This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.


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Recent Submissions

  • Feasibility and acceptability of testing a menstrual-cycle timed smoking cessation intervention for women of reproductive age (Project Phase): Results of a pilot randomized control trial

    Allen, A; Skobic, I; Bell, M L; Medvescek, K; Allen, S; Collins, B; Nair, U; Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine – Tucson, University of Arizona; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (Elsevier Ltd, 2022-02)
    Introduction: Menstrual phase influences cigarette smoking-related outcomes. Telephone-based cessation programs (e.g., quitlines) may incorporate the role of the menstrual cycle in an effort to tailor interventions for women. Purpose: The goal of this preliminary randomized clinical trial was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of timing quit date to menstrual phase in women in a quitline setting. Methods: We recruited treatment-seeking women with regular menstrual cycles between the ages of 18–40 years. Participants were randomized to the follicular phase (FP; quit date set 6–8 days post onset of menses) or standard of care (SC; no menstrual timing of quit date). All participants received four weeks of nicotine replacement therapy transdermal patch concurrent with six weeks of telephone-based counseling. We explored self-reported and biochemically-verified seven-day point prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment and three-month follow-up. Results: Participants (n = 119; FP: n = 58, SC: n = 61) were, on average, 33.4 years old and smoked 13.6 cigarettes/day. The median number of counseling sessions completed was 6 out of 6 available, and 66% of participants completed the intervention. Over 90% of participants reported they would recommend this study to friends/family. Cessation rates did not significantly vary by randomization. Conclusions: Results of this preliminary trial indicate that timing quit date to FP is an acceptable and feasible approach to address smoking cessation in women of reproductive age. While we observed similar smoking cessation rates between groups, this preliminary study was not fully powered to determine efficacy. Therefore, the feasibility and acceptability results indicate that a fully-powered efficacy trial is warranted.
  • Will it print: a manufacturability toolbox for 3D printing

    Budinoff, Hannah D.; McMains, Sara; University of Arizona, Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-10-29)
    This study presents the development of a novel MATLAB-based virtual prototyping tool called Will It Print that evaluates part geometry to check for compliance with design-for-additive-manufacturing guidelines relating to manufacturability. Specifically, the tool analyzes the part geometry for potential problems regarding warping, toppling, poor surface finish, and small or overhanging features when the part is produced using fused-filament fabrication. This tool helps designers evaluate the manufacturability of their parts and provides suggestions to change part geometry and orientation to avoid print failures and improve part quality. In this study, Will It Print was used to redesign several models and to choose a build orientation for 3D printing. The original and redesigned models were printed and compared. The redesigned models had lower scrap rates and improved quality. Our open-source MATLAB tool enables novices to engage in virtual prototyping for 3D printing so they can print high-quality parts without inefficient trial-and-error printing. This tool will be especially helpful for students and practitioners with limited access to a 3D printer, such as in remote learning modalities, which have become prevalent in recent years.
  • On the Analysis of Adaptive-Rate Applications in Data-Centric Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Rahman, Md Ashiqur; Zhang, Beichuan; University of Arizona (IEEE, 2021-10-04)
    Adapting applications' data rates in multi-hop wireless ad-hoc networks is inherently challenging. Packet collision, channel contention, and queue buildup contribute to packet loss but are difficult to manage in conventional TCP/IP architecture. This work explores a data-centric approach based on Name Data Networking (NDN) architecture, which is considered more suitable for wireless ad-hoc networks. We show that the default NDN transport offers better performance in linear topologies but struggles in more extensive networks due to high collision and contention caused by excessive Interests from out-of-order data retrieval and redundant data transmission from improper Interest lifetime setting as well as in-network caching. To fix these, we use round-trip hop count to limit Interest rate and Dynamic Interest Lifetime to minimize the negative effect of improper Interest lifetime. Finally, we analyze the effect of in-network caching on transport performance and which scenarios may benefit or suffer from it.
  • Large Trichobezoar in School-Aged Girl Presenting to the Emergency Department with Hematemesis

    LaGrandeur, Weston; Zukowski, Melissa; University of Arizona College of Medicine, South Campus Family Medicine Residency; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona; Banner University Medical Center, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-09)
  • Dry annealing of radiation-damaged zircon: Single-crystal X-ray and Raman spectroscopy study

    Ende, Martin; Chanmuang N., Chutimun; Reiners, Peter W.; Zamyatin, Dmitry A.; Gain, Sarah E.M.; Wirth, Richard; Nasdala, Lutz; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
    Structural reconstitution upon dry thermal annealing of mildly to strongly radiation-damaged, gem-quality zircon from Sri Lanka has been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Results of structure refinement of a strongly radiation-damaged zircon (sample GZ5, calculated alpha dose ~4 × 1018 g−1) indicate the existence of an interstitial oxygen site that is sparsely occupied (about 4% of all O atoms). Annealing of this sample at Ta (annealing temperature) = 700 °C has resulted in nearly complete recrystallization of its amorphous volume fraction and significant decrease in the occupation of O-interstitial sites. For all samples studied, annealing up to Ta ≤ 650–700 °C is characterised by preferred recovery of Raman shifts (compared to Raman FWHMs; full width at half band maximum) and extensive contraction of the unit-cell volume, in particular along unit-cell dimension a. This low-T annealing is dominated by epitaxial growth of the crystalline volume fraction at the expense of the amorphous volume fraction, and general recovery of low-energy defects. During annealing at Ta = 700–1400 °C there is preferred recovery of Raman FWHMs (compared to Raman shifts) and only mild unit-cell contraction. High-T annealing is dominated by the recovery of high-energy defects such as recombination of cation Frenkel pairs. Here, unit-cell parameter a shows a remarkable behaviour (namely, mild re-increase at Ta = 700–1150 °C and mild final shrinking at Ta = 1000–1400 °C), which is attributed to enhanced contortion of ZrO8 polyhedrons due to cation repulsion. The combined data set of Raman band and unit-cell parameter presented herein will help analysts to assign Raman spectra of annealed unknowns to certain recovery stages.
  • Graphic Novela: Mexican American Families’ Use of Community Services for Older Adults

    Martin-Plank, Lori; Davis, Mary P.; Williams, Deborah K.; May, Jennifer T.; Ortiz-Dowling, Evangeline M.; Núñez, Annabelle; Reyes, Zuryanette; Heasley, Beverly J.; Crist, Janice D.; University of Arizona; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2021-10-31)
    Knowledge gaps exist about how to help Mexican American (MA) families seek assistance when their capacity to assist older family members is challenged. MA families may resist confronting unpleasant but real situations with the older adult, for example, the need to access long term support services (LTSS), because of cultural and structural barriers. The purpose was to describe stakeholders’ reactions to a culturally focused graphic novela created in partnership with a community advisory council. Qualitative description with content analysis of a focus group’s reactions to the graphic novela was used. Results included positive reactions as well as suggestions for improvement and dissemination. Graphic novelas can be an effective medium for modeling conversations about older adults’ needing additional care, and demonstrating how to identify and access available LTSS or other services. Included is a description of the researchers’ process of partnering with diverse stakeholders, which is essential for creating new solutions.
  • DesignOps in an academic library: Reducing barriers, improving efficiency, and scaling impact of design and research

    Blakiston, Rebecca; Liu, Yingxuan (Bob); Miller, Lara; University of Arizona Libraries (Taylor & Francis, 2021-11-30)
    Magnifying design value and scaling impact are challenging for small user experience and assessment teams at academic libraries. The University of Arizona’s User Experience and Assessment unit is leading three Design Operations initiatives aiming to address these challenges: a participant pool that reduces barriers for recruiting research participants; The UX Cookbook that builds expertise and efficiency; and a research repository that shares findings broadly with the organization. Together these initiatives create better workflows for improving the scale and impact of design and research.
  • Resisting Privilege: Effects of a White Privilege Message Intervention and Conservative Media Use on Freedom Threat and Racial Attitudes

    Lapierre, Matthew A.; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-09)
    Identifying ways to effectively communicate about racial/ethnic disparities is a place where communication scholars can make vital contributions. Yet, existing studies on this subject are scarce. Borrowing from reactance theory and the 3D model of White identity management, the present study tested whether exposing White adults to White privilege messaging helps them to become more aware or deny racial privilege. The results of our experiment revealed that there was a main effect for reading about racial privilege and increased awareness of privilege. However, in keeping with reactance theory, if the message stoked a perceived threat to freedom, message exposure resulted in the denial of both blatant and institutional racism. We also found a moderating role for Fox News viewing such that awareness of racial privilege was not affected by the intervention for heavy Fox News viewers, but it was for low Fox News viewers. We conclude that messages focused on explaining White privilege are promising, but there are risks.
  • The moderating role of mystical-type experiences on the relationship between existential isolation and meaning in life

    Sielaff, Alex; Horner, Dylan E.; Greenberg, Jeff; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-02)
    Mystical-type experiences (MTEs) are unique phenomenological experiences that are often reported to induce significant and persisting changes in the experiencer's worldview. Previous research suggests that higher levels of existential isolation (EI) are associated with lower levels of meaning in life (MIL). This study examines the hypothesis that people who have had an MTE (compared with those who have not) will not show such a relationship between EI and MIL. Data from two samples (N = 2055) support the idea that those who have not had an MTE show a negative relationship between EI and MIL while those who have had an MTE show no relationship between EI and MIL. Implications and future directions are discussed.
  • Conformal 3D printing of non-planar antennas on wrinkled and folded kapton films using point cloud data

    Kucukdeger, Ezgi; Tong, Yuxin; Singh, Manjot; Zhang, Junru; Harding, Leon K; Salado, Alejandro; Ellingson, Steven W; Johnson, Blake N; Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Arizona (IOP Publishing, 2021-10-07)
    We report a reverse engineering-driven method for conformal microextrusion three-dimensional (3D) printing of functional materials on complex 3D structures and thin films of near-arbitrary topography. A non-planar tool path programming algorithm for conformal microextrusion 3D printing based on point cloud data representations of object geometry is presented. We show that the optimal nozzle-substrate standoff distance for quality 3D printing depends on the substrate's local geometric features (i.e. slope and curvature) and the tool trajectory. The impact and utility of the novel conformal microextrusion 3D printing process were demonstrated by fabrication of 3D spiral and Hilbert-curve loop antennas on various non-planar substrates, including wrinkled and folded Kapton films and origami. 3D-printed conformal antennas exhibited resonant frequencies ranging from 1.5 to 2.7 GHz with S11 less than 10 db. This work provides a new method for conformal 3D printing on one-of-a-kind objects and non-planar films.
  • Exploring spatial averaging of contamination in fomite microbial transfer models and implications for dose

    Wilson, Amanda M.; Jones, Rachael M.; Department of Community, Environment & Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (Springer Nature, 2021-11-06)
    Background: When modeling exposures from contact with fomites, there are many choices in defining the sizes of compartments representing environmental surfaces and hands, and the portions of compartments involved in contacts. These choices impact dose estimates, yet there is limited guidance for selection of these model parameters. Objective: The study objective was to explore methods for representing environmental surface and hand contact areas in exposure models and implications for estimated doses. Methods: A simple scenario was used: an individual using their hands to contact their face and two microbially contaminated environmental surfaces. Four models were developed to explore different compartmentalization strategies: (1) hands and environmental surfaces each represented by one compartment, (2) hands represented by two compartments (fingertips vs. non-fingertip areas) while environmental surfaces were represented by one compartment, (3) hands represented by a single compartment and environmental surfaces represented by two compartments, and (4) hands and environmental surfaces each represented by two compartments. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of heterogeneous surface contact frequency, hand contact type, and hand dominance on dose. Results: Estimated doses were greatest when hand areas and environmental surfaces were each represented by two compartments, indicating that surface area “dilutes” contaminant concentration and decreases estimated dose. Significance: Model compartment designations for hands and environmental surfaces affect dose estimation, but more human behavior data are needed. Impact statement: A common problem for exposure models describing exposures via hand-to-surface contacts occurs in the way that estimated contamination across human skin (usually hands) or across environmental surfaces is spatially averaged, as opposed to accounting for concentration changes across specific parts of the hand or individual surfaces. This can lead to the dilution of estimated contaminants and biases in estimated doses in risk assessments. The magnitude of these biases and implications for the accuracy in risk assessments are unknown. We quantify differences in dose for various strategies of compartmentalizing environmental surfaces and hands to inform guidance on future exposure model development.
  • Couple-Level Attachment Styles, Finances, and Marital Satisfaction: Mediational Analyses Among Young Adult Newlywed Couples

    Li, Xiaomin; Curran, Melissa A.; LeBaron-Black, Ashley B.; Jorgensen, Bryce; Yorgason, Jeremy; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-17)
    Guided by attachment theory and the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation model, we used three-annual-wave, dyadic data from a nationally representative sample of 1136 young-adult newlywed couples to investigate two research aims. First, we conducted a Latent Profile Analysis to identify couple-level attachment styles at Time 1 (i.e., within the first 2 years of marriage) based on the combination of husbands’ and wives’ attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Second, after conceptualizing couple-level attachment styles at Time 1 as vulnerability, we then examined whether finance-specific adaptive processes at Time 2 (i.e., 1 year after Time 1) mediated associations from couple-level attachment styles at Time 1 to marital satisfaction at Time 3 (i.e., 1 year after Time 2). Several findings are noteworthy. First, four different types of couple-level attachment styles were found. Second, for mediators, only perceived partner financial mismanagement mediated associations from couple-level attachment styles at Time 1 to marital satisfaction at Time 3. We discuss how the four different couple-level styles highlight the diversity and complexity in how the two partners’ attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance combine together as well as why perceived partner financial mismanagement (i.e., the lack of adaptive processes) mediated associations between couple-level attachment styles and marital satisfaction.
  • Quasi-static and dynamic behavior of additively manufactured lattice structures with hybrid topologies

    Barnes, Baxter; Babamiri, Behzad Bahrami; Demeneghi, Gabriel; Soltani-Tehrani, Arash; Shamsaei, Nima; Hazeli, Kavan; Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
    When different unit cell topologies with distinct mechanical behavior (e.g. bending vs stretching dominated) are incorporated into a single hybrid lattice structure (LS), questions arise about the resolution of local stresses within the struts and how localized states of strain as a result govern the global response of the structure. To understand the mechanics of hybrid LS, this study uses a combination of experimental and modeling data to investigate the relationship between localized states of stress with the global behavior of hybrid additive manufactured lattice structures (AMLS) under different loading directions and strain rates. The hybrid AMLS in this study consist of two different unit cell topologies stacked in alternating rows, with loading directions identified with respect to this topology stacking. It is shown that the loading direction influences the mechanical behavior, as the flow stress of the hybrid AMLS is 7%–10% lower when loaded in the stacking direction than when loaded in the transverse direction. This flow stress decrease is due to a smaller number of structural elements supporting the loading and tensile failure of horizontally-manufactured struts in the stacking direction. The strain rate also influenced the mechanical behavior of the AMLS, as irrespective to the loading direction, for all hybrid AMLS, the first peak stress after static equilibrium is 5%–10% higher under dynamic loading compared to quasi-static loading. Additionally, it is shown that the collapse mechanisms are influenced by the order of the topology stacking. Structural shear band formation, which leads to up to a 60% drop in flow stress under dynamic loading of the hybrid AMLS, can be inhibited by separating adjacent rows of shear band-forming topologies with a row of unit cells of a topology which does not form shear bands. Ultimately, it was determined that the performance of these layered structures is limited by the weakest topology. Even under transverse loading, where the first peak stress approaches that of the stronger topology, the magnitude of the subsequent decrease in flow stress is generally more in line with that of the weaker topology.
  • Parametric stability of geared systems with linear suspension in permanent contact regime

    Azimi, Mohsen; Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, The University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-16)
    The prediction and control of excessive vibration are one of the most important concerns in the design and development of geared systems. For any gear set, parametric resonance is the main source of instability, resulting in the separation of gears in mesh and chaotic behavior. In many works, gears are modeled with rigid mountings, and various analytical and numerical approaches have been used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the system in different regimes: permanent contact (no impact), free play, single-sided impact, and double-sided impact. Alternatively, in other works, the effect of the deformation of the mountings is included in the dynamic modeling; in almost all these studies, the dynamic characteristic of the system is investigated through direct numerical integration of the governing differential equations, and there is no analytical work to determine the effect of suspension on the parametric resonance of the system. Consequently, in this work, both analytical and numerical approaches, including the Poincare–Lindstedt method and Floquet theory, are used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a one-stage spur gear pair with linear suspension in the permanent contact regime. It has been shown that, unlike systems with rigid mounting that have one set of unstable tongues, systems with suspension have three sets of unstable tongues. The results show that the additional sets of unstable tongues appear at higher parametric frequencies. Therefore, the rigid mounting assumption is accurate only for systems operating at low speeds; for systems operating at high speeds, the deformation of the suspension must be included in the dynamic modeling, as it significantly contributes to the parametric instability of the system.
  • Addressing our planetary crisis: Consensus statement from the presenters and International Advisory Committee of the Regional Action on Climate Change (RACC) Symposium held in conjunction with the Kyoto-based Science and Technology in Society (STS) Forum, 1 October 2021

    Falk, Jim; Attig-Bahar, Faten; Colwell, Rita R; Behera, Swadhin K; El-Beltagy, Adel S; von Braun, Joachim; Dasgupta, Partha; Gleick, Peter H; Kaneko, Ryuichi; Kennel, Charles F; et al. (Springer Japan, 2021-11-01)
  • Limitations of clinical trial sample size estimate by subtraction of two measurements

    Chen, Kewei; Guo, Xiaojuan; Pan, Rong; Xiong, Chengjie; Harvey, Danielle J.; Chen, Yinghua; Yao, Li; Su, Yi; Reiman, Eric M.; Department of Neurology, University of Arizona; et al. (Wiley, 2021-11)
    In planning randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), researchers frequently rely on the use of existing data obtained from only two time points to estimate sample size via the subtraction of baseline from follow-up measurements in each subject. However, the inadequacy of this method has not been reported. The aim of this study is to discuss the limitation of sample size estimation based on the subtraction of available data from only two time points for RCTs. Mathematical equations are derived to demonstrate the condition under which the obtained data pairs with variable time intervals could be used to adequately estimate sample size. The MRI-based hippocampal volume measurements from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) were used to illustrate the existing bias and variability of estimates. MCS results support the theoretically derived condition under which the subtraction approach may work. MCS also show the systematically under- or over-estimated sample sizes by up to 32.27 (Formula presented.) bias. Not used properly, such subtraction approach outputs the same sample size regardless of trial durations partly due to the way measurement errors are handled. Estimating sample size by subtracting two measurements should be treated with caution. Such estimates can be biased, the magnitude of which depends on the planned RCT duration. To estimate sample sizes, we recommend using more than two measurements and more comprehensive approaches such as linear mixed effect models.
  • Some displays of lens structural performance

    Sasián, José; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (The Optical Society, 2021-11-02)
    Some useful displays that provide information about the performance of lens systems are presented and discussed in this paper. They are useful for comparing lenses, identifying problematic lens elements, and lens desensitizing and optimizing. An imaging simulation of a square wave is also presented to complement the modulation transfer function plots.
  • C-terminal modified Enkephalin-like tetrapeptides with enhanced affinities at the kappa opioid receptor and monoamine transporters

    Mehr-un-Nisa; Munawar, Munawar A.; Rankin, David; Hruby, Victor J.; Porreca, Frank; Lee, Yeon Sun; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona; Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
    A new series of enkephalin-like tetrapeptide analogs modified at the C-terminus by an N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)propionamide (DPP) moiety were designed, synthesized, and tested for their binding affinities at opioid receptors and monoamine transporters to evaluate their potential multifunctional activity for the treatment of chronic pain. Most ligands exhibited high binding affinities in the nanomolar range at the opioid receptors with a slight delta-opioid receptor (DOR) selectivity over mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) and low binding affinities in the micromolar range at the monoamine transporters, SERT and NET. Ligands of which the positions 1 and 4 were substituted by Dmt and Phe(4-X) residues, respectively, showed the excellent binding affinities at three opioid receptors. Among them, Dmt-D-Tic-Gly-Phe(4-F)-DPP was the most promising considering its excellent opioid affinities, particularly unexpected high binding affinity (Ki = 0.13 nM) at the KOR, and moderate interactions with serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Docking studies revealed that the ligand was a good fit for the KOR binding pocket (binding score = 8,750).
  • Middle to late Miocene growth of the North Pamir

    Li, Lin; Dupont‐Nivet, Guillaume; Najman, Yani; Kaya, Mustafa; Meijer, Niels; Poujol, Marc; Aminov, Jovid; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2021-11-08)
    How and when the Pamir formed remains an open question. This study explores Pamir tectonics recorded in a sedimentary section in the eastern Tajik Basin. A prominent lithofacies change that has been recognised regionally is assigned to the middle Miocene (13.5 Ma based on preferred magnetostratigraphic correlation). Closely following this change, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra and mudstone bulk-rock εNd values exhibit a sediment source change from the Central to the North Pamir estimated ca. 12 Ma. At the same time, the stable oxygen and carbon isotopic values of carbonate cements show negative and positive shifts, respectively. Combined with previous studies in both the Tajik and Tarim basins, these results suggest that the North Pamir experienced a middle–late Miocene phase of deformation and surface uplift. This supports models proposing middle–late Miocene Pamir tectonism, and climate models implying that coeval Pamir orogenesis deflected Westerly moisture and affected Asian environments.
  • Phase Retrieval in Tabletop Radar Range

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Ketchum, Remington Spencer; Alcaraz, Pedro Enrique; College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona (OSA, 2020)
    We are describing the capability to measure the phase of the return signal in a tabletop radar range. The radar rage has a scale factor of 100,000 which allows to use near IR wavelength instead of radio frequency. Accurate scale models are manufactured using multiphoton 3D printer with nanometric resolution. We demonstrated that using phase shifting interferometry, this radar range can retrieve the phase of the radar cross section of complex objects similar to SAR or ISAR radar systems.

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