Older Than 65?

    Roberts, Haydn J.; DeSilva, Gregory L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Orthopaed (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-04)
    Background Many studies have evaluated the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for coverage of wounds on the distal lower extremity, and many of these have focused on younger, healthy patients. However, to our knowledge, there has been no dedicated study focusing on older patients. We believe there is a generalized concern about performing these procedures in older patients because of microvascular changes associated with aging. Questions/purposes (1) What is the likelihood of flap survival in a small series of patients older than 64 years who underwent reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap for coverage of lower extremity wounds? (2) What additional procedures did patients undergo after treatment with this flap? Methods From 2009 to 2018, we identified 16 patients, 64 years or older, who underwent a retrograde sural fasciocutaneous flap. Patients were a mean (range) age of 71.5 years (64 to 87). The average size of the flaps was 30 cm(2) (range 12 to 64 cm(2)). The reverse sural artery flap was indicated when the skin could not be closed primarily and there was not a suitable vascularized bed of tissue for a split-thickness skin graft. All patients underwent a wide-based pedicle (3 cm to 4 cm), reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap with all but one completed in a "flap delay" manner, between 2 to 7 days, and without the use of microsurgery or doppler. Thirteen flaps were done to cover wounds that occurred over fractures while three were performed to cover chronic wounds. We performed a retrospective review of the electronic health record to ascertain patient comorbidities, age, timing of coverage, and size of the wound. Results In all, 94% of flaps (15 of 16) survived with 100% viability. One flap had 30% skin necrosis at the distal tip. The flap ultimately healed with in-office wound care, and epithelization occurred over the intact fascia. A total of five additional procedures were performed in five patients. Although the flap ultimately healed, an 87-year-old patient with partial flap necrosis ultimately elected for below-knee amputation for a persistent tibial infected nonunion. Another patient, despite a healed flap, eventually underwent a below-knee amputation 3 years later for a chronic osteomyelitis present before undergoing the reverse sural flap. One patient developed a pseudomonal infection of their Gustillo-Anderson IIIB open tibia fracture, resulting in a surgical procedure for debridement, after which the flap healed. Two patients underwent underlying hardware removal to relieve wound tension and allow for complete flap healing. No patients underwent further coverage procedures. Conclusions In this small series, we found fewer complications than have been observed in prior studies, despite our series consisting solely of higher-risk, older patients. We believe this may have been attributable to the period of delay before placing the flap, which has been previously associated with higher flap survival and which allows for an extra recipient-site debridement. We believe this procedure can be performed by appropriately trained orthopaedic surgeons because it does not need microsurgery.
  • Increasing synergistic effects of habitat destruction and hunting on mammals over three decades in the Gran Chaco

    Romero‐Muñoz, Alfredo; Benítez‐López, Ana; Zurell, Damaris; Baumann, Matthias; Camino, Micaela; Decarre, Julieta; Castillo, Hugo; Giordano, Anthony J.; Gómez‐Valencia, Bibiana; Levers, Christian; et al. (WILEY, 2020-04-16)
    Habitat destruction and overexploitation are the main threats to biodiversity and where they co-occur, their combined impact is often larger than their individual one. Yet, detailed knowledge of the spatial footprints of these threats is lacking, including where they overlap and how they change over time. These knowledge gaps are real barriers for effective conservation planning. Here, we develop a novel approach to reconstruct the individual and combined footprints of both threats over time. We combine satellite-based land-cover change maps, habitat suitability models and hunting pressure models to demonstrate our approach for the community of larger mammals (48 species > 1 kg) across the 1.1 million km(2) Gran Chaco region, a global deforestation hotspot covering parts of Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. This provides three key insights. First, we find that the footprints of habitat destruction and hunting pressure expanded considerably between 1985 and 2015, across 40% of the entire Chaco - twice the area affected by deforestation. Second, both threats increasingly acted together within the ranges of larger mammals in the Chaco (17% increase on average, +/- 20% SD, cumulative increase of co-occurring threats across 465 000 km(2)), suggesting large synergistic effects. Conversely, core areas of high-quality habitats declined on average by 38%. Third, we identified remaining priority areas for conservation in the northern and central Chaco, many of which are outside the protected area network. We also identify hotspots of high threat impacts in central Paraguay and northern Argentina, providing a spatial template for threat-specific conservation action. Overall, our findings suggest increasing synergistic effects between habitat destruction and hunting pressure in the Chaco, a situation likely common in many tropical deforestation frontiers. Our work highlights how threats can be traced in space and time to understand their individual and combined impact, even in situations where data are sparse.
  • Vegetation‐groundwater dynamics at a former uranium mill site following invasion of a biocontrol agent: A time series analysis of Landsat normalized difference vegetation index data

    Jarchow, Christopher J.; Waugh, William J.; Didan, Kamel; Barreto‐Muñoz, Armando; Herrmann, Stefanie; Nagler, Pamela L.; Univ Arizona, Biosyst Engn; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (WILEY, 2020-04-29)
    Because groundwater recharge in dry regions is generally low, arid and semiarid environments have been considered well-suited for long-term isolation of hazardous materials (e.g., radioactive waste). In these dry regions, water lost (transpired) by plants and evaporated from the soil surface, collectively termed evapotranspiration (ET), is usually the primary discharge component in the water balance. Therefore, vegetation can potentially affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport at waste disposal sites. We studied vegetation health and ET dynamics at a Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) disposal site in Shiprock, New Mexico, where a floodplain alluvial aquifer was contaminated by mill effluent. Vegetation on the floodplain was predominantly deep-rooted, non-native tamarisk shrubs (Tamarix sp.). After the introduction of the tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda sp.) as a biocontrol agent, the health of the invasive tamarisk on the Shiprock floodplain declined. We used Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to measure greenness and a remote sensing algorithm to estimate landscape-scale ET along the floodplain of the UMTRCA site in Shiprock prior to (2000-2009) and after (2010-2018) beetle establishment. Using groundwater level data collected from 2011 to 2014, we also assessed the role of ET in explaining seasonal variations in depth to water of the floodplain. Growing season scaled NDVI decreased 30% (p <.001), while ET decreased 26% from the pre- to post-beetle period and seasonal ET estimates were significantly correlated with groundwater levels from 2011 to 2014 (r(2) =.71; p =.009). Tamarisk greenness (a proxy for health) was significantly affected by Diorhabda but has partially recovered since 2012. Despite this, increased ET demand in the summer/fall period might reduce contaminant transport to the San Juan River during this period.
  • Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Near-Infrared-Emitting CdSe@CdSe Nanorods in Aqueous Solution

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zheng, Yilong; Saavedra, S. Scott; Pavlopoulos, Nicholas G.; Pyun, Jeffrey; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2020-04-14)
    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) was observed from TOPO-capped CdSe@CdSe nanorods (NRs) depositing on a metal electrode in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Two ECL peaks at -1.05 and -1.33 V in pH 9.2, 0.1 M PBS were found under cyclic voltammetric conditions. Cyclic voltammetry of this solution displayed no distinctive features, on the other hand, light emission was observed during cyclic potential scans. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum showed an emission maximum at 692 nm. The spectrum of ECL possesses one peak which coincides very well with the PL spectrum of the nanorods film. The mechanism for ECL peaks was proposed. Electron transfer reactions between charged nanorods and molecular redox-active coreactants such as dissolved oxygen and H2O2 or between positively and negatively charged nanorods occurred that led to electron and hole annihilation, producing light. (C) 2020 The Electrochemical Society ("ECS"). Published on behalf of ECS by IOP Publishing Limited.
  • Try-It-On: Preparing family nurse practitioners to use holistic integrative interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions in chronic pain management

    Gregg, S Renee; Brown, Angela; Pasvogel, Alice; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-01)
    In the United States, more than 130 people die each day from an opioid overdose. Nonopioid chronic pain management options are necessary in primary care. This educational innovation describes a new curriculum to teach future family nurse practitioner (FNP) prescribers holistic integrative interventions to decrease overprescribing of opioids for chronic pain management. The Modeling and Role Modeling theory and Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model guided the development and implementation of the curriculum innovation using a Try-It-On teaching-learning strategy, which focuses on immersion experience. The focus was to teach students to communicate effectively with patients in an effort to increase patient awareness of the pathophysiology of pain, risks of opioid use, and holistic integrative pain management options. Students learned to manage chronic pain within a holistic focus through immersion within integrative modalities, such as yoga, meditation, mindfulness, and guided imagery. Pre and post participation evaluations documented students' increased comfort level managing patients with chronic pain. Students reported they were much more likely to prescribe holistic integrative modalities after completing the Try-It-On learning modules. Holistic integrative interventions are a viable treatment option and/or adjunct treatment for chronic pain management. In conclusion, using the Try-It-On, teaching-learning strategy provided FNP students with the tools needed to prescribe nonopioid holistic integrative interventions to manage chronic pain.
  • All-fiber polarization-maintaining mode-locked laser operated at 980 nm

    Aleshkina, Svetlana S; Fedotov, Andrei; Korobko, Dmitrii; Stoliarov, Dmitrii; Lipatov, Denis S; Velmiskin, Vladimir V; Temyanko, Valery L; Kotov, Leonid V; Gumenyuk, Regina; Likhachev, Mikhail E; et al. (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2020-04-15)
    For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we present an all-fiber polarization-maintaining passively mode-locked picosecond laser operated at 980 nm. The laser cavity had a ring configuration with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror as a mode-locking element. As an active medium, we used a specially designed cladding-pumped . Yb-doped fiber with reduced cladding-to-core diameter ratio. The laser was self-starting and operated in the net cavity normal dispersion regime, where a spectral profile of the gain medium acted as a filter element. By intracavity spectral filtering, we achieved about 40 dB dominance of the signal wavelength at 980 nm over 1 mu m emission in a highly stable picosecond pulsed regime. The corresponding simulation was performed to extend the knowledge about laser operation. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America
  • Increased language co-activation leads to enhanced cross-linguistic phonetic convergence

    Simonet, Miquel; Amengual, Mark; Univ Arizona, Spanish & Appl Linguist (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-04)
    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of bilingual language modes (or settings) on the speech production patterns of a group of early Catalan/Spanish bilinguals from Majorca, Spain. Our main research question was as follows: Are bilingual speech patterns modulated by the level of (co-)activation of a bilingual’s two languages? Design: Bilingual participants were classified as a function of their linguistic experience (or dominance), from Catalan- to Spanish-dominant. Subsequently, we recorded their speech in two experimental settings: a unilingual setting in which only Catalan words were uttered, and a bilingual setting in which both Catalan and Spanish words (cognates) were produced in random order. Data and Analysis: The study examined the acoustic realization of Spanish and Catalan unstressed /a/, which surfaces as [a] in Spanish but is reduced to schwa, [ə], in Catalan. The acoustic characteristics of unstressed /a/ were explored across the two languages and the two experimental settings. Findings: Catalan unstressed /a/, which was similarly reduced to schwa in the speech of all participants, became slightly more similar to Spanish unstressed /a/ (i.e., it had a higher first formant) when produced alongside Spanish words (bilingual setting) than when produced in a Catalan unilingual setting. There were no effects of linguistic experience, and the effects of setting did not interact with experience. Originality: Very few studies have reported effects of dynamic cross-linguistic interference in phonetic production, and even fewer have reported them with a phonetic variable resulting from a language-specific phonological process (unstressed vowel reduction) rather than a phonemic contrast. Implications: These findings suggest that cross-linguistic interaction is dynamic and modulated by language activation, and that an absence of dominance effects does not necessarily entail an absence of online cross-linguistic phonetic influence.
  • High Verdet constant of Te20As30Se50 glass in the mid-infrared

    Mollaee, Masoud; Lucas, Pierre; Ari, Julien; Zhu, Xiushan; Lukowski, Michal; Manzur, Tariq; Peyghambarian, N; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2020-04-15)
    Magneto-optical properties of tellurium-arsenic-selenium glass (Te20As30Se50) were measured and analyzed. A Verdet constant of 15.18 rad/T/m at 1950 nm with the figure of merit of more than 8.72 rad/T, which is the highest value reported in glass materials at this wavelength, was measured. Compared to other chalcogenide glasses, such as Ge10Se90 and Ge25As15S60, Te20As30Se50 glass exhibits higher Verdet constants, broader mid-infrared transparency window, and longer infrared absorption edge, making it a very promising material to fabricate magneto-optical devices for mid-infrared applications.
  • Feasibility and acceptability of a proposed pharmacy-based harm reduction intervention to reduce opioid overdose, HIV and hepatitis C

    Meyerson, B E; Agley, J D; Jayawardene, W; Eldridge, L A; Arora, P; Smith, C; Vadiei, N; Kennedy, A; Moehling, T; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm; et al. (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-05)
    Background: Evidence-based harm reduction intervention components which might benefit pharmacy patients have not been integrated and studied. Objective: To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a proposed pharmacy-based harm reduction intervention to reduce opioid overdose, HIV and hepatitis C called PharmNet. Methods: Indiana managing pharmacists were surveyed in 2018 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention for opioid misuse screening, brief intervention, syringe and naloxone dispensing, and referrals provision. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research informed the survey development and analysis. Results: The sample included 303 (30.8%) pharmacists; 215 (70.9%) provided detailed written comments. Intervention Characteristics: 83.3% believed PharmNet would benefit patients, and that staff could deliver the intervention with adequate training (70.0%). Inner Setting: While 77.2% believed their pharmacy culture supported practice change, 57.5% of chain pharmacists believed their pharmacies would not have time for PharmNet. Outer Setting: 73.3% believed additional addiction and overdose screening is needed in their community, and pharmacies should offer new services to help reduce opioid overdose and addiction among their patients (79.5%). A vast majority (97.7%) were asked by patients in the past 2 years about syringe related issues; 67.7% were asked about syringes for non-prescription injection drug use. Individuals Involved: While 62.4% believed PharmNet was within pharmacy scope of practice and 90.1% were comfortable consulting about syringe use, pharmacists reported that they had limited control over the implementation environment. Process: 38.0% of pharmacists indicated interest in advising the development of PharmNet. Conclusions: An implementation trial of a modified version of PharmNet is likely feasible; yet will be challenged by structural pressures particularly in chain pharmacies. Successful implementation will involve the development of resources and policy components to manage outer and inner setting characteristics and align the intervention to the implementation environment.
  • Understanding the perception of stakeholders in reducing adolescent-to-parent violence/aggression

    Shanholtz, Caroline E; O'Hara, Karey L; Duchschere, Jennifer E; Beck, Connie J; Lawrence, Erika; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-04)
    Introduction: Adolescent-to-parent violence/aggression (APV/A) is an understudied yet increasingly common social problem for adolescents and families, particularly those involved in the juvenile justice system. The current study focused on improving interventions for this population by gathering qualitative data from stakeholders to inform treatment targets. Methods: Participants (N = 23) comprised of court professionals (n = 7), parents/guardians (n = 9), and their male adolescent children (n = 7) in the United States. Parent and adolescent participants were recruited through monthly court-mandated domestic violence education classes offered by the juvenile court. Parent/guardian participants were between the ages of 38 and 77 and consisted of four males and five females. Adolescents were between the ages of 14 and 17. Court professional participants consisted of judges, probation officers, and court psychologists. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory. Results: Results indicated that, from the perspective of key stakeholders, an effective intervention to reduce APV/A likely involves a two-pronged approach: (1) address specific and theoretically modifiable emotional, behavioral, and psychological factors at the adolescent-level; and (2) induce change in the family system by addressing environmental barriers to seeking treatment and by creating positive family relationships. Conclusions: The present study aimed to gather the perspectives of court professionals, adolescents, and parents/guardians regarding the development of an effective intervention for APV/A-involved families. This study represents the first step toward the development of a feasible, acceptable, sustainable, and effective intervention for adolescents and their families who are involved in the juvenile justice system due to APV/A.
  • Fluorescence and Multiphoton Imaging for Tissue Characterization of a Model of Postmenopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Sawyer, Travis W; Koevary, Jennifer W; Howard, Caitlin C; Austin, Olivia J; Rice, Photini F S; Hutchens, Gabrielle V; Chambers, Setsuko K; Connolly, Denise C; Barton, Jennifer K; Univ Arizona, James C Wyant Coll Opt Sci; et al. (WILEY, 2020-04-20)
    Background and Objectives To determine the efficacy of targeted fluorescent biomarkers and multiphoton imaging to characterize early changes in ovarian tissue with the onset of cancer. Study Design/Materials and Methods A transgenic TgMISIIR-TAg mouse was used as an animal model for ovarian cancer. Mice were injected with fluorescent dyes to bind to the folate receptor alpha, matrix metalloproteinases, and integrins. Half of the mice were treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to simulate menopause. Widefield fluorescence imaging (WFI) and multiphoton imaging of the ovaries and oviducts were conducted at 4 and 8 weeks of age. The fluorescence signal magnitude was quantified, and texture features were derived from multiphoton imaging. Linear discriminant analysis was then used to classify mouse groups. Results Imaging features from both fluorescence imaging and multiphoton imaging show significant changes (P < 0.01) with age, VCD treatment, and genotype. The classification model is able to classify different groups to accuracies of 75.53%, 69.53%, and 86.76%, for age, VCD treatment, and genotype, respectively. Building a classification model using features from multiple modalities shows marked improvement over individual modalities. Conclusions This study demonstrates that using WFI with targeted biomarkers, and multiphoton imaging with endogenous contrast shows promise for detecting early changes in ovarian tissue with the onset of cancer. The results indicate that multimodal imaging can provide higher sensitivity for classifying tissue types than using single modalities alone. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Asleep Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Ventralis Intermedius for Essential Tremor Using Indirect Targeting and Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Single‐Institution Case Series

    Gravbrot, Nicholas; Burket, Aaron; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Kasoff, Willard S.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Neurosurg; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med Imaging (WILEY, 2020-04-27)
    Background Literature on asleep deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventralis intermedius (Vim) nucleus in essential tremor is relatively sparse. Furthermore, controversy exists as to whether indirect ("consensus" or "atlas-based") targeting of the Vim requires physiologic adjustment for effective clinical outcomes in DBS surgery. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of asleep Vim DBS using indirect coordinates and real-time interventional magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Methods Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed to identify patients with essential tremor undergoing asleep Vim DBS using interventional magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Stereotactic and clinical outcomes were abstracted and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 12 consecutive patients were identified, all of whom were available for 6-month clinical follow-up. Stereotactic (radial) error was 0.5 +/- 0.2 mm on the left and 0.5 +/- 0.3 mm on the right. Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor scores in the treated limb(s) decreased by 71.2% +/- 31.0% (P = 0.0088), The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale activities of daily living improved by 74.9% +/- 23.7% (P < 0.0001), and The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale performance improved by 64.3 +/- 16.2% (P = 0.0004). Surgical complications were mild and generally transient. Stimulation-related side effects were similar to those reported in historical series of awake Vim DBS. Conclusions Asleep Vim DBS using indirect targeting and interventional magnetic resonance imaging-guided placement is safe and effective, with 6-month clinical results similar to those achieved with awake placement. These data support the use of asleep surgery in essential tremor and represent a baseline for comparison with future studies using more advanced targeting techniques.
  • Energy-Efficient UAV Relaying Communications to Serve Ground Nodes

    Ahmed, Shakil; Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman; Jang, Yeong Min; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2020-04)
    This letter studies the energy-efficient unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communications to support ground nodes (GNs). The system considers the UAV working as a relay while there is a base station (BS) on the ground. We analyze the UAV energy consumption model to design the energy-efficient UAV trajectory path. We formulate the energy-efficient UAV relaying communication, which considers both throughput and UAV propulsion energy consumption. We optimize joint transmit power of UAV and BS; UAV trajectory, acceleration, and flying speed to maximize the energy-efficient UAV relaying problem. We also introduce a constraint named as information causality constraint (ICC). The main idea of ICC is to guarantee that the UAV receives information from BS in any time slot and forward the only received information to GNs in remaining time slots. The formulated energy-efficiency maximization problem is not convex. Thus, we solve it sub-optimally using the iterative method. Finally, we present the simulation results to validate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
  • The clinician's role in promoting resiliency for individuals and families with growth anomalies

    Silverman, Howard D; Grunauer, Michelle; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix (ELSEVIER, 2020-01-28)
    Some recent clinic and population-based studies suggest that severe short stature is not associated with significant behavioral and psychological problems, however collectively studies on this topic are variable and frequently contradictory. In light of these contradictory sources, it is important to recognize that there may be some children for whom growth failure is disabling. Many of such children can respond to counseling and support, but there may be occasions in which therapy can be recommended. Resiliency can be defined as a pattern of positive adaptation in the context of past or present adversity with resiliency in childhood defined as typical development in the face of adverse circumstances that propel others to deleterious outcomes. Several strategies for promoting resilience in short stature patients and their families include 1) conducting a comprehensive psychosocial assessment; 2) recommending psychological strategies to directly address predictable social challenges associated with short stature; 3) discouraging the expectation that taller stature is associated with improvement in quality of life and; 4) discussing treatment efficacy in terms of the degree of certainty and magnitude of effects. Recognizing time constraints in clinical settings, these approaches can be carried out across multiple visits. Being aware of, honoring, and addressing factors the parent and patient use in making their treatment decisions has the potential to promote resiliency in patients and families. This approach to clinical care can serve to promote resiliency in clinicians as well.
  • Tree growth response to recent warming of two endemic species in Northeast Asia

    Altman, Jan; Treydte, Kerstin; Pejcha, Vit; Cerny, Tomas; Petrik, Petr; Srutek, Miroslav; Song, Jong-Suk; Trouet, Valerie; Dolezal, Jiri; Univ Arizona, Lab Tree Ring Res (SPRINGER, 2020-04-27)
    The impact of climatic change on forest ecosystems has received considerable attention, but our understanding of the modulation of this impact by elevational differences and by species interaction is still limited. Here, we analyse tree-ring-based growth-climate relationships for two dominant tree species along an 800-m elevational gradient on Jeju Island, South Korea. Both species, broadleaf Quercus mongolica (QUMO) and coniferous Abies koreana (ABKO), grow at the southern end of their distributional range and they have adjacent altitudinal ranges. We use static and moving bootstrapped correlation analysis to identify the effect of recent warming on their growth. QUMO is primarily positively influenced by moisture during the previous autumn at its upper elevational distribution. Recent warming, however, has diminished this relationship, while the enhancing impact of warm and dry summer conditions on QUMO growth has increased. These recent shifts in growth-climate relationship suggest an upward migration potential for QUMO due to warming-enhanced growth at higher elevations. ABKO growth, on the contrary, is primarily reduced by high winter and summer temperatures. This negative relationship has become more explicit in recent decades, particularly at lower elevations. At the highest elevation, however, ABKO growth-temperature relationship has consistently become more positive in the most recent decades. In the elevational zone where ABKO and QUMO co-exist, warming plays a primary role in ABKO growth reduction, while QUMO growth increases and thus induces a potential upward migration of QUMO. This combined effect can lead to population decline of ABKO. Our results significantly enhance our understanding of the impact of climate warming on two interacting species and provide information necessary for adaptation strategies to preserve declining ABKO populations.
  • The alternative spliced 3'-UTR mediated differential secretion of macrophage colony stimulating factor in breast cancer cells.

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Chambers, Setsuko K; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Dept Obstet & Gynecol (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03-13)
    CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR variants (var) are generated from alternative splicing. CSF-1 protein encoded by var-1 mRNA with long 3'UTR derived from exon-10 is rapidly secreted compared to the CSF-1 protein encoded by var-4 mRNA with short 3'UTR derived from exon-9. Secretion kinetics indicates that HuR, which binds the CSF-1 var-1 mRNA, but not var-4 mRNA, accelerates the secretion of CSF-1 protein. HuR over-expression increases the secretion rate of CSF-1 protein. In contrast, silencing of HuR does not have such an effect, suggesting other compensatory mechanisms. Effect of the CSF-1 mRNA variant 3'UTRs on cellular phenotype shows both CSF-1 var-1 or -4 mRNA is involved in the enhanced rates of migration and invasion observed by both in vitro in breast cancer cells. Our study indicates that the alternative splicing of CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR can regulate differential secretion of CSF-1 protein. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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