This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.

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Recent Submissions

  • Trends in Early Prenatal Care Among Women with Pre-Existing Diabetes: Have Income Disparities Changed?

    Breathett, Khadijah; Filley, Jessica; Pandey, Madhaba; Rai, Nayanjot; Peterson, Pamela N.; Univ Arizona, Sarver Heart Ctr, Div Cardiol (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018-01)
    Background: Women with pre-existing diabetes are at high maternal risk for comorbidities and death, particularly when early prenatal care is not received. Low income is a known barrier to early prenatal care. It is unknown whether recent policies to expand access to prenatal care have reduced income disparities. We hypothesized that income disparities would be minimized and that the odds of receipt of first trimester prenatal care among women with pre-existing diabetes would become similar across income strata over time. Material and Methods: Using the Colorado birth certificate registry from 2007 to 2014, receipt of prenatal care was assessed retrospectively in 2,497 women with pre-existing diabetes. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between high (>$50,000), medium ($25,000-50,000), and low (<$25,000) income strata and receipt of first trimester prenatal care by birth year, adjusted for demographics. Results: High, medium, and low income represented 29.5%, 19.0%, and 51.5% of the cohort, respectively. Women with high income were more likely to receive first trimester care than women with low income from 2007 [adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.16 (1.18, 3.96)] through 2013 [1.66 (1.01, 2.73)], but significant differences were no longer observed in 2014 [1.59 (0.89, 2.84)]. The likelihood of receiving first trimester prenatal care was not significantly different between medium- and low-income strata from 2007 [1.07 (0.66, 1.74)] through 2014 [0.77 (0.48, 1.23)]. Conclusions: From 2007 to 2013, women in Colorado with diabetes were more likely to receive early prenatal care if they were in the highest income stratum than in the lowest stratum. In 2014, receipt of first trimester care became equitable across all income strata. Future work should examine national patterns of income with receipt of prenatal care and outcomes among women with pre-existing diabetes.
  • Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in saphenous vein grafts: a double-blind, randomised trial.

    Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Edson, Robert; Bhatt, Deepak L; Goldman, Steven; Holmes, David R; Rao, Sunil V; Shunk, Kendrick; Rangan, Bavana V; Mavromatis, Kreton; Ramanathan, Kodangudi; Bavry, Anthony A; Garcia, Santiago; Latif, Faisal; Armstrong, Ehrin; Jneid, Hani; Conner, Todd A; Wagner, Todd; Karacsonyi, Judit; Uyeda, Lauren; Ventura, Beverly; Alsleben, Aaron; Lu, Ying; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Banerjee, Subhash; Univ Arizona, Sarver Heart Ctr (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018-05-19)
    Few studies have examined the efficacy of drug-eluting stents (DES) for reducing aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass graft (SVG) failure compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients undergoing stenting of de-novo SVG lesions. We assessed the risks and benefits of the use of DES versus BMS in de-novo SVG lesions. Patients were recruited to our double-blind, randomised controlled trial from 25 US Department of Veterans Affairs centres. Eligible participants were aged at least 18 years and had at least one significant de-novo SVG lesion (50-99% stenosis of a 2·25-4·5 mm diameter SVG) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention with intent to use embolic protection devices. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, by phone randomisation system to receive a DES or BMS. Randomisation was stratified by presence or absence of diabetes and number of target SVG lesions requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (one or two or more) within each participating site by use of an adaptive scheme intended to balance the two stent type groups on marginal totals for the stratification factors. Patients, referring physicians, study coordinators, and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the 12-month incidence of target vessel failure, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularisation. The DIVA trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01121224. Between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015, 599 patients were randomly assigned to the stent groups, and the data for 597 patients were used. The patients' mean age was 68·6 (SD 7·6) years, and 595 (>99%) patients were men. The two stent groups were similar for most baseline characteristics. At 12 months, the incidence of target vessel failure was 17% (51 of 292) in the DES group versus 19% (58 of 305) in the BMS group (adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·63-1·34, p=0·70). Between-group differences in the components of the primary endpoint, serious adverse events, or stent thrombosis were not significant. Enrolment was stopped before the revised target sample size of 762 patients was reached. In patients undergoing stenting of de-novo SVG lesions, no significant differences in outcomes between those receiving DES and BMS during 12 months of follow-up were found. The study results have important economic implications in countries with high DES prices such as the USA, because they suggest that the lower-cost BMS can be used in SVG lesions without compromising either safety or efficacy.
  • Sensitive and specific post-call filtering of genetic variants in xenograft and primary tumors

    Mannakee, Brian K; Balaji, Uthra; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Knudsen, Erik S; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Ctr Canc; Univ Arizona, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Pathol; Univ Arizona, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-05-15)
    Motivation: Tumor genome sequencing offers great promise for guiding research and therapy, but spurious variant calls can arise from multiple sources. Mouse contamination can generate many spurious calls when sequencing patient-derived xenografts. Paralogous genome sequences can also generate spurious calls when sequencing any tumor. We developed a BLAST-based algorithm, Mouse And Paralog EXterminator (MAPEX), to identify and filter out spurious calls from both these sources. Results: When calling variants from xenografts, MAPEX has similar sensitivity and specificity to more complex algorithms. When applied to any tumor, MAPEX also automatically flags calls that potentially arise from paralogous sequences. Our implementation, mapexr, runs quickly and easily on a desktop computer. MAPEX is thus a useful addition to almost any pipeline for calling genetic variants in tumors.
  • Failure to achieve first attempt success at intubation using video laryngoscopy is associated with increased complications

    Hypes, Cameron; Sakles, John; Joshi, Raj; Greenberg, Jeremy; Natt, Bhupinder; Malo, Josh; Bloom, John; Chopra, Harsharon; Mosier, Jarrod; Univ Arizona, Sect Pulm Allergy Crit Care & Sleep, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (SPRINGER-VERLAG ITALIA SRL, 2017-12)
    The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the association between first attempt success and intubation-related complications in the Intensive Care Unit after the widespread adoption of video laryngoscopy. We further sought to characterize and identify the predictors of complications that occur despite first attempt success. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive intubations performed with video laryngoscopy at an academic medical Intensive Care Unit. Operator, procedural, and complication data were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the intubation attempts and the occurrence of one or more complications. A total of 905 patients were intubated using a video laryngoscope. First attempt success occurred in 739 (81.7 %), whereas > 1 attempt was needed in 166 (18.3 %). One or more complications occurred in 146 (19.8 %) of those intubated on the first attempt versus 107 (64.5 %, p < 0.001) of those requiring more than one attempt. Logistic regression analysis shows that > 1 attempt is associated with 6.4 (95 % CI 4.4-9.3) times the adjusted odds of at least one complication. Pre-intubation predictors of at least one complication despite first attempt success include vomit or edema in the airway as well as the presence of hypoxemia or hypotension. There are increased odds of complications with even a second attempt at intubation in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications occur frequently despite a successful first attempt, and as such, the goal of airway management should not be simply first attempt success, but instead first attempt success without complications.
  • Efficiency of Reovirus Concentration from Water with Positively Charged Filters

    Betancourt, Walter Q.; Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Gerba, Charles P.; Univ Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol WEST Ctr (SPRINGER, 2018-06)
    This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.
  • European spaces and the Roma: Denaturalizing the naturalized in online reader comments

    Catalano, Theresa; Fielder, Grace E; Univ Arizona, Russian & Slav Studies Language Acquisit & Teachi (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-06)
    With the entry of several Eastern European nations into the European Union (EU), a third' space has developed in the discourse for nations perceived as not fully integrated inside' the EU system. This article investigates the construction of this third space' in the resultant moral panic' about undesired immigration from other EU countries and its potential drain on the social services of the United Kingdom and links it to Euroskeptic discourse in British media. The article uses construal operations from cognitive linguistics combined with critical discourse studies as a way of denaturalizing the discourse in online comments that focus on the Bulgarian/Romanian immigration issue which we then connect to anti-Roma discourse. Results reveal a view of the United Kingdom as contaminated by Roma and underscore the need for novel metaphors to be countered before they become entrenched and used as tools for political propaganda.
  • New Ways to Explore the Relationship–Emotion–Health Connection

    Sbarra, David A.; Coan, James A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-01-25)
    The commentaries by Rimé (2018) and Scherer (2018) underscore and extend many of the central themes discussed in our target article (Sbarra & Coan, 2018). This response filters the commentaries through the lens of our review article and highlights the core idea that relationships provide a vital context for the types of emotional responding outlined in the commentaries, including the social sharing of emotion (an inherently interpersonal process) as well as the link between emotional competence and physical health(which can unfold both within and between people).
  • Relationships and Health: The Critical Role of Affective Science

    Sbarra, David A.; Coan, James A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-01)
    High-quality social relationships predict a range of positive health outcomes, but no broadly accepted theory can explain the mechanisms of action in this area. The central argument of this article is that affective science can provide keys for integrating the diverse array of theoretical models concerning relationships and health. From nine prominent theories, we cull four components of relational affect that link social resources to health-related outcomes. This component model holds promise for integrating research from the different theoretical perspectives and for generating new, mechanistic questions about the connection between relationships and health. The article closes by outlining three empirical study ideas that illustrate ways in which the different components can be studied together in the context of mechanism-focused research.
  • Molecular diversity and allergenic profiles of Alternaria spp. from desert environments in Arizona

    Rotondo, Francesca; Hong, Soon Gyu; Peever, Tobin; Pryor, Barry M.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr, Sch Plant Sci (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018-01)
    This study examined the genetic diversity of small-spored Alternaria species in the southwest desert of the USA by sampling 552 isolates from different habitats (soil and plant debris) in different locations (urban and an undisturbed desert). To estimate the genetic diversity, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting analysis was performed for all isolates. Strains representative of the sampled genotypic diversity (n = 125) were further characterized according their sporulation pattern and the capability to produce allergens. Morphological characterization assigned the majority of the strains to the Alternaria alternata and Alternaria tenuissima morpho-groups with only two isolates assigned to the Alternaria arborescens morpho-group. AFLP fingerprinting differentiated the A. arborescens morpho-groups, but could not distinguish between the A. altemata and A. tenuissima morpho-groups. Western blot analysis showed that a large number of allergenic proteins were produced by strains. These proteins were not specific for any morpho-group nor source of isolation. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance was performed on the AFLP data to quantify molecular variation and partition this variation among sampled locations and habitat. No statistically significant differentiation among locations and habitat was detected indicating a lack of population structure across environments. (C) 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Contrasting species boundaries between sections Alternaria and Porri of the genus Alternaria

    Ozkilinc, H.; Rotondo, F.; Pryor, B. M.; Peever, T. L.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr, Sch Plant Sci (WILEY, 2018-02)
    The fungal genus Alternaria comprises a large number of asexual taxa with diverse ecological, morphological and biological modes ranging from saprophytes to plant pathogens. Understanding the speciation processes affecting asexual fungi is important for estimating biological diversity, which in turn affects plant disease management and quarantine enforcement. This study included 106 isolates of Alternaria representing five phylogenetically defined clades in two sister sub-generic groups: section Porri (A.dauci, A.solani and A.limicola) and section Alternaria (A.alternata/tenuissima and A.arborescens). Species in section Porri are host-specific while species in section Alternaria have wider host ranges. For each isolate, DNA sequences of three genes (Alt a1, ATPase, Calmodulin) were used to estimate phylogenies at the population and species levels. Three multilocus haplotypes were distinguished among A.dauci isolates and only one haplotype among A.solani and A.limicola isolates, revealing low or no differentiation within each taxon and strong clonal structure for taxa in this section. In contrast, 37 multilocus haplotypes were found among A.alternata/tenuissima isolates and 21 multilocus haplotypes among A.arborescens isolates, revealing much higher genotypic diversity and multiple clonal lineages within taxa, which is not typical of asexual reproducing lineages. A species tree was inferred using a Yule Speciation model and a strict molecular clock assumption. Species boundaries were well defined within section Porri. However, species boundaries within section Alternaria were only partially resolved with no well-defined species boundaries, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting. Significant association with host specificity seems a driving force for speciation.
  • Anisotropic larval connectivity and metapopulation structure driven by directional oceanic currents in a marine fish targeted by small-scale fisheries

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Marinone, S. Guido; Paz-Garcia, David A.; Giron-Nava, Alfredo; Plomozo-Lugo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Cuellar, Ollin; Weaver, Amy Hudson; García-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Conservat Genet Lab (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2018-01)
    The dispersal during the planktonic larval period is a key feature to understand the metapopulation structure of marine fishes, and is commonly described by four general models: (1) lack of population structure due to extensive larval dispersal; (2) isolation by geographic distance, where larval connectivity decreases with increasing distance between sites in all directions (isotropy); (3) population structure without any clear geographic trend (chaotic); and (4) population structure explained by seascape approaches that explicitly incorporate the spatial and temporal variations in the direction and strength of oceanic currents via oceanographic modeling. We tested the four models in the Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, a key commercial species in the Gulf of California (GC), Mexico. We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 225 samples collected during 20152016 from 8 sites, and contrasted the observed empirical genetic patterns against predictions from each model. We found low but significant levels of population structure among sites. Only the seascape approach was able to significantly explain levels of genetic structure and diversity, but exclusively within spring and summer, suggesting that this period represents the spawning season for L. peru. We showed that in the GC, the strong asymmetry in the oceanic currents causes larval connectivity to show different values when measured in distinct directions (anisotropy). Management tools, including marine reserves, could be more effective if placed upstream of the predominant flow. Managers should consider that oceanographic distances describing the direction and intensity of currents during the spawning period are significant predictors of larval connectivity between sites, as opposed to geographic distances.
  • Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N.; Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Gerber, Leah R.; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M.; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Torre, Jorge; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (WILEY, 2018-02)
    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of dispersal connectivity. Our results support previous studies suggesting that, given potential reductions in PLD due to ocean warming, future marine reserve networks would require more and/or larger reserves in closer proximity to maintain larval connectivity.
  • Structure versus time in the evolutionary diversification of avian carotenoid metabolic networks

    Morrison, Erin S.; Badyaev, Alexander V.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2018-05)
    Historical associations of genes and proteins are thought to delineate pathways available to subsequent evolution; however, the effects of past functional involvements on contemporary evolution are rarely quantified. Here, we examined the extent to which the structure of a carotenoid enzymatic network persists in avian evolution. Specifically, we tested whether the evolution of carotenoid networks was most concordant with phylogenetically structured expansion from core reactions of common ancestors or with subsampling of biochemical pathway modules from an ancestral network. We compared structural and historical associations in 467 carotenoid networks of extant and ancestral species and uncovered the overwhelming effect of pre-existing metabolic network structure on carotenoid diversification over the last 50 million years of avian evolution. Over evolutionary time, birds repeatedly subsampled and recombined conserved biochemical modules, which likely maintained the overall structure of the carotenoid metabolic network during avian evolution. These findings explain the recurrent convergence of evolutionary distant species in carotenoid metabolism and weak phylogenetic signal in avian carotenoid evolution. Remarkable retention of an ancient metabolic structure throughout extensive and prolonged ecological diversification in avian carotenoid metabolism illustrates a fundamental requirement of organismal evolution - historical continuity of a deterministic network that links past and present functional associations of its components.
  • The pure rotational spectrum of the T-shaped AlC2 radical ([X with combining tilde]2A1)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, Dept Chem & Biochem; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2018-04-28)
    The pure rotational spectrum of the AlC2 radical ((X) over tilde (2)A(1)) has been measured using Fourier transform microwave/millimeter-wave (FTMmmW) techniques in the frequency range 21-65 GHz. This study is the first high-resolution spectroscopic investigation of this molecule. AlC2 was created in a supersonic jet from the reaction of aluminum, generated by laser ablation, with a mixture of CH4 or HCCH, diluted in argon, in the presence of a DC discharge. Three transitions (N-Ka,N-Kc = 1(01) -> 0(00), 2(02) -> 1(01), and 3(03) -> 2(02)) were measured, each consisting of multiple fine/hyperfine components, resulting from the unpaired electron in the species and the aluminum-27 nuclear spin (I = 5/2). The data were analyzed using an asymmetric top Hamiltonian and rotational, fine structure, and hyperfine constants determined. These parameters agree well with those derived from previous theoretical calculations and optical spectra. An r(0) structure of AlC2 was determined with r(Al-C) = 1.924 angstrom, r(C-C) = 1.260 angstrom, and theta(C-Al-C) = 38.2 degrees. The Al-C bond was found to be significantly shorter than in other small, Al-bearing species. The Fermi contact term established in this work indicates that the unpaired electron in the valence orbital has considerable 3p(z)a(1) character, suggesting polarization towards the C-2 moiety. A high degree of ionic character in the molecule is also evident from the quadrupole coupling constant. These results are consistent with a T-shaped geometry and an Al+C2- bonding scheme. AlC2 is a possible interstellar molecule that may be present in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars.
  • Can amputation save the hospital? The impact of the Medicare Rural Flexibility Program on demand and welfare

    Gowrisankaran, Gautam; Lucarelli, Claudio; Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp; Town, Robert; Univ Arizona (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-03)
    This paper seeks to understand the impact of the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility (Flex) Program on hospital choice and consumer welfare for rural residents. The Flex Program created a new class of hospital, the Critical Access Hospital (CAH), which receives more generous Medicare reimbursements in return for limits on capacity and length of stay. We find that conversion to CAH status resulted in a 4.7 percent drop in inpatient admissions to participating hospitals, almost all of which was driven by factors other than capacity constraints. The Flex Program increased consumer welfare if it prevented the exit of at least 6.5 percent of randomly selected converting hospitals. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Optimal strategies for monitoring irrigation water quality

    Lothrop, Nathan; Bright, Kelly R.; Sexton, Jonathan; Pearce-Walker, Jennifer; Reynolds, Kelly A.; Verhougstraete, Marc P.; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-02)
    The quality of irrigation water drawn from surface water sources varies greatly. This is particularly true for waters that are subject to intermittent contamination events such as runoff from rainfall or direct entry of livestock upstream of use. Such pollution in irrigation systems increases the risk of food crop contamination and require adoption of best monitoring practices. Therefore, this study aimed to define optimal strategies for monitoring irrigation water quality. Following the analysis of 1357 irrigation water samples for Escherichia coil, total coliforms, and physical and chemical parameters, the following key irrigation water collection approaches are suggested: 1) explore up to 950m upstream to ensure no major contamination or outfalls exists; 2) collect samples before 12:00 p.m. local time; 3) collect samples at the surface of the water at any point across the canal where safe access is available; and 4) composite five samples and perform a single E. coil assay. These recommendations comprehensively consider the results as well as sampling costs, personnel effort, and current scientific knowledge of water quality characterization. These strategies will help to better characterize risks from microbial pathogen contamination in irrigation waters in the Southwest United States and aid in risk reduction practices for agricultural water use in regions with similar water quality, climate, and canal construction. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sociocultural perceptions of walkability in Mexican American neighborhoods: Implications for policy and practice

    Ingram, Maia; Adkins, Arlie; Hansen, Krista; Cascio, Vanessa; Somnez, Evren; Univ Arizona, Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Coll Architecture Planning & Landscape Architectu (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017-12)
  • Postpartum Changes in Mood and Smoking-Related Symptomatology: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation

    Allen, Alicia; Tosun, Nicole; Carlson, Samantha; Allen, Sharon; Univ Arizona, Dept Family & Community Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-06)
    Introduction: Postpartum smoking relapse is a highly prevalent public health problem. Mood and breast feeding are significantly associated with smoking relapse, although less is known about the temporality of these relationships. Therefore, this study utilized ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to prospectively examine changes in mood and smoking-related symptomatology in relationship to three events-childbirth, termination of breast feeding, and smoking relapse. We expected all three events to significantly alter mood and smoking-related symptomatology. Methods: We enrolled a sample of pregnant women who had recently quit smoking and intended to remain quit during the postpartum. Participants were randomized to active/placebo progesterone to prevent postpartum relapse. Participants also completed daily EMA to collect data mood and smoking-related symptomatology as well as our three events of interest. Results: Participants (n = 46) were, on average, 26.5 +/- 0.8 years old and, prior to pregnancy, smoked 10.1 +/- 0.7 cigarettes/day. We noted a number of significant within-and between-subject relationships. For example, participants reported a 24% decline in negative affect after childbirth (p = .0016). Among those who relapsed to smoking (n = 23), participants randomized to placebo had a significant increase in cigarette craving after relapse (beta = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62 to 1.49, p value = .0003), whereas participants randomized to active progesterone did not (beta = 0.63, 95% CI = -0.35 to 1.62, p value = .1824). Conclusions: These observations suggest that mood and smoking-related symptomatology are influenced by childbirth, breast feeding, smoking relapse, and use of exogenous progesterone. Future research should explore how these observations may inform novel postpartum smoking relapse-prevention interventions.
  • MicroRNA Changes in Firefighters

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Zhou, Jin; Griffin, Stephanie C.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Dearmon-Moore, Devi; Zhai, Jing; Littau, Sally R.; Gulotta, John; Moore, Paul; Peate, Wayne F.; Richt, Crystal M.; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Commun Environm & Policy; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Genet Core, Arizona Res Labs (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018-05)
    Objectives: Firefighters have elevated cancer incidence and mortality rates. MicroRNAs play prominent roles in carcinogenesis, but have not been previously evaluated in irefighters. Methods: Blood from 52 incumbent and 45 new recruit nonsmoking firefighters was analyzed for microRNA expression, and the results adjusted for age, obesity, ethnicity, and multiple comparisons. Results: Nine microRNAs were identified with at least a 1.5-fold significant difference between groups. All six microRNAs with decreased expression in incumbent firefighters have been reported to have tumor suppressor activity or are associated with cancer survival, and two of the three microRNAs with increased expression in incumbent firefighters have activities consistent with cancer promotion, with the remaining microRNA associated with neurological disease. Conclusion: Incumbent firefighters showed differential microRNA expression compared with new recruits, providing potential mechanisms for increased cancer risk in firefighters.
  • Nuclear physics from an expansion around the unitarity limit

    van Kolck, U.; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018)
    Many features of the structure of nuclei can be understood in the unitarity limit, where the two-nucleon S waves have bound states at zero energy. In this limit, the only dimensionful parameter, which is needed for proper renormalization of the relevant effective field theory, is set by the triton binding energy. While the complexity of some many-body systems may stem from a profusion of distinct scales, this one three-body scale is sufficient to generate rich structures already in few-body systems due to the anomalous breaking of continuous to discrete scale invariance. I discuss how the spectra of light nuclei arise from a controlled, perturbative expansion around the unitarity limit. I also present some implications of discrete scale invariance for nuclear matter.

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