• The fundamental plane of EDisCS galaxies (Corrigendum)

      Saglia, R. P.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Bender, R.; Simard, L.; Desai, V.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Halliday, C.; Jablonka, P.; Noll, S.; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2016-12-19)
      We discovered a mistake in Eqs. (7) and (10) of Saglia et al. (2010, A&A, 524, A6), which propagates to Tables 8 and 9 and Fig. 25. We revise the tables, the figure and the affected statements in the paper. As a result, the reduction in the luminosity evolution due to the effects of the size and velocity dispersion evolution is smaller than claimed in Saglia et al. (2010).
    • Molecular gas and star formation activity in luminous infrared galaxies in clusters at intermediate redshifts

      Castignani, G.; Jablonka, P.; Combes, F.; Haines, C. P.; Rawle, T.; Jauzac, M.; Egami, E.; Krips, M.; Sperone-Longin, D.; Arnaud, M.; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2020-08)
      We investigate the role of dense megaparsec-scale environments in processing molecular gas of cluster galaxies as they fall into the cluster cores. We selected a sample of similar to 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) belonging to intermediate-redshift clusters, mainly from the Herschel Lensing Survey and the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. These galaxies include MACS J0717.5+3745 at z=0.546 and Abell 697, 963, 1763, and 2219 at z=0.2-0.3. We performed spectral energy distribution modeling from the far-infrared to ultraviolet of the LIRGs, which span cluster-centric distances within r/r(200)similar or equal to 0.2-1.6. We observed the LIRGs in CO(1 -> 0) or CO(2 -> 1) with the Plateau de Bure interferometer and its successor NOEMA, as part of five observational programs carried out between 2012 and 2017. We compared the molecular gas to stellar mass ratio M(H-2)/M-star, star formation rate (SFR), and depletion time (tau (dep)) of the LIRGs with those of a compilation of cluster and field star-forming galaxies from the literature. The targeted LIRGs have SFR, M(H-2)/M-star, and tau (dep) that are consistent with those of both main-sequence (MS) field galaxies and star-forming galaxies from the comparison sample. However we find that the depletion time, normalized to the MS value, tentatively increases with increasing r/r(200), with a significance of 2.8 sigma, which is ultimately due to a deficit of cluster-core LIRGs with tau (dep)greater than or similar to tau (dep, MS). We suggest that a rapid exhaustion of the molecular gas reservoirs occurs in the cluster LIRGs and is indeed effective in suppressing their star formation and ultimately quenching them. This mechanism may explain the exponential decrease of the fraction of cluster LIRGs with cosmic time. The compression of the gas in LIRGs, possibly induced by intra-cluster medium shocks, may be responsible for the short timescales that are observed in a large fraction of cluster-core LIRGs. Some of our LIRGs may also belong to a population of infalling filament galaxies.
    • SEEDisCS: I. Molecular gas in galaxy clusters and their large-scale structure: The case of CL1411.1-1148 at z ∼0.5

      Spérone-Longin, D.; Jablonka, P.; Combes, F.; Castignani, G.; Krips, M.; Rudnick, G.; Zaritsky, D.; Finn, R.A.; De Lucia, G.; Desai, V.; et al. (EDP Sciences, 2021)
      We investigate how the galaxy reservoirs of molecular gas fuelling star formation are transformed while the host galaxies infall onto galaxy cluster cores. As part of the Spatially Extended ESO Distant Cluster Survey (SEEDisCS), we present CO(3-2) observations of 27 star-forming galaxies obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. These sources are located inside and around CL1411.1-1148 at z = 0.5195, within five times the cluster virial radius. These targets were selected to have stellar masses (Mstar), colours, and magnitudes similar to those of a field comparison sample at similar redshift drawn from the Plateau de Bure high-z Blue Sequence Survey (PHIBSS2). We compare the cold gas fraction (μH2 = MH2/Mstar), specific star formation rates (SFR/Mstar) and depletion timescales (tdepl = MH2/SFR) of our main-sequence galaxies to the PHIBSS2 subsample. While the most of our galaxies (63%) are consistent with PHIBSS2, the remainder fall below the relation between μH2 and Mstar of the PHIBSS2 galaxies at z ∼ 0.5. These low-μH2 galaxies are not compatible with the tail of a Gaussian distribution, hence they correspond to a new population of galaxies with normal SFRs but low gas content and low depletion times (≲ 1 Gyr), absent from previous surveys. We suggest that the star formation activity of these galaxies has not yet been diminished by their low fraction of cold molecular gas. © ESO 2021.
    • SEEDisCS: II. Molecular gas in galaxy clusters and their large-scale structure: Low gas fraction galaxies, the case of CL1301.7-1139

      Spérone-Longin, D.; Jablonka, P.; Combes, F.; Castignani, G.; Krips, M.; Rudnick, G.; Desjardins, T.; Zaritsky, D.; Finn, R.A.; De Lucia, G.; et al. (EDP Sciences, 2021)
      This paper is the second of a series that tackles the properties of molecular gas in galaxies residing in clusters and their related large-scale structures. Out of 21 targeted fields, 19 galaxies were detected in CO(3-2) with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, including two detections within a single field. These galaxies are either bona fide members of the CL1301.7-1139 cluster (z = 0.4828, σcl = 681 km s-1), or located within ∼7 × R200, its virial radius. They have been selected to sample the range of photometric local densities around CL1301.7-1139, with stellar masses above log(Mstar) = 10, and to be located in the blue clump of star-forming galaxies derived from the u, g, and i photometric bands. Unlike previous works, our sample selection does not impose a minimum star formation rate or detection in the far-infrared. As such and as much as possible, it delivers an unbiased view of the gas content of normal star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.5. Our study highlights the variety of paths to star formation quenching, and most likely the variety of physical properties (i.e., temperature, density) of the corresponding galaxy's cold molecular gas. Just as in the case of CL1411.1-1148, although to a smaller extent, we identify a number of galaxies with lower gas fraction than classically found in other surveys. These galaxies can still be on the star-forming main sequence. When these galaxies are not inside the cluster virialised region, we provide hints that they are linked to their infall regions within 4 × R200. © ESO 2021.
    • The GOGREEN Survey: Evidence of an Excess of Quiescent Disks in Clusters at 1.0

      Chan, J.C.C.; Wilson, G.; Balogh, M.; Rudnick, G.; Van Der Burg, R.F.J.; Muzzin, A.; Webb, K.A.; Biviano, A.; Cerulo, P.; Cooper, M.C.; et al. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021)
      We present the results of the measured shapes of 832 galaxies in 11 galaxy clusters at 1.0 < z < 1.4 from the GOGREEN survey. We measure the axis ratio (q), the ratio of the minor to the major axis, of the cluster galaxies from near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging using Sersic profile fitting and compare them with a field sample. We find that the median q of both star-forming and quiescent galaxies in clusters increases with stellar mass, similar to the field. Comparing the axis ratio distributions between clusters and the field in four mass bins, the distributions for star-forming galaxies in clusters are consistent with those in the field. Conversely, the distributions for quiescent galaxies in the two environments are distinct, most remarkably in where clusters show a flatter distribution, with an excess at low q. Modelling the distribution with oblate and triaxial components, we find that the cluster and field sample difference is consistent with an excess of flattened oblate quiescent galaxies in clusters. The oblate population contribution drops at high masses, resulting in a narrower q distribution in the massive population than at lower masses. Using a simple accretion model, we show that the observed q distributions and quenched fractions are consistent with a scenario where no morphological transformation occurs for the environmentally quenched population in the two intermediate-mass bins. Our results suggest that environmental quenching mechanism(s) likely produce a population that has a different morphological mix than those resulting from the dominant quenching mechanism in the field. © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    • The GOGREEN survey: Internal dynamics of clusters of galaxies at redshift 0.9-1.4

      Biviano, A.; Van Der Burg, R.F.J.; Balogh, M.L.; Munari, E.; Cooper, M.C.; De Lucia, G.; Demarco, R.; Jablonka, P.; Muzzin, A.; Nantais, J.; et al. (EDP Sciences, 2021)
      Context. The study of galaxy cluster mass profiles (M(r)) provides constraints on the nature of dark matter and on physical processes affecting the mass distribution. The study of galaxy cluster velocity anisotropy profiles (β(r)) informs the orbits of galaxies in clusters, which are related to their evolution. The combination of mass profiles and velocity anisotropy profiles allows us to determine the pseudo phase-space density profiles (Q(r)); numerical simulations predict that these profiles follow a simple power law in cluster-centric distance. Aims. We determine the mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of clusters of galaxies at the highest redshifts investigated in detail to date. Methods. We exploited the combination of the GOGREEN and GCLASS spectroscopic data-sets for 14 clusters with mass M200 ≥ 1014 M⊙ at redshifts 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.4. We constructed an ensemble cluster by stacking 581 spectroscopically identified cluster members with stellar mass M∗ ≥ 109.5 M⊙. We used the MAMPOSSt method to constrain several M(r) and β(r) models, and we then inverted the Jeans equation to determine the ensemble cluster β(r) in a non-parametric way. Finally, we combined the results of the M(r) and β(r) analysis to determine Q(r) for the ensemble cluster. Results. The concentration c200 of the ensemble cluster mass profile is in excellent agreement with predictions from Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological numerical simulations, and with previous determinations for clusters of similar mass and at similar redshifts, obtained from gravitational lensing and X-ray data. We see no significant difference between the total mass density and either the galaxy number density distributions or the stellar mass distribution. Star-forming galaxies are spatially significantly less concentrated than quiescent galaxies. The orbits of cluster galaxies are isotropic near the center and more radial outside. Star-forming galaxies and galaxies of low stellar mass tend to move on more radially elongated orbits than quiescent galaxies and galaxies of high stellar mass. The profile Q(r), determined using either the total mass or the number density profile, is very close to the power-law behavior predicted by numerical simulations. Conclusions. The internal dynamics of clusters at the highest redshift probed in detail to date are very similar to those of lower-redshift clusters, and in excellent agreement with predictions of numerical simulations. The clusters in our sample have already reached a high degree of dynamical relaxation. © 2021 ESO.
    • The GOGREEN survey: The environmental dependence of the star-forming galaxy main sequence at 1.0 < z < 1.5

      Old, L.J.; Balogh, M.L.; van der Burg, R.F.J.; Biviano, A.; Yee, H.K.C.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Webb, K.; Muzzin, A.; Rudnick, G.; Vulcani, B.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We present results on the environmental dependence of the star-forming galaxy main sequence in 11 galaxy cluster fields at 1.0 &lt; z &lt; 1.5 from the Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments Survey (GOGREEN) survey. We use a homogeneously selected sample of field and cluster galaxies whose membership is derived from dynamical analysis. Using [O II]derived star formation rates (SFRs), we find that cluster galaxies have suppressed SFRs at fixed stellar mass in comparison to their field counterparts by a factor of 1.4 ± 0.1 (-3.3σ) across the stellar mass range: 9.0 &lt; log (M∗/M☉) &lt; 11.2. We also find that this modest suppression in the cluster galaxy star-forming main sequence is mass and redshift dependent: the difference between cluster and field increases towards lower stellar masses and lower redshift. When comparing the distribution of cluster and field galaxy SFRs to the star-forming main sequence, we find an overall shift towards lower SFRs in the cluster population, and note the absence of a tail of high SFR galaxies as seen in the field. Given this observed suppression in the cluster galaxy star-forming main sequence, we explore the implications for several scenarios such as formation time differences between cluster and field galaxies, and environmentally induced star formation quenching and associated time-scales. © 2020 The Author(s)
    • The GOGREEN survey: Transition galaxies and the evolution of environmental quenching

      McNab, K.; Balogh, M.L.; van der Burg, R.F.J.; Forestell, A.; Webb, K.; Vulcani, B.; Rudnick, G.; Muzzin, A.; Cooper, M.C.; McGee, S.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
      We measure the rate of environmentally driven star formation quenching in galaxies at z ∼ 1, using eleven massive (M ≈ 2 × 1014 M☉) galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 1.0 &lt; z &lt; 1.4 from the GOGREEN sample. We identify three different types of transition galaxies: ‘green valley’ (GV) galaxies identified from their rest-frame (NUV - V) and (V - J) colours; ‘blue quiescent’ (BQ) galaxies, found at the blue end of the quiescent sequence in (U - V) and (V - J) colour; and spectroscopic post-starburst (PSB) galaxies. We measure the abundance of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass and environment. For high-stellar mass galaxies (log M/M☉ &gt; 10.5) we do not find any significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, relative to a comparison field sample at the same redshift. It is likely that such galaxies were quenched prior to their accretion in the cluster, in group, filament, or protocluster environments. For lower stellar mass galaxies (9.5 &lt; log M/M☉ &lt; 10.5) there is a small but significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, accounting for an additional ∼5–10 per cent of the population compared with the field. We show that our data are consistent with a scenario in which 20–30 per cent of low-mass, star-forming galaxies in clusters are environmentally quenched every Gyr, and that this rate slowly declines from z = 1 to z = 0. While environmental quenching of these galaxies may include a long delay time during which star formation declines slowly, in most cases this must end with a rapid (τ &lt; 1 Gyr) decline in star formation rate. © 2021 The Author(s).
    • Virgo Filaments. II. Catalog and First Results on the Effect of Filaments on Galaxy Properties

      Castignani, G.; Vulcani, B.; Finn, R.A.; Combes, F.; Jablonka, P.; Rudnick, G.; Zaritsky, D.; Whalen, K.; Conger, K.; De Lucia, G.; et al. (American Astronomical Society, 2022)
      Virgo is the nearest galaxy cluster; it is thus ideal for studies of galaxy evolution in dense environments in the local universe. It is embedded in a complex filamentary network of galaxies and groups, which represents the skeleton of the large-scale Laniakea supercluster. Here we assemble a comprehensive catalog of galaxies extending up to ∼12 virial radii in projection from Virgo to revisit the cosmic-web structure around it. This work is the foundation of a series of papers that will investigate the multiwavelength properties of galaxies in the cosmic web around Virgo. We match spectroscopically confirmed sources from several databases and surveys including HyperLeda, NASA Sloan Atlas, NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, and ALFALFA. The sample consists of ∼7000 galaxies. By exploiting a tomographic approach, we identify 13 filaments, spanning several megaparsecs in length. Long >17 h -1 Mpc filaments, tend to be thin (<1 h -1 Mpc in radius) and with a low-density contrast (<5), while shorter filaments show a larger scatter in their structural properties. Overall, we find that filaments are a transitioning environment between the field and cluster in terms of local densities, galaxy morphologies, and fraction of barred galaxies. Denser filaments have a higher fraction of early-type galaxies, suggesting that the morphology-density relation is already in place in the filaments, before galaxies fall into the cluster itself. We release the full catalog of galaxies around Virgo and their associated properties. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • Virgo filaments: I. Processing of gas in cosmological filaments around the Virgo cluster

      Castignani, G.; Combes, F.; Jablonka, P.; Finn, R.A.; Rudnick, G.; Vulcani, B.; Desai, V.; Zaritsky, D.; Salomé, P.; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (EDP Sciences, 2022)
      It is now well established that galaxies have different morphologies, gas contents, and star formation rates (SFR) in dense environments like galaxy clusters. The impact of environmental density extends to several virial radii, and galaxies appear to be pre-processed in filaments and groups before falling into the cluster. Our goal is to quantify this pre-processing in terms of gas content and SFR, as a function of density in cosmic filaments. We have observed the two first CO transitions in 163 galaxies with the IRAM-30 m telescope, and added 82 more measurements from the literature, thus forming a sample of 245 galaxies in the filaments around the Virgo cluster. We gathered HI-21cm measurements from the literature and observed 69 galaxies with the Nançay telescope to complete our sample. We compare our filament galaxies with comparable samples from the Virgo cluster and with the isolated galaxies of the AMIGA sample. We find a clear progression from field galaxies to filament and cluster galaxies for decreasing SFR, increasing fraction of galaxies in the quenching phase, an increasing proportion of early-type galaxies, and decreasing gas content. Galaxies in the quenching phase, defined as having a SFR below one-third of that of the main sequence (MS), are only between 0% and 20% in the isolated sample, according to local galaxy density, while they are 20%-60% in the filaments and 30%-80% in the Virgo cluster. Processes that lead to star formation quenching are already at play in filaments; they depend mostly on the local galaxy density, while the distance to the filament spine is a secondary parameter. While the HI-to-stellar-mass ratio decreases with local density by an order of magnitude in the filaments, and two orders of magnitude in the Virgo cluster with respect to the field, the decrease is much less for the H2-to-stellar-mass ratio. As the environmental density increases, the gas depletion time decreases, because the gas content decreases faster than the SFR. This suggests that gas depletion precedes star formation quenching. © 2021 ESO.