This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.

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Recent Submissions

  • A health monitoring technique for spherical structures based on multi-acoustic source localization

    Zhou, Zixian; Cui, Zhiwen; Liu, Jinxia; Kundu, Tribikram; Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona; Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-01-23)
    Multi-acoustic source localization (MASL) technique has important applications in the early warning and maintenance of spherical structures. Without solving complex nonlinear equations and without knowing the wave velocity distribution a priori, this work demonstrates the feasibility of MASL on the surface of spherical structures using L-shaped sensor clusters. The positions of multiple acoustic sources can be localized using only time difference of arrival values. Relative location determination and relative probability density analysis have been presented and verified to eliminate two types of pseudo-sources. Simulations are performed for isotropic and anisotropic spherical shells. The proposed technique is validated experimentally for stainless steel spherical shells. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed technique can enable MASL in spherical structures without knowing the wave velocity in the material.
  • Affectionate Communication Mediates the Effects of Minority Stress on Mental Wellness for LGBTQIA+ Adults

    Hesse, Colin; Floyd, Kory; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-01-24)
    As a prosocial behavior, affectionate communication evidences a stress-buffering effect, ameliorating the deleterious effects of stressors on stress. Although much previous research has documented such an effect on physiological stress reactivity, the present study examines the ability of trait-level affectionate communication to mediate the effect of minority stress on mental wellness for LGBTQIA+ adults. Using a sample of U.S. American LGBTQIA+ adults (N = 494), this project demonstrates that psychological stress and depressive symptoms are negatively associated with trait affectionate communication and that trait affectionate communication partially mediates the effect of minority stress on these outcomes.
  • Predictors of persistence of post-chemotherapy symptoms among survivors of solid tumor cancers

    Sikorskii, Alla; Badger, Terry; Segrin, Chris; Crane, Tracy E.; Cunicelli, Nathan; Chalasani, Pavani; Arslan, Waqas; Given, Charles; Department of Communication, University of Arizona; College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, United States; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-01-30)
    Context: Late or residual symptoms diminish quality of life for many cancer survivors after completion of treatment. Objectives: Examine risk factors associated with persisting symptom burden after chemotherapy and the lack of symptom improvement over time. Methods: Survivors who completed curative-intent chemotherapy within two years for solid tumors were enrolled into a symptom management trial. There were 375 survivors with two or more comorbid conditions or one comorbid condition and elevated depressive symptoms (pre-defined risk factors in the trial design) who received interventions and 71 survivors without these risk factors who did not receive interventions. For all survivors, symptoms were assessed at intake, 4, and 13 weeks and categorized as mild, moderate, or severe based on the interference with daily life. The probabilities of moderate or severe symptoms and symptom improvement were analyzed using generalized mixed-effects models in relation to comorbidity, depressive symptoms, age, sex, race/ethnicity, employment, time since chemotherapy completion, and physical function. Multiple symptoms were treated as nested within the survivor. Results: Moderate or severe symptoms at baseline and the lack of improvement over time were associated with younger age and lower physical function over and above a greater number of comorbidities and elevated severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Risk factors identified in this research (younger age, lower physical function, greater comorbidity, and higher depressive symptoms) can be used to allocate resources for post-treatment symptom management for cancer survivors in order to relieve symptoms that do not necessarily resolve with time.
  • A content analysis method for coding movie content using movie trailers

    Lapierre, Matthew A.; Shortt, Holly E.; Sada Garibay, Cecilia; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (American Psychological Association (APA), 2023-12-07)
    The study of motion pictures and their influence on audiences has long been part of media research. Yet, content analyzing movies can be both cost- and time-prohibitive. The current study presents a method for using movie trailers as a proxy for movie content by focusing on firearm appearances and use. Results show that the coding scheme devised for gun appearances was highly reliable, and, more importantly, this approach showed considerable agreement between movies and trailers. This coding approach holds promise for other media researchers who would like to find time/cost-effective ways to content analyze movies.
  • Study of Jupiter’s interior: Comparison of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 layer models

    Militzer, Burkhard; Hubbard, William B.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-01-17)
    With the goal of matching spacecraft measurements from Juno and Galileo missions, we construct ensembles of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 layer models for Jupiter's interior. All except our two layer models can match the planet's gravity field as measured by the Juno spacecraft. We find, however, that some model types are more plausible than others. In the best three layer models, for example, the transition from molecular to metallic hydrogen needs to be at ∼500 GPa while theory and experiments place this transition at ∼100 GPa. Four layer models with a single sharp boundary between core and mantle would be short-lived due to rapid convective core erosion. For this reason, we favor our five layer models that include a dilute core surrounded by a stably stratified core transition layer. Six layer models with a small compact core are also possible but with an upper limit of 3 Earth masses for such a compact core. All models assume a 1 bar temperature of 166.1 K, employ physical equations of state, and are constructed with the nonperturbative Concentric Maclaurin Spheroid (CMS) method. We analyze the convergence of this method and describe technical steps that are needed to make this technique so efficient that ensembles of models can be generated.
  • Multilevel Monte Carlo methods for the Grad-Shafranov free boundary problem

    Elman, Howard C.; Liang, Jiaxing; Sánchez-Vizuet, Tonatiuh; Department of Mathematics, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-01-19)
    The equilibrium configuration of a plasma in an axially symmetric reactor is described mathematically by a free boundary problem associated with the celebrated Grad-Shafranov equation. The presence of uncertainty in the model parameters introduces the need to quantify the variability in the predictions. This is often done by computing a large number of model solutions on a computational grid for an ensemble of parameter values and then obtaining estimates for the statistical properties of solutions. In this study, we explore the savings that can be obtained using multilevel Monte Carlo methods, which reduce costs by performing the bulk of the computations on a sequence of spatial grids that are coarser than the one that would typically be used for a simple Monte Carlo simulation. We examine this approach using both a set of uniformly refined grids and a set of adaptively refined grids guided by a discrete error estimator. Numerical experiments show that multilevel methods dramatically reduce the cost of simulation, with cost reductions typically on the order of 60 or more and possibly as large as 200. Adaptive griding results in more accurate computation of geometric quantities such as x-points associated with the model.
  • Integral Management Zones: A novel strategy for marine bivalve production in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Soria, Gaspar; Fernández‐Rivera Melo, Francisco J.; Tortolini, Virginia Mailen; Cinti, Ana; Hernández‐Pimienta, Raziel; Rocha‐Tejeda, Lorena; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Munguia‐Vega, Adrian; Conservation Genetics Laboratory and Desert Laboratory on Tumamoc Hill, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2024-01-16)
    The development of area-based tools that combine fishing, aquaculture and repopulation practices is increasingly necessary and important to conserve ecosystems, promote sustainable use of marine resources and contribute to the well-being of the people that rely on them. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, two small-scale fishers' cooperatives were granted a Permit for Exploratory Aquaculture of bivalve species, and their members decided to set three zones within those concessions: (i) a zone for natural seed collection and repopulation, (ii) a no-take zone and (iii) an area where fishing was allowed. This management arrangement, named by them as the Integral Management Zone (Zona de Manejo Integral), was conceived as an innovative alternative to the current policy tools available in the Mexican General Law for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture. The natural collection of bivalve larvae in the artificial collectors was sufficient to allow the development of the repopulation project. Based on hydrodynamic models of larval dispersal, self-recruitment was low, and the collection of seed depended on distant sources. The broader scale (regional) connectivity source–sink patterns should be considered in the design stages of the Integral Management Zones. The implementation of the Integral Management Zones can complement other conservation and fisheries management tools available in Mexican environmental and fisheries laws. The approach envisioned to implement this tool is participative, with a meaningful role of local fishers in the decisions concerning the use of these zones, with a supportive engagement of governmental and other stakeholders (e.g., academia and civil society organizations).
  • The psychophysiology of Mastermind: Characterizing response times and blinking in a high‐stakes television game show

    Wyly, Skyler; Jinon, Neryanne; Francis, Timothy; Evans, Hailey; Kao, Tsai Lieh; Lambert, Shelby; Montgomery, Shayne; Newlove, Marvelene; Mariscal, Haley; Nguyen, Henry; et al. (Wiley, 2023-11-15)
    Television game shows have proven to be a valuable resource for studying human behavior under conditions of high stress and high stakes. However, previous work has focused mostly on choices—ignoring much of the rich visual information that is available on screen. Here, we take a first step to extracting more of this information by investigating the response times and blinking of contestants in the BBC show Mastermind. In Mastermind, contestants answer rapid-fire quiz questions while a camera slowly zooms in on their faces. By labeling contestants' behavior and blinks from 25 episodes, we asked how accuracy, response times, and blinking varied over the course of the game. For accuracy and response times, we tested whether contestants responded more accurately and more slowly after an error—exhibiting the “post-error increase in accuracy” and “post-error slowing” which has been repeatedly observed in the lab. For blinking, we tested whether blink rates varied according to the cognitive demands of the game—decreasing during periods of cognitive load, such as when pondering a response, and increasing at event boundaries in the task, such as the start of a question. In contrast to the lab, evidence for post-error changes in accuracy and response time was weak, with only marginal effects observed. In line with the lab, blinking varied over the course of the game much as we predicted. Overall, our findings demonstrate the potential of extracting dynamic signals from game shows to study the psychophysiology of behavior in the real world.
  • Bandwidth-Enhanced, Electrically Small, Planar, Endfire-Radiating Huygens Dipole Antenna

    Lin, Qingli; Tang, Ming-Chun; Li, Mei; Duan, Yunlu; Zhang, Zhehao; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023-11-16)
    A bandwidth-enhanced, electrically small, planar, endfire-radiating Huygens dipole antenna (HDA) is presented. The near-field resonant parasitic (NFRP) grid-shaped dipole and two concentric interdigitated capacitor (IDC) loaded loops enable broad electric and magnetic dipole responses, respectively. Benefiting from the additional capacitance introduced by the dual-loop design, the magnetic dipole response is achieved at a lower frequency. The consequent balanced resonant responses of the electric and magnetic NFRP elements yield a wideband and electrically small HDA with endfire-radiating performance characteristics. The fabricated prototype exhibited measured results that closely agree with their simulated values. Being an electrically small, <italic>ka</italic> &#x003D; 0.91, system, it had an 8.79&#x0025; fractional bandwidth and a 4.7 dBi peak realized gain. Furthermore, the antenna achieved unidirectional radiation patterns and maintained high radiation efficiency (RE), RE &gt; 81&#x0025;, within its entire operational bandwidth.
  • Discerning Obstacles and Opportunities: A Framework for Evaluating Power

    Friesen, Rebecca; Cimetta, Adriana D.; University of Arizona (SAGE Publications Inc., 2024-01-17)
    Understanding what hinders or facilitates the implementation of change strengthens formative assessments. We propose a framework for interrogating the relational, political, discursive, and structural dimensions of power-shaping change efforts. In addition, we describe the application of this framework to a change initiative to better understand the influences on the project. Although evaluators usually only consider how power affects the evaluation process, exposing how these dimensions of power influence an initiative can reveal obstacles and opportunities and lead to the formation of more effective initiatives.
  • Coupling of polyhydroxybutyrate and zero-valent iron for enhanced treatment of nitrate pollution within the Permeable Reactive Barrier and its downgradient aquifer

    Yu, Wenhao; Zheng, Tianyuan; Guo, Bo; Tao, Yiheng; Liu, Lecheng; Yan, Ni; Zheng, Xilai; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona (Elsevier Ltd, 2023-12-26)
    Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) have been utilized for mitigating nitrate pollution in groundwater systems through the use of solid carbon and iron fillers that release diverse nutrients to enhance denitrification efficiency. We conduct laboratory column tests to evaluate the effectiveness of PRBs in remediating nitrate pollution both within the PRB and in the downgradient aquifer. We use an iron-carbon hydrogel (ICH) as PRB filler, which has different weight ratios of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and microscale zero-valent iron (mZVI). Results reveal that denitrification in the downgradient aquifer accounts for at least 19.5 % to 32.5 % of the total nitrate removal. In the ICH, a higher ratio of PHB to mZVI leads to higher contribution of the downgradient aquifer to nitrate removal, while a lower ratio results in smaller contribution. Microbial community analysis further reveals that heterotrophic and mixotrophic bacteria dominate in the downgradient aquifer of the PRB, and their relative abundance increases with a higher ratio of PHB to mZVI in the ICH. Within the PRB, autotrophic and iron-reducing bacteria are more prevalent, and their abundance increases as the ratio of PHB to mZVI in the ICH decreases. These findings emphasize the downgradient aquifer's substantial role in nitrate removal, particularly driven by dissolved organic carbon provided by PHB. This research holds significant implications for nutrient waste management, including the prevention of secondary pollution, and the development of cost-effective PRBs.
  • A Sociological Analysis of Structural Racism in “Student List” Lead Generation Products

    Jaquette, Ozan; Salazar, Karina G.; University of Arizona (American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2024-01-02)
    Colleges identify prospective students by purchasing “student lists.” Student list products are selection devices that use search filters to select students. Drawing from the sociology of race, we conceptualize some filters as “racialized inputs,” defined as inputs that are correlated with race because disadvantaged racial groups have historically been excluded from the input. Using a national sample of high school students, we explore the relationship between racialized search filters and the racial composition of included versus excluded students. Using data about actual lists purchased by public universities, we investigate how college administrators utilize racialized search filters. We discuss implications for federal and state policy. We motivate policy research about structural racism embedded in selection devices that allocate students to opportunities.
  • mmPose-FK: A Forward Kinematics Approach to Dynamic Skeletal Pose Estimation Using mmWave Radars

    Hu, Shuting; Cao, Siyang; Toosizadeh, Nima; Barton, Jennifer; Hector, Melvin G.; Fain, Mindy J.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Arizona; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Arizona; Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024-01-05)
    In this paper, we propose mmPose-FK, a novel millimeter wave (mmWave) radar-based pose estimation method that employs a dynamic forward kinematics (FK) approach to address the challenges posed by low resolution, specularity, and noise artifacts commonly associated with mmWave radars. These issues often result in unstable joint poses that vibrate over time, reducing the effectiveness of traditional pose estimation techniques. To overcome these limitations, we integrate the FK mechanism into the deep learning model and develop an end-to-end solution driven by data. Our comprehensive experiments using various matrices and benchmarks highlight the superior performance of mmPose-FK, especially when compared to our previous research methods. The proposed method provides more accurate pose estimation and ensures increased stability and consistency, which underscores the continuous improvement of our methodology, showcasing superior capabilities over its antecedents. Moreover, the model can output joint rotations and human bone lengths, which could be further utilized for various applications such as gait parameter analysis and height estimation. This makes mmPose-FK a highly promising solution for a wide range of applications in the field of human pose estimation and beyond.
  • Nectar robbers and simulated robbing differ in their effects on nectar microbial communities

    Luizzi, Victoria J.; Harrington, Alison H.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Arizona; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona; Bio5 Institute, The University of Arizona (Wiley, 2024-01-17)
    Floral nectar contains microbes that can influence nectar chemistry and pollinator visitation, and these microbial communities can be affected by pollinators in turn. Some flowers are also visited by nectar robbers, which feed on nectar through holes cut in floral tissue. If nectar robbers alter nectar microbial communities, they might have unexpected impacts on pollinator visitation. We investigated whether robbing could affect nectar microbial communities directly, by introducing microbes, or indirectly, by triggering a plant response to floral damage. We applied four treatments to flowers of Tecoma × “Orange Jubilee” (Bignoniaceae) in an arboretum setting: flowers were (1) covered to exclude all visitors; (2) available to both pollinators and nectar robbers and robbed naturally by carpenter bees; (3) available to pollinators only but cut at the base to simulate nectar robbing damage; or (4) available to pollinators only. We found that nectar in flowers accessible to any visitors was more likely to contain culturable microbes than flowers from which visitors were excluded. Microbial community composition and beta diversity were similar across treatments. Among flowers containing culturable microbes, flowers available to pollinators and nectar robbers had higher microbial abundance than flowers with simulated robbing, but there were no differences between flowers available to pollinators and robbers and unwounded flowers from which robbers were excluded. Overall, our results suggest that floral damage can affect some features of nectar microbial communities, but specific effects of nectar robbing are limited compared with the influence of visitation in general.
  • Perspectives of Emergency Medicine Physicians on Hidradenitis Suppurativa Care

    Atluri, Swetha; De, Devea R.; Shih, Terri; Dagenet, Caitlyn B.; Masson, Rahul; Tran, Khiem A.; Ng, Vivienne; Hsiao, Jennifer L.; Shi, Vivian Y.; College of Medicine, University of Arizona; et al. (S. Karger AG, 2023-12-01)
    Introduction: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin condition that often requires acute care during periods of flares, with many patients visiting the emergency department over 5 times before receiving a proper diagnosis. However, little is known about emergency medicine (EM) providers' experiences and knowledge of HS management. Methods: In this study, an anonymous survey was distributed to EM providers to identify knowledge and practice gaps in HS care. Results: The results showed that most respondents lacked confidence in HS diagnosis and management, especially in knowing available treatment options and managing patients with moderate to severe HS. Attendings were more confident than non-attendings in diagnosing and managing HS, and providers who saw more HS patients per month were more confident in referring patients to appropriate specialists. Over 80% of respondents referred HS patients to dermatology, which is an important initial step in HS management. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of educating EM providers in HS recognition, timely referral to dermatology, and initial management to improve quality of life among patients and mitigate disease progression.
  • The Economic Impact of Arizona's Quantum Initiative

    Rounds Consulting Group (2023)
    The following impact analysis, prepared for the University of Arizona (“University”), quantifies the potential economic benefits of the University’s quantum initiative to develop quantum technology and create a quantum network hub in Southern Arizona.
  • “Am I halo-halo?” Finding the Filipino-American Restorying Framework Through Consent

    Denney, Matt; College of Fine Arts (California State University, Office of the Chancellor, 2023-12-30)
    The Filipino-American Restorying Framework seeks to provide clarity amidst the unclarity that is the Filipino-American experience through consent. This article presents a brief history between the Philippines and the US, and how reclamation of the Filipino story leads to a cultural shift towards acceptance for Filipino-Americans. The information presented should be utilized to help understand the Filipino-American experience and to help other "Americanized Pinoys" understand their story, which begins with a resonant yes to yourself as a storyteller. We seek to build a narrative and framework that is encompassing of our ancestral activists, educators, and policymakers that were rooted in collective liberation, community, and kapwa.
  • From Untapped to Exploited: The Myriad Assets of Undocu/DACAmented Latina/o/x Students in the Midwest

    Luedke, Courtney L.; Santa-Ramirez, Stephen; Denney, Matthew; Mendez, Julian; College of Fine Arts (Informa UK Limited, 2024-01-08)
    While undocu/DACAmented students face many challenges in higher education, their lives demonstrate a tremendous amount of motivation, resilience, commitment, and perseverance. The literature on undocumented students has indicated that these students bring a vast array of assets to college – assets that can be used to improve the campus and the experiences of undocu/DACAmented individuals. However, undocu/DACAmented student assets are often undervalued. In this critical qualitative study of testimonios with 15 undocu/DACAmented Latinx collegians, we examine how institutions utilize, underutilize, or exploit these students’ assets to ask at what point acknowledging and recognizing students’ assets turns into exploiting them. Our findings revealed these collegians hold myriad assets and institutions responded to those assets by sometimes acknowledging and rewarding them, failing to acknowledge these assets, or exploiting them. Recommendations for equitable and ethical recognition and collaboration with undocu/DACAmented collegians are provided.
  • Brain size scaling through development in the whitelined sphinx moth (Hyles lineata) shows mass and cell number comparable to flies, bees, and wasps

    Aksamit, Isabel; Dorigão- Guimarães, Felipe; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Keating Godfrey, Rebekah; Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona (Elsevier, 2024-01-03)
    Factors regulating larval growth and determinants of adult body size are described for several holometabolous insects, but less is known about brain size scaling through development. Here we use the isotropic fractionation (“brain soup”) method to estimate the number of brain cells and cell density for the whitelined sphinx moth (Lepidoptera: Hyles lineata) from the first instar through the adult stage. We measure mass and brain cell number and find that, during the larval stages, body mass shows an exponential relationship with head width, while the total number of brain cells increases asymptotically. Larval brain cell number increases by a factor of ten from nearly 8000 in the first instar to over 80,000 in the fifth instar. Brain cell number increases by another factor of 10 during metamorphosis, with the adult brain containing more than 900,000 cells. This is similar to increases during development in the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). The adult brain falls slightly below the brain-to-body allometry for wasps and bees but is comparable in the number of cells per unit brain mass, indicating a general conservation of brain cell density across these divergent lineages.
  • Lesser Antilles slab reconstruction reveals lateral slab transport under the Caribbean since 50 Ma

    Chen, Yi-Wei; Wu, Jonny; Goes, Saskia; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-01-08)
    The link between surface tectonic plates and mantle slabs is fundamental for paleo-tectonic reconstructions and for our understanding of mantle dynamics. Many seismic tomography-based studies have assumed vertical slab sinking and projected mantle features to the surface to reconstruct paleo-trench locations or explain tectonic features. Here, we used a slab-unfolding approach that does not require assumptions about sinking paths or rates to re-interpret the seismic structure of the Lesser Antilles slab underneath the Caribbean. A recent study invoked mainly vertical slab sinking and a highly folded and deformed slab to explain seismic Caribbean mantle structures. However, our results show that the upper-mantle Lesser Antilles slab structure can be better explained by limited intra-slab deformation and up to ∼900 km lateral slab transport towards the northwest after subduction. Our results indicate that such lateral slab transport can occur even with probable weaknesses in the slab that originate from a subducted fossil ridge-transform system. We ascribe the lateral slab transport in the mantle to a kinematic connection with the North American plate, which has migrated northwestward since the Eocene.

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