• More than a decade in the making: A study of the implementation of India's Right to Information Act

      Relly, Jeannine E.; Rabbi, Md. Fazle; Sabharwal, Meghna; Pakanati, Rajdeep; Schwalbe, Ethan H.; Univ Arizona, Sch Journalism (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-12)
      India's progressive Right to Information Act (RTIA) is a global model. The RTIA was adopted a decade and a half ago to serve as a check on corruption and to advance democracy, citizen equity and public accountability. Little primary research has been conducted on the implementation of the RTIA. This research employs a socio-political and technocratic framework to study influences on RTIA implementation over time from the citizen requester 'demand-side' and the governmental 'supply-side' from an institutional development process perspective. Our constructivist approach utilizes in-depth semi-structured interviews from frequent information requesters and information commissioners (N = 114) and a new dataset of a random stratified sample of information commissioner decisions for release of information under the RTIA (N = 500). We found that political will, bureaucratic culture, and societal activism and engagement were the strongest overarching socio-political factors impacting implementation. Socio-political subfactors that appeared weak or wanting in the RTI regime were leadership, oversight, coordination, positive workplace incentives, reflexivity, and public information officer communication style with citizen requesters. Technocratic constraints, directly influenced by socio-political factors that impact implementation, included follow-through on administrative policies and rules, capacity building, monitoring, oversight, and sanctions. This study found that technocratic factors included in the institutional design of RTI legislation may not be sufficient for short-term institutional change in cultures of bureaucratic secrecy. However, coalitions of citizens, civil society organizations, media, engaged public officials, and interested politicians can drive a transparency agenda in a country when political will and bureaucratic leadership are weak. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    • Fuel-Efficient Powered Descent Guidance on Large Planetary Bodies via Theory of Functional Connections

      Johnston, Hunter; Schiassi, Enrico; Furfaro, Roberto; Mortari, Daniele; Univ Arizona, Syst & Ind Engn; Univ Arizona, Aerosp & Mech Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-09-25)
      In this paper we present a new approach to solve the fuel-efficient powered descent guidance problem on large planetary bodies with no atmosphere (e.g., Moon or Mars) using the recently developed Theory of Functional Connections. The problem is formulated using the indirect method which casts the optimal guidance problem as a system of nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. Using the Theory of Functional Connections, the problem's linear constraints are analytically embedded into a functional, which maintains a free-function that is expanded using orthogonal polynomials with unknown coefficients. The constraints are always analytically satisfied regardless of the values of the unknown coefficients (e.g., the coefficients of the free-function) which converts the two-point boundary value problem into an unconstrained optimization problem. This process reduces the whole solution space into the admissible solution subspace satisfying the constraints and, therefore, simpler, more accurate, and faster numerical techniques can be used to solve it. In this paper a nonlinear least-squares method is used. In addition to the derivation of this technique, the method is validated in two scenarios and the results are compared to those obtained by the general purpose optimal control software, GPOPS-II. In general, the proposed technique produces solutions of O(10(-10)) accuracy. Additionally, for the proposed test cases, it is reported that each individual TFC-based inner-loop iteration converges within 6 iterations, each iteration exhibiting a computational time between 72 and 81 milliseconds, with a total execution time of 2.1 to 2.6 seconds using MATLAB. Consequently, the proposed methodology is potentially suitable for real-time computation of optimal trajectories.
    • Genome Sequence of the Alphaproteobacterium Blastochloris sulfoviridis DSM 729, Which Requires Reduced Sulfur as a Growth Supplement and Contains Bacteriochlorophyll

      Kyndt, John A; Montano Salama, Dayana; Meyer, Terry E; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2020-04-30)
      The genome sequence of Blastochloris sulfoviridis is 3.85 Mb with a GC content of 68%. Its nearest relative is B.tepida (average nucleotide identity [ANI], 91.5%), followed by B.viridis (ANI, 83%). According to ANI and whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis, the nearest relatives of Blastochloris are Rhodoplanes and Rhodopseudomonas, confirming the recognition of distinct genera.
    • A Century of Reduced ENSO Variability During the Medieval Climate Anomaly

      Lawman, Allison E.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Partin, Judson W.; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Taylor, Frederick W.; Wu, Chung‐Che; Yu, Tsai‐Luen; Gorman, Meaghan K.; Shen, Chuan‐Chou; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-02-27)
      Climate model simulations of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) behavior for the last millennium demonstrate interdecadal to centennial changes in ENSO variability that can arise purely from stochastic processes internal to the climate system. That said, the instrumental record of ENSO does not have the temporal coverage needed to capture the full range of natural ENSO variability observed in long, unforced climate model simulations. Here we demonstrate a probabilistic framework to quantify changes in ENSO variability via histograms and probability density functions using monthly instrumental and coral-based sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1900-2005 and 1051-1150 CE. We find that reconstructed SST anomalies from modern corals from the southwest Pacific capture changes in ENSO variability that are consistent with instrumental SST data from the central equatorial Pacific. Fossil coral records indicate 100 years of relatively lower ENSO variability during part of the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Our results demonstrate that periods of reduced ENSO variability can last a century, far longer in duration than modern observations in the instrumental record of ENSO, but consistent with results from unforced climate model simulations.
    • Emergence of an equatorial mode of climate variability in the Indian Ocean

      DiNezio, Pedro N.; Puy, Martin; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Jin, Fei-Fei; Tierney, Jessica E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2020-05-06)
      Presently, the Indian Ocean (IO) resides in a climate state that prevents strong year-to-year climate variations. This may change under greenhouse warming, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, thus limiting our ability to predict future changes in climate extremes. Using climate model simulations, we uncover the emergence of a mode of climate variability capable of generating unprecedented sea surface temperature and rainfall fluctuations across the IO. This mode, which is inhibited under present-day conditions, becomes active in climate states with a shallow thermocline and vigorous upwelling, consistent with the predictions of continued greenhouse warming. These predictions are supported by modeling and proxy evidence of an active mode during glacial intervals that favored such a state. Because of its impact on hydrological variability, the emergence of such a mode would become a first-order source of climate-related risks for the densely populated IO rim.
    • Happiness is a warm gun? Gun ownership and happiness in the United States (1973-2018)

      Hill, Terrence D; Dowd-Arrow, Benjamin; Davis, Andrew P; Burdette, Amy M; Univ Arizona, Sch Sociol, Social Sci Bldg (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-01-07)
      Although there is no empirical evidence linking gun ownership with happiness, speculation is widespread. In this paper, we assess the association between gun ownership and happiness. We use 27 years of national cross-sectional data from the General Social Survey (1973-2018) and logistic regression to model self-rated happiness as a function of gun ownership (n = 37,960). In bivariate and partially adjusted models, we observed that the odds of being very happy were higher for respondents who reported having a gun in their home. This association persisted with adjustments for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, employment status, household income, financial satisfaction, financial change, number of children, religious attendance, political affiliation, urban residence, region of interview, and survey year. In our fully adjusted model, gun ownership was unrelated to happiness. The original association between gun ownership and happiness was entirely confounded by marital status. In other words, gun owners only appeared happier because they are more likely to be married, which increases happiness. In the first study of gun ownership and happiness, we found that people who own guns and people who do not own guns tend to exhibit similar levels of happiness. This general pattern was consistent across nearly three decades of national surveys, a wide range of subgroups, and different measures of happiness. Our analyses are important because they contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of happiness. They also indirectly challenge theoretical perspectives and cultural narratives about how guns contribute to feelings of safety, power, and pleasure.
    • Patient Attributes Associated With Better Long-Term Outcomes on Palliative Milrinone

      Sharma, Toishi; Balakumaran, Kathir; Tandon, Varun; Shah, Nihar; Arora, Sabeena; Univ Arizona, Internal Med, Coll Med (CUREUS INC, 2020-05-05)
      Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase three inhibitor used as an inotrope in patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Its action is independent of beta-receptor stimulation, which makes it preferable in patients who are on beta blockers as part of a guideline-directed neurohormonal blockade. There have been numerous studies evaluating the risks, benefits, and mortality associated with milrinone in the management of chronic heart failure patients. Time and again, there has been concern regarding the undesirable outcomes associated with it, including higher mortality and cardiac arrhythmias. Additionally, it has been difficult to determine whether milrinone or disease progression is responsible for adverse outcomes and mortality. In light of such discrepancy, the selection of patients for milrinone remains challenging. We hypothesized that there are underlying patient characteristics that influence the response to milrinone and may predict milrinone's adverse outcomes in spite of milrinone. A retrospective study review of 10 patients on palliative milrinone was conducted to identify these factors with a mean follow-up of 36 months. During the study period, four of 10 patients died. These four patients were on milrinone for a mean of 11.5 months. The attributes of the survivors compared to the deceased included lower age at start of therapy (67.5 vs 79 y), female gender (66% vs 33%), non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (33% vs 50%), associated diagnosis of atrial fibrillation/flutter(50% vs 25%), hyperlipidemia (66% vs 50%), or anemia (83% vs 75%), presence of chronic resynchronization therapy (CRT) (66% vs 25%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (16% vs 0%), as well as lower sodium (136 vs 140 mEq), chloride (101.5 vs 104.5 mEq), potassium (4.07 vs 4.23 mEq), and creatinine (1.3 vs 1.8 mg/dL) Conversely, the deceased patients were more likely to have coronary artery disease (75% vs 33%), diabetes mellitus (50% vs 16%), hypertension (100% vs 83%), chronic kidney disease (75% vs 66%), peripheral vascular disease (25% vs zero), higher pulmonary artery pressures (54 vs 50.5%), and history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (50% vs 16%). These trends exhibit patient characteristics that may predict better outcomes on long-term milrinone although larger studies are needed to assess the statistical significance of these findings.
    • Satellite hydrology observations as operational indicators of forecasted fire danger across the contiguous United States

      Farahmand, Alireza; Stavros, E. Natasha; Reager, John T.; Behrangi, Ali; Randerson, James T.; Quayle, Brad; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2020-04-24)
      Traditional methods for assessing fire danger often depend on meteorological forecasts, which have reduced reliability after similar to 10 d. Recent studies have demonstrated long lead-time correlations between pre-fire-season hydrological variables such as soil moisture and later fire occurrence or area burned, yet the potential value of these relationships for operational forecasting has not been studied. Here, we use soil moisture data refined by remote sensing observations of terrestrial water storage from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and vapor pressure deficit from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission to generate monthly predictions of fire danger at scales commensurate with regional management. We test the viability of predictors within nine US geographic area coordination centers (GACCs) using regression models specific to each GACC. Results show that the model framework improves interannual wildfire-burned-area prediction relative to climatology for all GACCs. This demonstrates the importance of hydrological information to extend operational forecast ability into the months preceding wildfire activity.
    • Comparison of Chinese and North American Tomographic Parameters and the Implications for Refractive Surgery Screening

      Boyd, Brennan M; Bai, Ji; Borgstrom, Mark; Belin, Michael W; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Univ Informat Technol Serv; Univ Arizona, Dept Ophthalmol & Vis Sci (ASIA-PACIFIC ACAD OPHTHALMOLOGY-APAO, 2020)
      Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are significant clinical variations in the Belin/Ambrosio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD display) parameters between Chinese and North American eyes and whether any variations are related to differences in corneal diameter. Design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: Files were generated from patients seeking refractive surgical correction. Patients with previous surgery, evidence of corneal ectasia, or scans representing a non-normal cornea were excluded. Unpaired t tests were performed for all variables. Regression analyses were performed for all variables with respect to corneal diameter, and compared to evaluate the influence of corneal diameter between populations. Data were graphed as standard scores (z scores) to compare different parameters. Results: 127 North American and 49 Chinese patients met study criteria. Statistically significant differences existed for corneal diameter (P< 0.01), anterior elevation at the thinnest point (P< 0.01), and Df (P< 0.01). In both populations, statistically significant correlations existed between corneal diameter and most indices, and most profoundly on pachymetric progression and final D. Regression slopes revealed a statistically significant difference for the influence of corneal diameter on ARTmax (P = 0.04) and was nearly significant for final D (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Corneal diameter had the greatest influence on pachymetric progression and final D, and more profoundly in the Chinese. This suggests that incorporating corneal diameter as an additional variable may make the BAD display more universally applicable. Also, the differences in anterior elevation parameters suggest that specific ethnic/geographic normative values may be beneficial for the BAD display.
    • Expressing a Z-disk nebulin fragment in nebulin-deficient mouse muscle: effects on muscle structure and function

      Li, Frank; Kolb, Justin; Crudele, Julie; Tonino, Paola; Hourani, Zaynab; Smith, John E; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Granzier, Henk; Univ Arizona, Dept Cellular & Mol Med (BMC, 2020-01-28)
      Background Nebulin is a critical thin filament-binding protein that spans from the Z-disk of the skeletal muscle sarcomere to near the pointed end of the thin filament. Its massive size and actin-binding property allows it to provide the thin filaments with structural and regulatory support. When this protein is lost, nemaline myopathy occurs. Nemaline myopathy causes severe muscle weakness as well as structural defects on a sarcomeric level. There is no known cure for this disease. Methods We studied whether sarcomeric structure and function can be improved by introducing nebulin's Z-disk region into a nebulin-deficient mouse model (Neb cKO) through adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector therapy. Following this treatment, the structural and functional characteristics of both vehicle-treated and AAV-treated Neb cKO and control muscles were studied. Results Intramuscular injection of this AAV construct resulted in a successful expression of the Z-disk fragment within the target muscles. This expression was significantly higher in Neb cKO mice than control mice. Analysis of protein expression revealed that the nebulin fragment was localized exclusively to the Z-disks and that Neb cKO expressed the nebulin fragment at levels comparable to the level of full-length nebulin in control mice. Additionally, the Z-disk fragment displaced full-length nebulin in control mice, resulting in nemaline rod body formation and a worsening of muscle function. Neb cKO mice experienced a slight functional benefit from the AAV treatment, with a small increase in force and fatigue resistance. Disease progression was also slowed as indicated by improved muscle structure and myosin isoform expression. Conclusions This study reveals that nebulin fragments are well-received by nebulin-deficient mouse muscles and that limited functional benefits are achievable.
    • Environmental monitoring and exposure science dataset to calculate ingestion and inhalation of metal(loid)s through preschool gardening

      Manjón, Iliana; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Sáez, A Eduardo; Root, Robert A; Hild, Joanne; Janes, M Katy; Alexander-Ozinskas, Annika; Univ Arizona, Dept Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Div Community; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn; et al. (ELSEVIER, 2019-12-31)
      Metal(loid) contamination may pose an increased risk of exposure to children residing near legacy and active resource extraction sites. Children may be exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and/or lead by ingestion and/or inhalation while engaging in school or home outdoor activities via environmental media including water, soil, dust, and locally grown produce. It is thus critical to collect site-specific data to best assess these risks. This data article provides gastric and lung in-vitro bioaccessibility assay (IVBA) data, as well as environmental monitoring data for water, soil, dust, and garden produce collected from preschools (N = 4) in mining communities throughout Nevada County, California in 2018. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations in the aforementioned media and synthetic gastric and lung fluids were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This dataset provides useful metal(loid) concentrations for future risk assessments for similar settings.
    • 21st Century flood risk projections at select sites for the U.S. National Park Service

      Van Dusen, Peter; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Lawrence, David J.; Condon, Laura E.; Smillie, Gary; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (ELSEVIER, 2020-02-04)
      Assessing flood risk using stationary flood frequency analysis techniques is commonplace. Flood risk However, it is increasingly evident that the stationarity assumption of these analyses does not hold as anthropogenic climate change could shift a site's hydroclimate beyond the range of historical behaviors. We employ nonstationary flood frequency models using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution to model changing flood risk for select seasons at twelve National Parks across the U.S. In this GEV model, the location and/or scale parameters of the distribution are allowed to change as a function of time-variable covariates. We use historical precipitation and modeled flows from the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC), a land-surface model that simulates land-atmosphere fluxes using water and energy balance equations, as covariates to fit a best nonstationary GEV model to each site. We apply climate model projections of precipitation and VIC flows to these models to obtain future flood probability estimates. Our model results project a decrease in flood risk for sites in the southwestern U.S. region and an increase in flood risk for sites in northern and eastern regions of the U.S. for the selected seasons. The methods and results presented will enable the NPS to develop strategies to ensure public safety and efficient infrastructure management and planning in a nonstationary climate.
    • Representative Sequencing: Unbiased Sampling of Solid Tumor Tissue

      Litchfield, Kevin; Stanislaw, Stacey; Spain, Lavinia; Gallegos, Lisa L; Rowan, Andrew; Schnidrig, Desiree; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Harle, Alexandre; Au, Lewis; Hill, Samantha M; et al. (CELL PRESS, 2020-05-05)
      Although thousands of solid tumors have been sequenced to date, a fundamental under-sampling bias is inherent in current methodologies. This is caused by a tissue sample input of fixed dimensions (e.g., 6 mm biopsy), which becomes grossly under-powered as tumor volume scales. Here, we demonstrate representative sequencing (Rep-Seq) as a new method to achieve unbiased tumor tissue sampling. Rep-Seq uses fixed residual tumor material, which is homogenized and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Analysis of intratumor tumor mutation burden (TMB) variability shows a high level of misclassification using current single-biopsy methods, with 20% of lung and 52% of bladder tumors having at least one biopsy with high TMB but low clonal TMB overall. Misclassification rates by contrast are reduced to 2% (lung) and 4% (bladder) when a more representative sampling methodology is used. Rep-Seq offers an improved sampling protocol for tumor profiling, with significant potential for improved clinical utility and more accurate deconvolution of clonal structure.
    • Water Production Rates and Activity of Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov

      Xing, Zexi; Bodewits, Dennis; Noonan, John; Bannister, Michele T.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04-27)
      We observed the interstellar comet 2I/Borisov using the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. We obtained images of the OH gas and dust surrounding the nucleus at six epochs spaced before and after perihelion (-2.56 to 2.54 au). Water production rates increased steadily before perihelion from (7.0 1.5) x 10(26) molecules s(-1) on 2019 November 1, to (10.7 1.2) x 10(26) molecules s(-1) on December 1. This rate of increase in water production rate is quicker than that of most dynamically new comets and at the slower end of the wide range of Jupiter-family comets. After perihelion, the water production rate decreased to (4.9 0.9) x 10(26) molecules s(-1) on December 21, which is much more rapidly than that of all previously observed comets. Our sublimation model constrains the minimum radius of the nucleus to 0.37 km, and indicates an active fraction of at least 55% of the surface. A(0)f rho calculations show a variation between 57.5 and 105.6 cm with a slight trend peaking before the perihelion, lower than previous and concurrent published values. The observations confirm that 2I/Borisov is carbon-chain depleted and enriched in NH2 relative to water.
    • Radiodense bullet wipe around osseous entrance gunshot wounds

      Lukefahr, Ashley L; Vollner, Jennifer M; Anderson, Bruce E; Winston, David C; Univ Arizona, Dept Pathol; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (WILEY, 2020-09-24)
      Bullet wipe is the material deposited by a bullet on any surface with which it comes into contact after it is fired and may contain debris from the gun barrel, including particles of primer and metal fragments from previously fired bullets. X-ray analysis is a non-destructive method by which traces of metallic elements can be visually detected. The analysis of osseous defects for radiodense bullet wipe (RBW) assists in determining the presence or absence of perforating gunshot wounds, especially in fragmented, skeletonized remains. The aim of our current study was to determine the frequency of RBW around entrance firearms injuries that perforated bone. We prospectively analyzed entrance gunshot wounds for RBW over a three-year period using digital X-ray analysis (n = 59). We retrospectively reviewed the corresponding autopsy reports to determine the frequency of RBW by biologic sex, reported ancestry, age-at-death, location of wound, manner of death, range of fire, bullet caliber, and presence of bullet jacket. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test with significance levels accepted atp < 0.05. RBW was present in 66% (n = 39) of examined cases. Decedent characteristics did not significantly alter RBW distribution, including biologic sex (p = 0.75), reported ancestry (p = 0.49), and age-at-death (p = 0.43). Additionally, the location of the osseous entrance gunshot wound, manner of death, range of fire, and cartridge caliber did not affect RBW detection. All cases involving non-jacketed rounds (n = 5) showed RBW (p = 0.30). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the frequency of RBW detection from osseous entrance gunshot wounds.
    • The central nervous system of whip spiders (Amblypygi): large mushroom bodies receive olfactory and visual input

      Sinakevitch, Irina; Long, Skye; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurosci; Univ Arizona, Evelyn F McKnight Brain Inst, Div Neural Syst Memory & Aging (Wiley, 2020-10)
      Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are known for their nocturnal navigational abilities, which rely on chemosensory and tactile cues and, to a lesser degree, on vision. Unlike true spiders, the first pair of legs in whip spiders is modified into extraordinarily long sensory organs (antenniform legs) covered with thousands of mechanosensory, olfactory and gustatory sensilla. Olfactory neurons send their axons through the leg nerve into the corresponding neuromere of the central nervous system, where they terminate on a particularly large number (about 460) of primary olfactory glomeruli, suggesting an advanced sense of smell. From the primary glomeruli, olfactory projection neurons ascend to the brain and terminate in the mushroom body calyx on a set of secondary olfactory glomeruli, a feature that is not known from olfactory pathways of other animals. Another part of the calyx receives visual input from the secondary visual neuropil (the medulla). This calyx region is composed of much smaller glomeruli (‘microglomeruli’). The bimodal input and the exceptional size of their mushroom bodies may support the navigational capabilities of whip spiders. In addition to input to the mushroom body, we describe other general anatomical features of the whip spiders’ central nervous system.
    • Spectroscopy of Broad Absorption Line Quasars at 3 ≲ Z ≲ 5. I. Evidence for Quasar Winds Shaping Broad/Narrow Emission Line Regions

      Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Jinyi; Wang, Feige; Timlin, John; Grier, Catherine; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Bai, Jin-Ming; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04-20)
      We present an observational study of 22 broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) at 3. z. 5 based on optical/near-IR spectroscopy, aiming to investigate quasar winds and their effects. The near-IR spectroscopy covers the H ss and/or Mg II broad emission lines (BELs) for these quasars, allowing us to estimate their central black hole (BH) masses in a robust way. We found that our BAL QSOs, on average, do not have a higher Eddington ratio than that from non-BAL QSOs matched in redshift and/or luminosity. In a subset consisting of seven strong BAL QSOs possessing subrelativistic BAL outflows, we see the prevalence of large C IV BEL blueshift (3100 km s-1) and weak [O III] emission (particularly the narrow [O III].5007 component), indicative of nuclear outflows affecting the narrow emission line (NEL) regions. In another subset consisting of 13 BAL QSOs having simultaneous observations of Mg II and H ss, we found a strong correlation between 3000. and 5000.A monochromatic luminosity, consistent with that from non-BAL QSOs matched in redshift and luminosity; however, there is no correlation between Mg II and H ss in FWHM, likely due to nuclear outflows influencing the BEL regions. Our spectroscopic investigations offer strong evidence that the presence of nuclear outflows plays an important role in shaping the BEL/NEL regions of these quasars and, possibly, regulating the growth of central supermassive BHs. We propose that BEL blueshift and BALs could be different manifestations of the same outflow system viewed at different sight lines and/or phases.
    • Parker Solar Probe Observations of Proton Beams Simultaneous with Ion-scale Waves

      Verniero, J. L.; Larson, D. E.; Livi, R.; Rahmati, A.; McManus, M. D.; Pyakurel, P. Sharma; Klein, K. G.; Bowen, T. A.; Bonnell, J. W.; Alterman, B. L.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04-27)
      Parker Solar Probe (PSP), NASA's latest and closest mission to the Sun, is on a journey to investigate fundamental enigmas of the inner heliosphere. This paper reports initial observations made by the Solar Probe Analyzer for Ions (SPAN-I), one of the instruments in the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons instrument suite. We address the presence of secondary proton beams in concert with ion-scale waves observed by FIELDS, the electromagnetic fields instrument suite. We show two events from PSP's second orbit that demonstrate signatures consistent with wave-particle interactions. We showcase 3D velocity distribution functions (VDFs) measured by SPAN-I during times of strong wave power at ion scales. From an initial instability analysis, we infer that the VDFs departed far enough away from local thermodynamic equilibrium to provide sufficient free energy to locally generate waves. These events exemplify the types of instabilities that may be present and, as such, may guide future data analysis characterizing and distinguishing between different wave-particle interactions.
    • Loss of Cdc13 causes genome instability by a deficiency in replication-dependent telomere capping

      Langston, Rachel E; Palazzola, Dominic; Bonnell, Erin; Wellinger, Raymund J; Weinert, Ted; Univ Arizona, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-04-14)
      In budding yeast, Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 form the telomere-binding heterotrimer CST complex. Here we investigate the role of Cdc13/CST in maintaining genome stability by using a Chr VII disome system that can generate recombinants, chromosome loss, and enigmatic unstable chromosomes. In cells expressing a temperature sensitive CDC13 allele, cdc13(F684S), unstable chromosomes frequently arise from problems in or near a telomere. We found that, when Cdc13 is defective, passage through S phase causes Exo1-dependent ssDNA and unstable chromosomes that are then the source for additional chromosome instability events (e.g. recombinants, chromosome truncations, dicentrics, and/or chromosome loss). We observed that genome instability arises from a defect in Cdc13's function during DNA replication, not Cdc13's putative post-replication telomere capping function. The molecular nature of the initial unstable chromosomes formed by a Cdc13-defect involves ssDNA and does not involve homologous recombination nor non-homologous end joining; we speculate the original unstable chromosome may be a one-ended double strand break. This system defines a link between Cdc13's function during DNA replication and genome stability in the form of unstable chromosomes, that then progress to form other chromosome changes. Author summary Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear molecules with specialized end structures called telomeres. Telomeres contain both unique repetitive DNA sequences and specialized proteins that solve several biological problems by differentiating chromosomal ends from internal breaks, thus preventing chromosome instability. When telomeres are defective, the entire chromosome can become unstable and change, causing mutations and pathology (cancer, aging, etc.). Here we study how a defect in specific telomere proteins causes chromosomal rearrangements, using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding or brewer's yeast). We find that when specific telomere proteins are defective, errors in DNA replication generate a type of damage that likely involves extensive single-stranded DNA that forms inherently unstable chromosomes, subject to many subsequent instances of instability (e.g. allelic recombinants, chromosome loss, truncations, dicentrics). The telomere protein Cdc13 is part of a protein complex called CST that is conserved in most organisms including mammalian cells. The technical capacity of studies in budding yeast allow a detailed, real-time examination of how telomere defects compromise chromosome stability in a single cell cycle, generating lessons likely relevant to how human telomeres keep human chromosomes stable.
    • The differential effects of PTSD, MDD, and dissociation on CRP in trauma-exposed women

      Powers, Abigail; Dixon, Hayley Drew; Conneely, Karen; Gluck, Rachel; Munoz, Adam; Rochat, Cleo; Mendoza, Hadrian; Hartzell, Georgina; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh; et al. (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2019-08)
      Correlational results showed a significant association between higher concentrations of hsCRP and child abuse (p < 0.05), overall dissociation severity (p < 0.001), and PTSD symptoms (p < 0.01). ANOVA results showed significantly higher levels of hsCRP in those with current MDD, current PTSD, and remitted PTSD. A hierarchical linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between dissociation symptoms and greater hsCRP levels independent of childhood abuse, PTSD, and MDD (R2∆ = 0.11, p = 0.001) and independent of emotion dysregulation (p < 0.05).