This open access archive contains publications from University of Arizona faculty, researchers and staff, primarily open-access versions of formally published journal articles. The collection includes published articles and final accepted manuscripts submitted by UA faculty under the UA Open Access Policy. The collection also includes books, book chapters, book reviews, presentations, data, and other scholarly materials submitters have chosen to make available in the repository.

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Recent Submissions

  • Managing plant-environment-symbiont interactions to promote plant performance under low temperature stress

    Askari-Khorasgani, Omid; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Flores, Francisco Borja; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci, Coll Agr & Life Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-08-07)
    Low-temperature stresses, also referred to as cold temperature stresses, including chilling and freezing temperatures, are among the major abiotic stresses that severely reduce plant yield, quality, and marketability and pose a serious threat to plant production during whole plant life cycles. Plant-environment-symbiont interactions determine the symbiotic and crop performance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To achieve the optimum outcome, it is essential to consider not only plant-symbiont relationships, but also symbiont adaptation and symbiont-symbiont interactions under changing environmental conditions and different plant growth stages. Improving multi-symbiotic component systems and symbiont breeding together can be a useful strategy to improve symbiosis and, thus, crop production. In this review article, the role of interactions between multi-symbiotic components and plant-environment-symbiont relationships and the related biotechnology approaches are discussed in order to find the most effective sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices to improve crop performance and mitigate the adverse effects of low temperatures on plants.
  • Silicon application positively alters pollen grain area, osmoregulation and antioxidant enzyme activities in wheat plants under water deficit conditions

    Maghsoudi, Kobra; Emam, Yahya; Ashraf, Muhammad; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-08-12)
    Role of exogenously-applied silicon (Si) on antioxidant enzyme activities was investigated in wheat under drought stress using a completely randomized factorial design with four replications. Drought stress significantly enhanced activities of ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and elevated accumulation of osmotically active molecules, soluble sugars and proline. Si application further enhanced activities of enzymes involved in oxidative defense system and accumulation of osmotically active molecules in drought-stressed plants. Under drought stress conditions, water shortage decreased protein content in all cultivars; however, application of Si increased it. Pollen area ratio was lower than 1 for cvs. Shiraz and Marvdasht under drought, but greater than 1 for cvs. Chamran and Sirvan. Water-limited regimes resulted in decreased leaf psi(w) in all cultivars, but Si supply was effective in improving psi(w) under water-limited regimes. Water shortage increased leaf K, Mg, and Ca concentrations. Under drought stress, Si-treated plants had higher K concentration than the none-treated plants.
  • Plant and symbiont metabolic regulation and biostimulants application improve symbiotic performance and cold acclimation

    Askari-Khorasgani, Omid; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Flores Pardo, Francisco Borja; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-08-12)
    Cold stress, including chilling and freezing temperatures, severely damages crop production and quality during the whole plant life from seed germination to the end of postharvest life. Cold stress can indirectly reduce plant yield and quality by suppressing symbiont growth and, thereby, symbiotic performance. In organic farming, the application of bioactive compounds and/or symbiont microorganisms can be used as biostimulants to promote plant performance under normal and stressful conditions. Regulation of bioactive compounds and metabolites (by modifying gene expression, signaling, and synthetic pathways) in plants and/or symbionts have the potential to promote plant and symbiont relationships and performance. So far, few studies have shown the effectiveness of regulating symbiont metabolites (for example, Sphingomonas faeni overexpressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase enzyme activity that enhances cold tolerance), which can be referred to as microbiome breeding, on modulating plant and symbiont performance and stress responses. This review article incentivizes further studies to use microbiome breeding to not only promote symbiont and host tolerance, but also to promote symbiotic performance and, thereby, plant yield and quality, particularly when symbiosis is depressed by undesirable environmental conditions such as cold stress. The efficacy of using biostimulants and cold-tolerant symbionts on improving plant metabolites, symbiotic performance, and cold acclimation are discussed in this review article.
  • How Do Mothers and Fathers Interact With Their Children After An Injury? Exploring the Role of Parental Acute Stress, Optimism, and Self-Efficacy

    Mangelsdorf, Shaminka N; Mehl, Matthias R; Qiu, Jianrong; Alisic, Eva; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-04-01)
    Objective In the aftermath of a child injury, children and parents can jointly experience acute stress symptoms. Optimism and self-efficacy might buffer against post-traumatic stress disorder. Knowing that children are innately receptive to parent modeling, we were interested in exploring how parent acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy might transpire in parent-child interactions and whether any differences existed between mothers and fathers. Methods We recruited 71 families of seriously injured children who were hospitalized for at least 24hr. Parents completed self-report measures of acute stress, optimism, and self-efficacy. Children wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR(2)); Mehl, M. R. [2017]. The electronically activated recorder (EAR): A method for the naturalistic observation of daily social behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26, 184-190) for a 2-day period postdischarge. The EAR recorded ambient sounds for 30s every 5min. The audio recordings were transcribed and coded. We derived a percentage of time spent with each parent (interaction time), and average ratings of the emotional tone of voice for each speaker. Results Overall, parental acute stress and self-efficacy were not associated with interaction time or emotional tone, and parents generally spent less time with older children. Compared to fathers, mothers spent significantly more time with their child, particularly for daughters, but mothers did not differ from fathers in emotional tone, acute stress, optimism, or self-efficacy. For mothers, optimism may be associated with greater interaction time and more positive emotional tone. Conclusions The present study highlighted parent gender differences in time spent with children and enabled the inclusion of more fathers using a naturalistic observational tool.
  • Large-scale forest restoration stabilizes carbon under climate change in Southwest United States

    McCauley, Lisa A; Robles, Marcos D; Woolley, Travis; Marshall, Robert M; Kretchun, Alec; Gori, David F; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (WILEY, 2019-07-22)
    Higher tree density, more fuels, and a warmer, drier climate have caused an increase in the frequency, size, and severity of wildfires in western U.S. forests. There is an urgent need to restore forests across the western United States. To address this need, the U.S. Forest Service began the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) to restore four national forests in Arizona. The objective of this study was to evaluate how restoration of 400,000 ha under the 4FRI program and projected climate change would influence carbon dynamics and wildfire severity from 2010 to 2099. Specifically, we estimated forest carbon fluxes, carbon pools and wildfire severity under a moderate and fast 4FRI implementation schedule and compared those to status quo and no-harvest scenarios using the LANDIS-II simulation model and climate change projections. We found that the fast-4FRI scenario showed early decreases in ecosystem carbon due to initial thinning/prescribed fire treatments, but total ecosystem carbon increased by 9-18% over no harvest by the end of the simulation. This increased carbon storage by 6.3-12.7 million metric tons, depending on the climate model, equating to removal of carbon emissions from 55,000 to 110,000 passenger vehicles per year until the end of the century. Nearly half of the additional carbon was stored in more stable soil pools. However, climate models with the largest predicted temperature increases showed declines by late century in ecosystem carbon despite restoration. Our study uses data from a real-world, large-scale restoration project and indicates that restoration is likely to stabilize carbon and the benefits are greater when the pace of restoration is faster.
  • Smartlink: Exploiting Channel Clustering Effects for Reliable Millimeter Wave Communications

    Aykin, Irmak; Akgun, Berk; Krunz, Marwan; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE, 2019-04)
    Millimeter wave (mmW) communications have recently attracted considerable attention as a key element of next generation (5G) wireless systems. Despite significant efforts in this domain, establishing and maintaining directional mmW links in a dynamic environment are still quite challenging, largely due to the search-time overhead of beam scanning, and the vulnerability of directional links to beam misalignment, blockage, and outages. In this paper, we propose SmartLink, a protocol that exploits the multi-cluster scattering phenomenon at mmW frequencies to establish a multi-directional link between a base station and a user. By exploiting multiple clusters, SmartLink enables fast initial access and link maintenance, along with sustained throughput. A search algorithm called multi-lobe beam search (MLBS) is used to discover multiple channel clusters by probing several directions simultaneously using carefully designed multi lobe beam patterns. MLBS reduces the search time from linear to logarithmic with respect to the number of directions. We provide detailed analysis of the false alarm and misdetection probabilities for the designed beam patterns. Following cluster discovery, SmartLink divides antennas into sub-arrays to generate the optimal multi-lobe pattern with respect to cluster powers and blockage probabilities. Finally, extensive trace-driven simulations at 29 GHz frequency using phased-array antennas verify the efficiency of SmartLink.
  • A high-frequency mobile phone data collection approach for research in social-environmental systems: Applications in climate variability and food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Giroux, Stacey A.; Kouper, Inna; Estes, Lyndon D.; Schumacher, Jacob; Waldman, Kurt; Greenshields, Joel T.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Evans, Tom P.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019-09)
    Collecting high-frequency social-environmental data about farming practices in sub-Saharan Africa can provide new insight into environmental changes that farmers face and how they respond within smallholder agro-eco-systems. Traditional data collection methods such as agricultural censuses are costly and not useful for understanding intra-annual and real-time decisions. Short-message service (SMS) has the potential to transform the nature of data collection in coupled social-ecological systems. We present a system for collecting, managing, and synthesizing weekly data from farmers, including data infrastructure for management of big and heterogeneous datasets; probabilistic data quality assessment tools; and visualization and analysis tools such as mapping and regression techniques. We discuss limitations of collecting social-environmental data via SMS and data integration challenges that arise when linking these data with other social and environmental data. In combination with high-frequency environmental data, such data will help ameliorate issues of scale mismatch and build resilience in environmental systems.
  • High Spatial Resolution Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy with ALES: Resolved Spectra of the Benchmark Brown Dwarf Binary HD 130948BC

    Briesemeister, Zackery W.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Stone, Jordan M.; Barman, Travis S.; Hinz, Philip; Leisenring, Jarron; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Woodward, Charles E.; Spalding, Eckhart; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-06)
    We present 2.9-4.1 mu m integral field spectroscopy of the L4+L4 brown dwarf binary HD 130948BC, obtained with the Arizona Lenslets for Exoplanet Spectroscopy (ALES) mode of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. The HD 130948 system is a hierarchical triple system, in which the G2V primary is joined by two co-orbiting brown dwarfs. By combining the age of the system with the dynamical masses and luminosities of the substellar companions, we can test evolutionary models of cool brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. Previous near-infrared studies suggest a disagreement between HD 130948BC luminosities and those derived from evolutionary models. We obtained spatially resolved, low-resolution (R similar to 20) L-band spectra of HD 130948B and C to extend the wavelength coverage into the thermal infrared. Jointly using JHK photometry and ALES L-band spectra for HD 130948BC, we derive atmospheric parameters that are consistent with parameters derived from evolutionary models. We leverage the consistency of these atmospheric quantities to favor a younger age (0.50 +/- 0.07 Gyr) of the system compared to the older age (0.79(-0.15)(+0.22)) determined with gyrochronology in order to address the luminosity discrepancy.
  • Human rDNA copy number is unstable in metastatic breast cancers

    Valori, Virginia; Tus, Katalin; Laukaitis, Christina; Harris, David T; LeBeau, Lauren; Maggert, Keith A; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Appl Biosci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pathol; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Ctr Canc; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-08-12)
    Chromatin-mediated silencing, including the formation of heterochromatin, silent chromosome territories, and repressed gene promoters, acts to stabilize patterns of gene regulation and the physical structure of the genome. Reduction of chromatin-mediated silencing can result in genome rearrangements, particularly at intrinsically unstable regions of the genome such as transposons, satellite repeats, and repetitive gene clusters including the rRNA gene clusters (rDNA). It is thus expected that mutational or environmental conditions that compromise heterochromatin function might cause genome instability, and diseases associated with decreased epigenetic stability might exhibit genome changes as part of their aetiology. We find the support of this hypothesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma, in which reduced epigenetic silencing has been previously described, by using a facile method to quantify rDNA copy number in biopsied breast tumours and pair-matched healthy tissue. We found that rDNA and satellite DNA sequences had significant copy number variation - both losses and gains of copies - compared to healthy tissue, arguing that these genome rearrangements are common in developing breast cancer. Thus, any proposed aetiology onset or progression of breast cancer should consider alterations to the epigenome, but must also accommodate concomitant changes to genome sequence at heterochromatic loci.
  • Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager Non-redundant Mask and Spectroscopy of Two Close-separation Binaries: HR 2690 and HD 142527

    Barman, Travis; Cardwel, Andrew; Morzinski, Katie M.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab; Univ Arizona, Large Binocular Telescope Observ; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-06)
    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) contains a 10-hole non-redundant mask (NRM), enabling interferometric resolution in complement to its coronagraphic capabilities. The NRM operates both in spectroscopic (integral field spectrograph, henceforth IFS) and polarimetric configurations. NRM observations were taken between 2013 and 2016 to characterize its performance. Most observations were taken in spectroscopic mode, with the goal of obtaining precise astrometry and spectroscopy of faint companions to bright stars. We find a clear correlation between residual wavefront error measured by the adaptive optic system and the contrast sensitivity by comparing phase errors in observations of the same source, taken on different dates. We find a typical 5 sigma contrast sensitivity of (2-3) x 10(-3) at similar to lambda/D. We explore the accuracy of spectral extraction of secondary components of binary systems by recovering the signal from a simulated source injected into several data sets. We outline data reduction procedures unique to GPI's IFS and describe a newly public data pipeline used for the presented analyses. We demonstrate recovery of astrometry and spectroscopy of two known companions to HR 2690 and HD 142527. NRM+polarimetry observations achieve differential visibility precision of sigma similar to 0.4% in the best case. We discuss its limitations on Gemini-S/GPI for resolving inner regions of protoplanetary disks and prospects for future upgrades. We summarize lessons learned in observing with NRM in spectroscopic and polarimetric modes.
  • TurbuStat: Turbulence Statistics in Python

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.; Boyden, Ryan D.; Burkhart, Blakesley; Ginsburg, Adam; Loeppky, Jason L.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-07)
    We present TURBUSTAT (v1.0): a PYTHON package for computing turbulence statistics in spectral-line data cubes. TURBUSTAT includes implementations of 14 methods for recovering turbulent properties from observational data. Additional features of the software include: distance metrics for comparing two data sets; a segmented linear model for fitting lines with a break point; a two-dimensional elliptical power-law model; multicore fast-Fourier-transform support; a suite for producing simulated observations of fractional Brownian Motion fields, including two-dimensional images and optically thin H I data cubes; and functions for creating realistic world coordinate system information for synthetic observations. This paper summarizes the TURBUSTAT package and provides representative examples using several different methods. TURBUSTAT is an open-source package and we welcome community feedback and contributions.
  • Smoking and Physical Activity Explain the Increased Mortality Risk Following Marital Separation and Divorce: Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Ruiz, John M; Sbarra, David A; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019-03-01)
    Background Marital separation and divorce are associated with an increased risk of early mortality, but the specific biobehavioral pathways that explain this association remain largely unknown. Purpose This study sought to identify the putative psychological, behavioral, and biomarker variables that can help explain the association of being separated or divorced and increased risk for early mortality. Methods Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a representative community sample of aging adults (N = 5,786), we examined the association of marital status and life satisfaction, health behaviors measured 2 years later, biomarkers measured 4 years later, and mortality outcomes from the subsequent 4 years. Results Consistent with prior literature, older adults who were separated/divorced evidenced greater risk of mortality relative to those in intact marriages over the study period, OR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.15, 1.86]. Marital status was associated with lower levels of life satisfaction, beta = -0.22 [-0.25, -0.19] and greater likelihood of smoking 2 years later beta = 0.17 [0.13, 0.21]. Lower life satisfaction predicted less frequent physical activity 2 years later, beta = 0.07 [0.03, 0.10]. Smoking, but not physical activity, predicted poorer lung functioning 2 years later, beta = -0.43 [-0.51, -0.35], and poorer lung function predicted increased likelihood of mortality over the following 4 years, beta = -0.15 [-0.27, -0.03]. There was a significant total indirect effect of marital status on mortality through these psychological, behavioral, and biomarker variables, beta = 0.03 [0.01, 0.05], which fully explained this mortality risk. Conclusions For separated/divorced adults, differences in life satisfaction predict health behaviors associated with poorer long-term lung function, and these intermediate variables help explain the association between marital dissolution and increased risk of earlier mortality. In a large sample of older adults, the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation and divorce is fully accounted for by psychological wellbeing, physical activity, and smoking.
  • "Tipping point" concept analysis in the family caregiving context

    Crist, Janice D; Liu, Jian; Shea, Kim D; Peterson, Rachel L; Martin-Plank, Lori; Lacasse, Cheryl L; May, Jennifer T; Wyles, Christina L; Williams, Deborah K; Slebodnik, Maribeth; et al. (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    Aim Analyze the concept "tipping point" in the older adult family caregiving context to further knowledge about caregiving families, enhancing transdisciplinary theory, research, and practice. Background While used commonly in some disciplines, how "tipping point" has been used in health care, generally, and in relation to caregiving families, specifically, is less clear. This project was conducted to offer conceptual clarity to tipping point. Design Walker and Avant's framework. Data Source Searches of scholarly literature in PsycINFO, CINAHL, and PubMed using the search term "tipping point" in either title or abstract. Review Methods Definitions used were extracted; instances when the concept was implied but the actual term "tipping point" was not used and contexts where the term was used or implied were identified. Results The composite definition of a caregiving tipping point is a seemingly abrupt, severe, and absolute change event involving either the older adult or caregiver(s), or both that indicates a breakdown in the status quo of the caregiving system. Conclusions Transdisciplinary research, care, and policy should treat caregiving families as complex systems, use longitudinal assessments, and include colloquial communication. Early detection of impending tipping points will provide family-centered decisional support and enhance families' quality of life and safety.
  • Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac Associated with an Insertion in Cadherin Exon 20

    Wang, Ling; Ma, Yuemin; Guo, Xueqin; Wan, Peng; Liu, Kaiyu; Cong, Shengbo; Wang, Jintao; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Yutao; Li, Xianchun; et al. (MDPI, 2019-03-28)
    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. We report on a novel allele (r16) of the cadherin gene (PgCad1) in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) associated with resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac, which is produced by transgenic cotton. The r16 allele isolated from a field population in China has 1545 base pairs of a degenerate transposon inserted in exon 20 of PgCad1, which generates a mis-spliced transcript containing a premature stop codon. A strain homozygous for r16 had 300-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, 2.6-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and completed its life cycle on transgenic Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Inheritance of Cry1Ac resistance was recessive and tightly linked with r16. Compared with transfected insect cells expressing wild-type PgCad1, cells expressing r16 were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. Recombinant cadherin protein was transported to the cell membrane in cells transfected with the wild-type PgCad1 allele, but not in cells transfected with r16. Cadherin occurred on brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in the midgut of susceptible larvae, but not resistant larvae. These results imply that the r16 allele mediates Cry1Ac resistance in pink bollworm by interfering with the localization of cadherin.
  • The gendered impact of Buruli ulcer on the household production of health and social support networks: Why decentralization favors women

    Agbo, Ines Elvire; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Nichter, Mark; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-04-15)
    Background Buruli ulcer [BU] is a chronic and debilitating neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The treatment of moderate to severe BU affects the well-being of entire households and places a strain on both gender relations within households and social relations with kin asked for various types of support. In this paper, we employ the conceptual lenses provided by the Household Production of Health approach to understanding the impact of illness on the household as a unit of analysis, gender studies, and social support related research to better understand BU health care decision making and the psychosocial experience of BU hospitalization. Methods An ethnography attentive to circumstance and the nested contexts within which stakeholders respond to BU was conducted employing semi-structured interviews, illness narratives, and case studies. An iterative process of data collection with preliminary analyses and reflection shaped subsequent interviews. Interviews were conducted with 45 women in households having a member afflicted with BU in two communes of Benin with high prevalence rates for BU. The first commune [ZE] has a well-established decentralized BU treatment program and a well-functioning referral network linked to the Allada reference hospital specializing in the care of BU and other chronic ulcers. The second commune [Ouinhi] is one of the last regions of the country to introduce a decentralized BU treatment program. A maximum variation purposeful sample was selected to identify information-rich health care decision cases for in-depth study. Principal findings Study results demonstrated that although men are the primary decision makers for healthcare decisions outside the home, women are largely responsible for arranging care for the afflicted in hospital in addition to managing their own households. A woman's agency and ability to influence the decision-making process is largely based on whatever social support and substitute labor she can mobilize from her own network of kin relations. When support wanes, women are placed in a vulnerable position and often end up destitute. Decentralized BU treatment is preferred because it enables a woman to remain in her own household as a patient or caretaker of an ill family member while engaging in child care and petty revenue earing activities. Remaining in the hospital (a liminal space) as either patient or caretaker also renders a woman vulnerable to rumor and innuendo about sexual liaisons and constitutes a form of social risk. Social risk in some cases eclipses the physical risk of the disease in what we would describe as a hierarchy of risks. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of decentralized treatment programs for NTDs such as BU. Such programs enable patients to remain in their homes while being treated, and do not displace women responsible for the welfare of the entire household. When women are displaced the well-being of the entire household is placed in jeopardy. Author summary In this gender-focused study of the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer (BU) in Benin, West Africa, we document how seeking care for BU is influenced by broad-based concerns about the household production of health and the availability of resources women can mobilize from their social support networks. Women and girls shoulder a disproportionate share of the burdens incurred by BU treatment and prefer decentralized treatment from local health stations to free hospital care. Long term and often-indeterminate residence in hospital threatens the integrity of households and results in marital stress, economic vulnerability, school and vocational training dropout, and loss of essential income-generating activities. The case study of BU clearly demonstrates the necessity of recognizing the household, and not just the patient, as a unit of analysis in public health and the need to consider the ripple effect of serious illness beyond the household to one's social network. We draw attention to the fact that while men are the decision makers about health care in patrilineal Beninese society, a women's agency in influencing decision making is tied to her accumulation of social capital, capital that is taxed by long term medical treatment weakening her safety net in the future.
  • Testing viable f(R) models with the angular-diameter distance to compact quasar cores

    Sultana, Joseph; Melia, Fulvio; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys, Appl Math Program; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-05-06)
    We consider here some popular f(R) models generally viewed as possible alternatives to the existence of dark energy in General Relativity. For each of these, we compute the redshift zmax at which the angular diameter distance dA(z) is expected to reach its maximum value. This turning point in dA(z) was recently measured in a model-independent way using compact quasar cores and was found to occur at zmax=1.70±0.20. We compare the predictions of zmax for the f(R) models with this observed value to test their viability at a deeper level than has been attempted thus far, thereby quantifying an important observational difference between such modified gravity scenarios and standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Our results show that, while the most popular f(R) models today are consistent with this measurement to within 1σ, the turning point zmax will allow us to prioritize these alternative gravity theories as the measurement precision continues to improve, particularly with regard to how well they mitigate the tension between the predictions of ΛCDM and the observations. For example, while the Hu-Sawicki version of f(R) increases this tension, the Starobinky model reduces it.
  • Efficient representation of Gaussian states for multimode non-Gaussian quantum state engineering via subtraction of arbitrary number of photons

    Gagatsos, Christos N.; Guha, Saikat; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-05-13)
    We consider a complete description of a multi-mode bosonic quantum state in the coherent-state basis (which in this paper is denoted as the “K” function), which—up to a phase—is the square root of the well-known Husimi Q representation. We express the K function of any N-mode Gaussian state as a function of its covariance matrix and displacement vector, and also that of a general continuous-variable cluster state in terms of the modal squeezing and graph topology of the cluster. This formalism lets us characterize the non-Gaussian state left over when one measures a subset of modes of a Gaussian state using photon number resolving detection, the fidelity of the obtained non-Gaussian state with any target state, and the associated heralding probability, all analytically. We show that this probability can be expressed as a Hafnian, reinterpreting the output state of a circuit claimed to demonstrate quantum supremacy termed Gaussian boson sampling. As an example application of our formalism, we propose a method to prepare a two-mode coherent-cat-basis Bell state with fidelity close to unity and success probability that is fundamentally higher than that of a well-known scheme that splits an approximate single-mode cat state—obtained by photon number subtraction on a squeezed vacuum mode—on a balanced beam splitter. This formalism could enable exploration of efficient generation of cat-basis entangled states, which are known to be useful for quantum error correction against photon loss.
  • Intraperitoneal injections as an alternative method for micro-CT contrast enhanced detection of murine liver tumors

    Sweeney, Nathan; Marchant, Stephen; Martinez, Jesse D; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Canc Biol Grad Interdisciplinary Program; Univ Arizona, Cell & Mol Med (FUTURE SCI LTD, 2019-05-03)
    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) coupled with tissue, or vascular, specific contrast agent has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting and monitoring tumor growth in the liver of murine animals. Intravenous injections of contrast agents can be technically challenging and lead to errors that can considerably influence the outcome of a preclinical study, prompting an alternative method. Here we assessed the effectiveness of intraperitoneal injections of polyiodinated triglycerides emulsions (FenestraLC) in micro-CT imaging of young SCID (8 weeks) and old BALB/c (48 weeks) mice with xenograft or carcinogen-induced liver tumors, respectively, and determined an optimal acquisition time. Utilizing an intraperitoneal injection is a viable alternative administration route for using Fenestrain detection and quantification of murine liver tumor burden. METHOD SUMMARY We report that intraperitoneal injections of polyiodinated triglycerides emulsions are a suitable alternative to the intravenous administration route in detecting and quantifying murine liver tumor burden.
  • Modeling the pasture-associated severe equine asthma bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome identifies molecular events mediating neutrophilic airway inflammation

    Bright, Lauren A; Dittmar, Wellesley; Nanduri, Bindu; McCarthy, Fiona M; Mujahid, Nisma; Costa, Lais Rr; Burgess, Shane C; Swiderski, Cyprianna E; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Anim Comparat & Biomed Sci (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019-05-02)
    Background: Pasture-associated severe equine asthma is a warm season, environmentally-induced respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, persistent and non-specific airway hyper-responsiveness, and chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation. During seasonal exacerbation, signs vary from mild to life-threatening episodes of wheezing, coughing, and chronic debilitating labored breathing. Purpose: In human asthma, neutrophilic airway inflammation is associated with more severe and steroid-refractory asthma phenotypes, highlighting a need to decipher the mechanistic basis of this disease characteristic. We hypothesize that the collective biological activities of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with pasture-associated severe asthma predict changes in neutrophil functions that contribute to airway neutrophilic inflammation. Methods: Using shotgun proteomics, we identified 1,003 unique proteins in cell-free BALF from six horses experiencing asthma exacerbation and six control herdmates. Contributions of each protein to ten neutrophil functions were modeled using manual biocuration to determine each protein's net effect on the respective neutrophil functions. Results: A total of 417 proteins were unique to asthmatic horses, 472 proteins were unique to control horses (p<0.05), and 114 proteins were common in both groups. Proteins whose biological activities are responsible for increasing neutrophil migration, chemotaxis, cell spreading, transmigration, and infiltration, which would collectively bring neutrophils to airways, were over-represented in the BALF of asthmatic relative to control horses. By contrast, proteins whose biological activities support neutrophil activation, adhesion, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and apoptosis, which would collectively shorten neutrophil lifespan, were under-represented in BALF of asthmatic relative to control horses. Interaction networks generated using Ingenuity® Pathways Analysis further support the results of our biocuration. Conclusion: Congruent with our hypothesis, the collective biological functions represented in differentially expressed proteins of BALF from horses with pasture-associated severe asthma support neutrophilic airway inflammation. This illustrates the utility of systems modeling to organize functional genomics data in a manner that characterizes complex molecular events associated with clinically relevant disease.
  • Asymmetric mid-plane gas in ALMA images of HD 100546

    Miley, J M; Panić, O; Haworth, T J; Pascucci, I; Wyatt, M; Clarke, C; Richards, A M S; Ratzka, T; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-02-13)
    In this paper we present new ALMA observations towards the protoplanet-hosting transitional disc of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546. This includes a resolved 1.3 mm continuum, 13CO, and the first detection of C18O in this disc, which displays azimuthal asymmetry in regions spatially coincident with structures previously identified in HST images related to spiral arms. The lower limit on the mass of the dust disc is calculated to be 9.6 ×10−4M⊙⁠. A firm lower limit on the total gas mass calculated from optically thin, mid-plane-tracing C18O (2 − 1) emission is 0.018 M⊙ assuming interstellar medium abundances. These mass estimates provide an estimate of gas-to-dust ratio in the disc of 19; the ratio will increase if C18O is relatively underabundant in the disc compared to CO and H2. Through deprojection and azimuthal averaging of the image plane we detect 1.3 mm continuum emission out to 290 ± 10 au, 13CO to 390 ± 10 au, and C18O to 300 ± 10 au. We measure a radially increasing millimetre spectral index between wavelengths of 867 μm and 1.3 mm, which shows that grain sizes increase towards the star, with solid particles growing to centimetre scales in the inner disc.

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