ABOUT THIS COLLECTION

This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.

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Recent Submissions

  • Dynamic regulation of water potential in Juniperus osteosperma mediates ecosystem carbon fluxes

    Guo, Jessica S.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Smith, William K.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Kannenberg, Steven A.; Arizona Experiment Station, University of Arizona; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2024-05-10)
    Some plants exhibit dynamic hydraulic regulation, in which the strictness of hydraulic regulation (i.e. iso/anisohydry) changes in response to environmental conditions. However, the environmental controls over iso/anisohydry and the implications of flexible hydraulic regulation for plant productivity remain unknown. In Juniperus osteosperma, a drought-resistant dryland conifer, we collected a 5-month growing season time series of in situ, high temporal-resolution plant water potential ((Formula presented.)) and stand gross primary productivity (GPP). We quantified the stringency of hydraulic regulation associated with environmental covariates and evaluated how predawn water potential contributes to empirically predicting carbon uptake. Juniperus osteosperma showed less stringent hydraulic regulation (more anisohydric) after monsoon precipitation pulses, when soil moisture and atmospheric demand were high, and corresponded with GPP pulses. Predawn water potential matched the timing of GPP fluxes and improved estimates of GPP more strongly than soil and/or atmospheric moisture, notably resolving GPP underestimation before vegetation green-up. Flexible hydraulic regulation appears to allow J. osteosperma to prolong soil water extraction and, therefore, the period of high carbon uptake following monsoon precipitation pulses. Water potential and its dynamic regulation may account for why process-based and empirical models commonly underestimate the magnitude and temporal variability of dryland GPP.
  • Mindfulness and Compassion in Teacher Education

    Castek, Jill; Ryoo, Jungwoo; University of Arizona (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2021)
    In this chapter, the authors explore lessons learned from 2020 and discuss why these lessons resonate beyond current circumstances to inform the ways teacher educators teach, learn, and interact with pre-service, in-service, and teachers in training. The authors illustrate how centering mindfulness in teaching and learning invites teacher educators to expand social and community learning to build compassionate relationships with pre-service teachers, in-service teach- ers, and teachers-in-training. By connecting research and practice, the authors illustrate ways that teacher educators can implement instructional practices that nurture resilience, adaptability, and flexibility. These educational practices in turn have the potential to deepen human connections and transform attitudes about learning and impact lives of future students. The research and practical ideas in this chapter are not an exhaustive list but instead serve as examples that teacher educators can adapt and customize to develop their own approaches for incorporating mindfulness and compassion. In face of unprecedented challenges in 2020, teacher educators should foreground three mindful and compassionate practices in their teaching: (1) communication, (2) community building, and (3) creativity (3 Cs). These practices can be useful for guiding instruction whether instruction is delivered through distance learning or face-to-face. Lessons learned from 2020 extend beyond 2020 and will help the teacher education field evolve in response to the needs of changing educational contexts well into the future.
  • An Examination of Peer-to-Peer Scaffolding as Metacognitive Support for Learning

    Wen, Wen; Castek, Jill; Teaching, Learning, and Sociocultural Studies, University of Arizona (InTech Open, 2023-12-09)
    This descriptive study examines peer-to-peer scaffolding implemented in an undergraduate, online digital literacies course for future educators. It identifies the different features of students collaboration processes and how these processes function as peer scaffolding to support their learning. Analyses of students’ collaborative dialog and reflections on their collaboration processes. By analyzing dialog, this study examines how collaborative discussion that is high quality can act as a form of peer-to-peer scaffolding that encourages metacognition. Peer-to-peer scaffolding not only provides just-in-time support, but also triggers students’ regulation thus helping them to refine their understanding and enhance self-awareness of their learning processes. Findings suggest that productive collaboration can serve as a useful means of peer-to-peer scaffolding marked by five specific features: 1) complementing each other’s expertise, 2) co-constructing knowledge, 3) collaborating to problem-solve, 4) encouraging reciprocal support, and 5) triggering regulation. Findings further explore students’ perspectives on collaboration. Students felt they benefited from peer-to-peer collaboration when the collaboration yielded the development of new ideas and understanding, offered support for problem solving, and provided opportunities for self-reflection. These markers of quality collaboration assisted students in achieving their learning goals. Recommendations outlined in this chapter offer guidance for educators by describing ways to promote productive collaboration when designing and implementing instruction.
  • Regulating Digital Health Care for the Cognitively Impaired

    Huber, Kathryn; Sklar, Tara; University of Arizona, James E. Rogers College of Law (American Health Law Association, 2024)
    Americans are living longer, and delivering high-quality, effective, and cost-efficient health care remains critically important, especially as the number of older adults with cognitive impairment increases. Relatedly, a growing number of older adults are preferring to “age in place” and receive care in their homes. This preference aligns with advances being made in digital health technologies (e.g., remote patient monitoring devices, telehealth) and Medicare coverage for in-home virtual health care services. However, efforts to integrate digital health care into the lives of older adults living with cognitive impairments present unique barriers and challenges due to their confused mental state or fluctuating capacity, which can limit their ability to provide meaningful informed consent; their vulnerability to privacy violations regarding their health data; their lack of digital health equity; difficulties operating the technology, navigating online platforms and applications; and effectively communicating with their providers. These challenges usually result in this particular demographic being far less likely to participate in the digital health ecosystem compared to their younger counterparts. This Article will address those challenges and their related regulatory and legal hurdles and will propose reforms for emerging models of digital health care that address the current shortcomings in caring for older adults with cognitive impairment.
  • A Secondary Analysis of Jackson et al. (2022): The Impact of Educational Placement for Students with Complex Support Needs

    Lansey, Kirsten R.; Jackson, Lewis; Agran, Martin; Ryndak, Diane; Jameson, J. Matt; The University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-05-27)
    The least restrictive environment (LRE) mandate has driven classroom placement decisions for the last five decades. It has been measured as the percentage of time students spend in general education contexts (i.e., Placement A: >80%; Placement B: 40-79%; Placement C: <40%). The mandate and its continuum of placements are predicated on the assumption that students can transition to less restrictive contexts, and that each placement will provide students with the skills needed to succeed in less restrictive contexts and, ultimately, in Placement A. Results from this descriptive analysis of survey responses from a sample of teachers and administrators of 98 elementary students with complex support needs indicate that less time in general education (Placements B and C) results in decreased access to single-grade classes, educator expertise, grade-aligned instructional materials, and general education curriculum. Furthermore, for most of the variables analyzed, the data suggest that Placement B is more closely aligned with Placement C than with Placement A, suggesting that it may function as a restrictive placement. We argue that current LRE implementation is resulting in placement and progress stagnation. To allow students with complex support needs to have inclusive and equitable learning opportunities, LRE must shift away from the concept of percentage of time in general education to requirements of student access to instruction on state-adopted grade-level general education standards within general education contexts and curriculum.
  • When the Earth Was New: Memory, Materiality and the Numic Ritual Life Cycle (Preprint Version)

    Ruuska, Alex (In Press, University of Utah Press, 2023-03-14)
    This book explores the contentious subject of Indigenous oral history in the Great Basin and a growing interest in oral traditions among archaeologists and anthropologists. When the Earth Was New considers the architecture of Numic place-based knowledge, interrogating traditional narratives that encode some of the earliest forms of scientific observation among diverse Indigenous communities describing a living sentient earth in the process of rebirthing herself. The author employs an interdisciplinaryapproach that identifies and evaluates Numic oral teachings relative to the place-based data available from ethnography, ethnohistory, archaeology, and geology. She invites the reader to consider the nature of contemporary and ancient Numic experiences, the profound possibilities of ancestral memory, the animistic worldview a sentient earth undergoing profound geological changes, Numic ethnogenesis, and the opportunities to explore potential convergences between science and indigenous ways of knowing. When considered in relation to both archaeological and geological processes, it may be possible to temporarily suspend our twenty first century notions, and for a moment, understand embodied perspectives. about When the Earth Was New.
  • In defense of genuine un-forgiving

    Sicilia, Anna-Bella; Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-04-29)
    Despite much philosophical attention on forgiveness itself, the phenomenon of un-forgiving is relatively neglected. Some views of forgiveness commit us to denying that we can ever permissibly un-forgive. Some go so far as to say the concept of un-forgiving is incomprehensible—it is the nature of forgiveness to be permanent. Yet many apparent cases of un-forgiving strike us as both real and justified. In what follows, I will address the latter view, that genuine un-forgiving is impossible or incomprehensible as a phenomenon, advanced by a character I will call the “Un-Forgiving Denier.” I address two views which purport to describe candidate un-forgiving cases in alternative ways and deny that any candidate un-forgiving cases are truly cases of un-forgiving: the “epistemic invalidation” and “new forgiveness opportunity” views. In creating problems for those views, I hope to defend the possibility of genuine un-forgiving. Even if it’s possible to respond to the “Un-Forgiving Denier,” a defender of genuine un-forgiving still faces the “Un-Forgiving Critic,” who insists that un-forgiving, while possible, is morally indefensible. Against this view, I argue that un-forgiving enables an ideal of forgiveness wherein victims hold wrongdoers accountable for their moral development and allows certain opportunities for relational repair. I conclude that there is good reason to think un-forgiving is both possible and permissible. Embracing genuine un-forgiving puts constraints on how we should theorize about forgiveness itself and gives us an additional tool for understanding and navigating our relationships.
  • Reference Genome Choice and Filtering Thresholds Jointly Influence Phylogenomic Analyses

    Rick, Jessica A; Brock, Chad D; Lewanski, Alexander L; Golcher-Benavides, Jimena; Wagner, Catherine E; School of Natural Resources & the Environment, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2023-10-26)
    Molecular phylogenies are a cornerstone of modern comparative biology and are commonly employed to investigate a range of biological phenomena, such as diversification rates, patterns in trait evolution, biogeography, and community assembly. Recent work has demonstrated that significant biases may be introduced into downstream phylogenetic analyses from processing genomic data; however, it remains unclear whether there are interactions among bioinformatic parameters or biases introduced through the choice of reference genome for sequence alignment and variant calling. We address these knowledge gaps by employing a combination of simulated and empirical data sets to investigate the extent to which the choice of reference genome in upstream bioinformatic processing of genomic data influences phylogenetic inference, as well as the way that reference genome choice interacts with bioinformatic filtering choices and phylogenetic inference method. We demonstrate that more stringent minor allele filters bias inferred trees away from the true species tree topology, and that these biased trees tend to be more imbalanced and have a higher center of gravity than the true trees. We find the greatest topological accuracy when filtering sites for minor allele count (MAC) >3–4 in our 51-taxa data sets, while tree center of gravity was closest to the true value when filtering for sites with MAC >1–2. In contrast, filtering for missing data increased accuracy in the inferred topologies; however, this effect was small in comparison to the effect of minor allele filters and may be undesirable due to a subsequent mutation spectrum distortion. The bias introduced by these filters differs based on the reference genome used in short read alignment, providing further support that choosing a reference genome for alignment is an important bioinformatic decision with implications for downstream analyses. These results demonstrate that attributes of the study system and dataset (and their interaction) add important nuance for how best to assemble and filter short-read genomic data for phylogenetic inference.
  • Modeling of flow and transport in multiscale digital rocks aided by grid coarsening of microporous domains

    Shi, Bowen; Jiang, Han; Guo, Bo; Tian, Jian; Qin, Chao-Zhong; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-06)
    Many subsurface porous media such as soils, carbonate rocks, and mudstones possess multiscale porous structures that play an important role in regulating fluid flow and transport therein. A pore-network-continuum hybrid model is promising for numerical studies of a multiscale digital rock. It is, however, still prohibitive to the REV-size modeling because tens of millions of microporosity voxels may exist. In this work, we develop a novel and robust algorithm for coarsening microporosity voxels of a multiscale digital rock. Then, we combine coarsened microporosity grids with the pore network of resolved macropores to form efficient computational meshes. Furthermore, a pore-network-continuum simulator is developed to simulate flow and transport in both a synthesized multiscale digital rock and a realistic Estaillades carbonate rock. We show that the coarsening algorithm can reduce computational grids by about 90%, which substantially reduces computational costs. Meanwhile, coarsening microporosity has a minor impact on the predictions of absolute permeability, gas production curves, and breakthrough curves of solute transport. We illustrate the mechanisms of flow and transport in multiscale porous media induced by microporosity. Finally, the efficient hybrid model is used to predict the absolute permeability of an Estaillades digital rock. The numerical prediction matches well with the reported experimental data. We highlight the importance of characterizing mean pore-size distributions in microporosity for the prediction of rock permeability and local flow fields. The developed pore-network-continuum hybrid model aided by grid coarsening of microporosity serves as a useful numerical tool to study flow and transport in multiscale porous media.
  • Conservatism and justified attachment

    Quigley, Travis; Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2024-05-17)
    Value conservatism is the thesis that there is a distinctive reason to preserve valuable things even when a (somewhat) more valuable thing might be created by their destruction. I offer an account that improves on the current literature in response to Cohen's “Rescuing Conservatism.” In short, we become psychologically attached to valuable things that make up part of our lives; the same holds true, interestingly, with things of relatively neutral value. Severing attachments is painful. This yields a reason to favor an object that someone is attached to over an object that no one is attached to. But an analysis is only part of a theory of conservatism: we also need to know whether such conservatism is justified. I argue that Cohen's idea of “accepting the given” can be read to yield such a justification: it is valuable to maintain some moderate disposition to accept what one already has. This attachment-based account of conservatism displays a number of attractive theoretical features, including accounting for the impulse to restore past valuables and providing a framework for judging conservatism excessive.
  • Voluntary disclosures regarding open market repurchase programs

    Bargeron, Leonce; Bonaimé, Alice; Docimo, William; Feng, Mei; Thomas, Shawn; Eller College of Management, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2024-01-24)
    This paper studies voluntary disclosures that firms have suspended, resumed, or completed their open market repurchase programs. Voluntary disclosures of repurchase status updates are common and value-relevant. They also inform subsequent repurchase activities: voluntary disclosers are more likely to complete their repurchase programs and to initiate new repurchase programs than firms with undisclosed repurchase status changes. Moreover, firms that disclose repurchase suspensions experience larger returns to subsequent repurchase authorizations, consistent with a reward for establishing a reputation for transparency via voluntary bad news disclosure. Finally, exploiting a change in repurchase reporting requirements, we document that voluntary updates are less frequent when mandatory disclosure increases. An important exception, however, is when macroeconomic uncertainty is high, such as during the Great Recession and the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Fmo induction as a tool to screen for pro-longevity drugs

    Huang, Shijiao; Cox, Rebecca L; Tuckowski, Angela; Beydoun, Safa; Bhat, Ajay; Howington, Marshall B; Sarker, Marjana; Miller, Hillary; Ruwe, Ethan; Wang, Emily; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2024-05-24)
    Dietary restriction (DR) and hypoxia (low oxygen) extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans through the induction of a convergent downstream longevity gene, fmo-2. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are highly conserved xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes with a clear role in promoting longevity in nematodes and a plausible similar role in mammals. This makes them an attractive potential target of small molecule drugs to stimulate the health-promoting effects of longevity pathways. Here, we utilize an fmo-2 fluorescent transcriptional reporter in C. elegans to screen a set of 80 compounds previously shown to improve stress resistance in mouse fibroblasts. Our data show that 19 compounds significantly induce fmo-2, and 10 of the compounds induce fmo-2 more than twofold. Interestingly, 9 of the 10 high fmo-2 inducers also extend lifespan in C. elegans. Two of these drugs, mitochondrial respiration chain complex inhibitors, interact with the hypoxia pathway to induce fmo-2, whereas two dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) antagonists interact with the DR pathway to induce fmo-2, indicating that dopamine signaling is involved in DR-mediated fmo-2 induction. Together, our data identify nine drugs that each (1) increase stress resistance in mouse fibroblasts, (2) induce fmo-2 in C. elegans, and (3) extend nematode lifespan, some through known longevity pathways. These results define fmo-2 induction as a viable approach to identifying and understanding mechanisms of putative longevity compounds.
  • Beyond “not my type”: A quantitative examination of intraminority stigma among gay men who use dating apps

    Shepherd, Benjamin F.; Tidwell, Colin A.; Layland, Eric K.; Maki, Justin L.; Brochu, Paula M.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (American Psychological Association (APA), 2024-03-14)
    Gay men with intersecting diverse identities are at increased risk for experiencing intraminority stigma (i.e., negative attitudes or discrimination from the gay community based on a socially undervalued identity or trait). The use of dating apps is pervasive among gay men and becoming more common during the ongoing, global COVID-19 pandemic, representing a potential site for intraminority stigma. In this study, the association between online dating and experiences of stigma within the gay community was examined utilizing an international sample of 2,159 gay men through the lens of intraminority gay community stress theory. Participants reported how frequently they experienced stigma from other gay men based on age, socioeconomic status, nonconformity to popular gay culture (i.e., hobbies, beliefs, or ideologies perceived as typical of gay men), race/ethnicity, gender expression, and body size and shape. Approximately 60% of the sample used dating apps/websites every month or more frequently. More frequent dating app use was associated with more frequent experiences of intraminority stress across the constructs of age stigma, socioeconomic stigma, racial/ethnic stigma, and body stigma but not gay nonconformity stigma or gender expression stigma. More frequent dating app use was associated with more intraminority racial/ethnic stigma among gay men of color relative to White gay men and more intraminority age stigma among older gay men relative to younger gay men. Findings provide empirical and contextual evidence for multiple forms of intraminority stigma, paving the way for future intersectional research focused on the social, psychological, and physical well-being of multiply marginalized gay men.
  • More Than a Score? Indirect Associations Between Credit Score and Romantic Relationship Quality in Emerging Adulthood

    Saxey, Matthew T.; LeBaron-Black, Ashley B.; Totenhagen, Casey J.; Curran, Melissa A.; Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona (Springer Publishing Company, 2023-04-18)
    Higher credit scores have unique financial benefits that may aid in emerging adults’ efforts toward financial independence. Yet, it is unknown if higher credit scores may also yield romantic relationship benefits. In a sample of 916 U.S. emerging adults, we used structural equation modeling to test the indirect associations between credit score and romantic relationship quality. Credit score was positively associated with financial self-efficacy and negatively associated with financial deception. Additionally, credit score was indirectly associated with romantic relationship quality through financial self-efficacy and financial deception. We encourage educators and clinicians working with emerging adults in romantic relationships to help these emerging adults learn how to establish credit and raise their credit scores, which might improve financial and relational outcomes.
  • Comparison of optical spectra between asteroids Ryugu and Bennu: I. Cross calibration between Hayabusa2/ONC-T and OSIRIS-REx/MapCam

    Yumoto, K.; Tatsumi, E.; Kouyama, T.; Golish, D.R.; Cho, Y.; Morota, T.; Kameda, S.; Sato, H.; Rizk, B.; DellaGiustina, D.N.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2024-05-06)
    Asteroids (162173) Ryugu and (101955) Bennu observed by Hayabusa2 and Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) share many global properties, but high-spatial-resolution spectral observations by the telescopic Optical Navigation Camera (ONC-T) and MapCam detected subtle but significant differences (e.g., opposite space weathering trends), which may reflect differences in their origin and evolution. Comparing these differences on the same absolute scale is necessary for understanding their causes and obtaining implications for C-complex asteroids. However, ONC-T and MapCam have a large imager-to-imager systematic error of up to 15% caused by the difference in radiometric calibration targets. To resolve this problem, we cross calibrated albedo and color data between the two instruments using the Moon as the common calibration standard. The images of the Moon taken by ONC-T and MapCam were compared with those simulated using photometry models developed from lunar orbiter data. Our results show that the cross-calibrated reflectance of Ryugu and Bennu can be obtained by upscaling the pre-cross-calibrated reflectance of Bennu by 13.3 ± 1.6% at b band, 13.2 ± 1.5% at v band, 13.6 ± 1.7% at w band, and 14.8 ± 1.8% at x band, while those for Ryugu are kept the same. These factors compensate for the imager-to-imager bias caused by differences in targets used for radiometric calibration and solar irradiance models used for data reduction. Need for such large upscaling underscore the importance of using the cross-calibrated data for accurately comparing the Ryugu and Bennu data. The uncertainty in these factors show that the reflectance of Ryugu and Bennu can be compared with <2% accuracy after applying our results. By applying our cross calibration, the geometric albedo of Bennu became consistent with those observed by ground-based telescopes and the OSIRIS-REx Visible and InfraRed Spectrometer (OVIRS). Our result can be simply applied by multiplying a constant to the publicly available data and enables accurate comparison of the optical spectra of Ryugu and Bennu in future studies.
  • UV Transmission in Prebiotic Environments on Early Earth

    Todd, Zoe R; Lozano, Gabriella G; Kufner, Corinna L; Ranjan, Sukrit; Catling, David C; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Lunar & Planetary Laboratory, Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2024-05-17)
    Ultraviolet (UV) light is likely to have played important roles in surficial origins of life scenarios, potentially as a productive source of energy and molecular activation, as a selective means to remove unwanted side products, or as a destructive mechanism resulting in loss of molecules/biomolecules over time. The transmission of UV light through prebiotic waters depends upon the chemical constituents of such waters, but constraints on this transmission are limited. Here, we experimentally measure the molar decadic extinction coefficients for a number of small molecules used in various prebiotic synthetic schemes. We find that many small feedstock molecules absorb most at short (∼200 nm) wavelengths, with decreasing UV absorption at longer wavelengths. For comparison, we also measured the nucleobase adenine and found that adenine absorbs significantly more than the simpler molecules often invoked in prebiotic synthesis. Our results enable the calculation of UV photon penetration under varying chemical scenarios and allow further constraints on plausibility and self-consistency of such scenarios. While the precise path that prebiotic chemistry took remains elusive, improved understanding of the UV environment in prebiotically plausible waters can help constrain both the chemistry and the environmental conditions that may allow such chemistry to occur.
  • ASAP: A pharmacy-level intervention to increase nonprescription syringe sales to reduce bloodborne illnesses

    Meyerson, B.E.; Agley, J.; Crosby, R.A.; Bentele, K.G.; Vadiei, N.; Linde-Krieger, L.B.; Russell, D.R.; Fine, K.; Eldridge, L.A.; Harm Reduction Research Lab, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine-Tucson, University of Arizona; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2024-05-07)
    Background: Pharmacy syringe sales are effective structural interventions to reduce bloodborne illnesses in populations, and are legal in all but two states. Yet evidence indicates reduced syringe sales in recent years. This study was designed as a feasibility test of an intervention to promote syringe sales by pharmacies in Arizona. Methods: A four-month pilot among three Arizona pharmacies measured feasibility and acceptability through monthly surveys to 18 enrolled pharmacy staff members. Results: Pharmacy staff reported increased ease of dispensing syringes across the study. Rankings of syringe dispensing as ‘easiest’ among 6 measured pharmacy practices increased from 38.9 % at baseline to 50.1 % post intervention module training, and to 83.3 % at pilot conclusion. The majority (72.2 %) of pharmacy staff agreed that intervention materials were easy to use. Over 70 % indicated that the intervention was influential in their “being more open to selling syringes without a prescription to someone who might use them for illicit drug use,” and 61.1 % reported that in the future, they were highly likely to dispense syringes to customers who would use them to inject drugs. A vast majority (92 %) reported being likely to dispense subsidized naloxone if available to their pharmacy at no cost. Conclusions: An education-based intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable to pharmacy staff and had an observed impact on perceptions of ease and likelihood of dispensing syringes without a prescription to people who may use them to inject drugs.
  • From hospitality to dwelling: a lens for migrant homesharing in Italy

    Sperandio, Elisa; Lampredi, Giacomo; School of Geography Development and Environment, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-04-26)
    This article examines migrant homesharing programs in Italy through a dwelling lens, which seeks to understand how homesharing transcends the home and provides new opportunities for migrants to build a life as more than temporary guests. Homesharing is a growing reception practice across the Global North, and it sees residents house migrants in their own homes. We start from a critique of hospitality as the primary organizing framework through which homesharing is designed and implemented. We then put forth dwelling, as an alternative lens to hospitality, which imagines a wider array of relationships to and across space. We draw from ethnographic research in Turin, Bologna, and Florence, Italy, to showcase how migrants, residents, and practitioners engaged in homesharing are already thinking beyond guest–host dichotomies, and prioritizing ways of doing cohabitation that go beyond hospitality. If hospitality indicates the conditionality of being hosted, maintaining the power relations between the host and the guest, dwelling concerns the process by which the conditionality and impermanence of hospitality are eroded, asserting the right of migrants to be more than guests.
  • Quinoline-based tetrazolium prochelators: formazan release, iron sequestration, and antiproliferative efficacy in cancer cells

    Sung, Yu-Shien; Tomat, Elisa; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Arizona (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2024-05-28)
    Iron-binding strategies in anticancer drug design target the key role of iron in cancer growth. The incorporation of a quinoline moiety in the design of tetrazolium-based prochelators facilitates their intracellular reduction/activation to iron-binding formazans. The new prochelators are antiproliferative at submicromolar levels, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and impact iron signaling in cancer cells.
  • Emergency Physicians’ Ethical Issues with Hospital Business Models

    Iserson, Kenneth V.; Paxton, James H.; Martin, Daniel R.; Marcolini, Evie; Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-12)
    Background: The changing hospital business model has raised ethical issues for emergency physicians (EPs) in a healthcare system that often prioritizes profits over patient welfare. For-profit hospitals, driven by profit motives, may prioritize treating patients with lucrative insurance plans and those who can afford expensive treatments. Private equity investors, who now own many for-profit hospitals, focus on short-term financial gains, leading to cost-cutting measures and pressure on EPs to prioritize financial goals over patient welfare. Nonprofit hospitals, mandated to provide charity care to the underserved, may fail to meet their community service obligations, resulting in disparities in healthcare access. Objective: This review examines the ethical challenges faced by emergency physicians (EPs) in response to the evolving hospital business model, which increasingly prioritizes profits over patient welfare. Discussion: Emergency physicians face ethical dilemmas in this changing environment, including conflicts between patient care and financial interests. Upholding professional ethics and the principle of beneficence is essential. Another challenge is equitable access to healthcare, with some nonprofit hospitals reducing charity care, thus exacerbating disparities. EPs must uphold the ethical principle of justice, ensuring quality care for all patients, regardless of financial means. Conflicts of interest may arise when EPs work in hospitals owned by private equity firms or with affiliations with pharmaceutical companies or medical device manufacturers, potentially compromising patient care. Conclusion: Emergency physicians must navigate these ethical issues while upholding professional ethics and advocating for patients' best interests. Collaboration with hospital administrators, policymakers, and stakeholders is vital to address these concerns and prioritize patient welfare in healthcare delivery.

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