• Borderline personality disorder is equally trait-like and state-like over ten years in adult psychiatric patients.

      Conway, Christopher C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, 2018-08)
      Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic systems stipulate) and dynamic (i.e., episodic and situational) elements. Participants were 668 patients from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study who were administered semistructured diagnostic interviews 5 times over a decade. Trait-state-occasion modeling dissected borderline pathology into time-invariant (i.e., trait) and time-varying (i.e., state) components. Contradicting traditional views of PD intransigence, less than half of borderline PD variability (approximately 45%) was time-invariant (i.e., perfectly stable) over the study timeframe. Furthermore, we found that the time-invariant component of borderline pathology, which we termed borderline proneness, was very closely related (r=.81) to a previously validated Five Factor Model trait composite of borderline features. Moreover, the trait versus state components showed a clear pattern of discriminant validity in relation to several putative causal agents for borderline PD (i.e., environmental pathogens, temperament dimensions). We conclude that borderline pathology contains a stable core and sizable situational components, and that both elements relate systematically to normative personality dimensions and known risk factors. These findings have key implications for etiological research, prognosis, and treatment for borderline PD.
    • What’s New in Orthopaedic Trauma

      Dehghan, Niloofar; McKee, Michael D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Orthopaed Surg (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018-07-05)
    • Overview of the SAPHIRA detector for adaptive optics applications

      Goebel, Sean B.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Guyon, Olivier; Warmbier, Eric; Jacobson, Shane M.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (SPIE-SOC PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS, 2018-04)
      We discuss some of the unique details of the operation and behavior of Leonardo Selex avalanche photodiode for HgCdTe infrared array (SAPHIRA) detectors, particularly in relation to their usage for adaptive optics wavefront sensing. SAPHIRA detectors are 320 x 256 at 24-mu m pixel HgCdTe linear avalanche photodiode arrays and are sensitive to 0.8- to 2.5-mu m light. SAPHIRA arrays permit global or line-by-line resets of the entire detector or just subarrays of it, and the order in which pixels are reset and read enables several readout schemes. We discuss three readout modes; the benefits, drawbacks, and noise sources of each; and the observational modes for which each is optimal. We describe the ability of the detector to read subarrays for increased frame rates and, finally, clarify the differences between the avalanche gain (which is user-adjustable) and the charge gain (which is not). (C) 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
    • On the dynamic nature of hydrological similarity

      Loritz, Ralf; Gupta, Hoshin; Jackisch, Conrad; Westhoff, Martijn; Kleidon, Axel; Ehret, Uwe; Zehe, Erwin; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2018-07-10)
      The increasing diversity and resolution of spatially distributed data on terrestrial systems greatly enhance the potential of hydrological modeling. Optimal and parsimonious use of these data sources requires, however, that we better understand (a) which system characteristics exert primary controls on hydrological dynamics and (b) to what level of detail do those characteristics need to be represented in a model. In this study we develop and test an approach to explore these questions that draws upon information theoretic and thermodynamic reasoning, using spatially distributed topographic information as a straightforward example. Specifically, we subdivide a mesoscale catchment into 105 hillslopes and represent each by a two-dimensional numerical hillslope model. These hillslope models differ exclusively with respect to topography-related parameters derived from a digital elevation model (DEM); the remaining setup and meteorological forcing for each are identical. We analyze the degree of similarity of simulated discharge and storage among the hillslopes as a function of time by examining the Shannon information entropy. We furthermore derive a "compressed" catchment model by clustering the hillslope models into functional groups of similar runoff generation using normalized mutual information (NMI) as a distance measure. Our results reveal that, within our given model environment, only a portion of the entire amount of topographic information stored within a digital elevation model is relevant for the simulation of distributed runoff and storage dynamics. This manifests through a possible compression of the model ensemble from the entire set of 105 hillslopes to only 6 hillslopes, each representing a different functional group, which leads to no substantial loss in model performance. Impor-tantly, we find that the concept of hydrological similarity is not necessarily time invariant. On the contrary, the Shannon entropy as measure for diversity in the simulation ensemble shows a distinct annual pattern, with periods of highly redundant simulations, reflecting coherent and organized dynamics, and periods where hillslopes operate in distinctly different ways. We conclude that the proposed approach provides a powerful framework for understanding and diagnosing how and when process organization and functional similarity of hydrological systems emerge in time. Our approach is neither restricted to the model nor to model targets or the data source we selected in this study. Overall, we propose that the concepts of hydrological systems acting similarly (and thus giving rise to redundancy) or displaying unique functionality (and thus being irreplaceable) are not mutually exclusive. They are in fact of complementary nature, and systems operate by gradually changing to different levels of organization in time.
    • The Search for Activity on Dione and Tethys With Cassini VIMS and UVIS

      Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Hendrix, A. R.; Esposito, L. W.; Mosher, J. A.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-06-28)
      During the Cassini mission the Saturnian moons Dione and Tethys showed intriguing and multiple clues suggesting residual geologic activity that might be detectable as an atmosphere, plume, or even heat signature. These clues included an atmospheric aura around Dione, injection of particles into Saturn's magnetosphere, mysterious red streaks on Tethys, and possible cryovolcanic features on Dione. A concerted effort that was strengthened in the latter stages of the mission included the acquisition of stellar occulations by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) of both Dione and Tethys and high solar phase observations of Dione by the Visible Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) to detect forward scattering from grains in a plume. Analysis of these observations shows no evidence for even a low level of activity on either moon. In addition, infrared images at 2.65m obtained throughout the mission were scrutinized for the reappearance of an atmosphere-like aura, with negative results. Plain Language Summary Two moons of Saturn, Dione and Tethys, showed intriguing clues suggesting residual geologic activity on their surfaces throughout the Cassini mission. A close inspection of data from the ultraviolet and visible/infrared imagers on Cassini failed to detect an atmosphere or plume on either moon.
    • Simultaneous Regional Detection of Land-Use Changes and Elevated GHG Levels: The Case of Spring Precipitation in Tropical South America

      Barkhordarian, Armineh; von Storch, Hans; Behrangi, Ali; Loikith, Paul C.; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Detzer, Judah; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-06-28)
      A decline in dry season precipitation over tropical South America has a large impact on ecosystem health of the region. Results here indicate that the magnitude of negative trends in dry season precipitation in the past decades exceeds the estimated range of trends due to natural variability of the climate system defined in both the preindustrial climate and during the 850-1850 millennium. The observed drying is associated with an increase in vapor pressure deficit. The univariate detection analysis shows that greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing has a systematic influence in negative 30-year trends of precipitation ending in 1998 and later on. The bivariate attribution analysis demonstrates that forcing by elevated GHG levels and land-use change are attributed as key causes for the observed drying during 1983-2012 over the southern Amazonia and central Brazil. We further show that the effect of GS signal (GHG and sulfate aerosols) based on RCP4.5 scenario already has a detectable influence in the observed drying. Thus, we suggest that the recently observed drier dry season is a feature which will continue and intensify in the course of unfolding anthropogenic climate change. Such change could have profound societal and ecosystem impacts over the region. Plain Language Summary This study uses statistical techniques to attribute the recently observed drier dry season over tropical South America to external drivers of climate change, both human-induced and naturally occurring. A decline in dry season precipitation has a large impact on ecosystem health of the region. Thus, attributing the forced components of the observed drier dry season to external drivers of climate change is of great practical importance to societies. Results indicate that the observed drying is well beyond the range of trends due to natural variability of the climate system and is found to be systematically and externally forced. The forcing by elevated greenhouse gas levels and land-use change (mainly deforestation) are attributed as key causes for the observed drying over the southern Amazonia and central Brazil. We further demonstrate that the recently observed drier dry season is a feature which will continue and intensify in the course of unfolding anthropogenic climate change. Such an assessment is critical for adaptation planning and mitigation strategies.
    • The Eye of Saturn's North Polar Vortex: Unexpected Cloud Structures Observed at High Spatial Resolution by Cassini/VIMS

      Baines, K. H.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Momary, T. W.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sotin, C.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-06-28)
      Near-infrared spectral maps of Saturn's north polar vortex obtained at high spatial resolution provided by Cassini/Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) reveal localized ammonia clouds composed of unusually large particles exceeding 13m in radius, the largest cloud particles documented during the Cassini mission. Taken under near-optimum direct polar lighting and viewing conditions within a month of the summer solstice, these small (similar to 200km in breadth) discrete clouds are located within the eye of the polar vortex, which otherwise is unusually clear of observable aerosols in reflected sunlight, with total 2-m opacity <0.04 versus >1.0 elsewhere on Saturn. The dichotomy of large-particle condensate cloud featuresindicative of convective upwellingwithin a large (similar to 2000-km diameter) nearly aerosol-free region of downwelling characteristic of the core of a polar vortex reveals surprising polar dynamics on Saturn. Plain Language Summary Saturn's north pole was imaged with unprecedented clarity in over 200 colors during the Grand Finale phase of the Cassini mission, revealing surprising details on the structures of hazes and clouds. A cyclonic vortex caps the pole, extending out about 20 degrees (20,000km) in latitude, the largest cyclone known in the solar system. As a cyclone, this is a region of subsidence, where air descends downward. Such air, descending into warmer depths, should be relatively clear of condensate clouds of ammoniaone of the major condensables in Saturn's visible atmosphereespecially in the eye of the polar vortex right at the pole. The new multicolored near-infrared images obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer reveal that indeed the polar eye is remarkably devoid of aerosols, having less than 3% of the aerosol content seen anywhere else on Saturn. But surprisingly, ammonia clouds at the edge of the eyebut still within itare found to be remarkably thick, composed of the largest ammonia ice particles ever seen on Saturn, characteristic of powerful upwelling, not downwelling (subsidence). This conundrum of convection-style clouds forming in a strongly downwelling region is a shocking mystery left by Cassini in its waning days.
    • Perspective: Assessing the Flexible Acquisition, Integration, and Deployment of Human Spatial Representations and Information

      Starrett, Michael J.; Ekstrom, Arne D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-07-11)
      Studying human spatial navigation in the lab can be challenging, particularly when including non-invasive neural measures like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and scalp encephalography (EEG). While there is broad consensus that human spatial navigation involves both egocentric (self-referenced) and allocentric (world-referenced) coding schemes, exactly how these can be measured in ecologically meaningful situations remains controversial. Here, we explore these two forms of representation and how we might better measure them by reviewing commonly used spatial memory tasks and proposing a new task: the relative vector discrimination (RVD) task. Additionally, we explore how different encoding modalities (desktop virtual reality, immersive virtual reality, maps, and real-world navigation) might alter how egocentric and allocentric representations manifest. Specifically, we discuss desktop virtual reality vs. more immersive forms of navigation that better approximate real-world situations, and the extent to which less immersive encoding modalities alter neural and cognitive codes engaged during navigation more generally. We conclude that while encoding modality likely alters navigation-related codes to some degree, including egocentric and allocentric representations, it does not fundamentally change the underlying representations. Considering these arguments together, we suggest that tools to study human navigation in the lab, such as desktop virtual reality, provide overall a reasonable approximation of in vivo navigation, with some caveats.
    • Elevated Cortisol Leaves Working Memory Unaffected in Both Men and Women

      Human, Robyn; Henry, Michelle; Jacobs, W. Jake; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol, Anxiety Res Grp (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-07-24)
      Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as might occur, for example, when the organism encounters a threat to allostatic balance) leads to the release of cortisol into the bloodstream and, ultimately, to altered neural functioning in particular brain regions (e.g., the prefrontal cortex (PFC)). Although previous studies suggest that exposure to acute psychosocial stress (and hence, presumably, elevation of circulating cortisol levels) enhances male performance on PFC-based working memory (WM) tasks, few studies have adequately investigated female performance on WM tasks under conditions of elevated cortisol. Hence, we compared associations between elevated (relative to baseline) levels of circulating cortisol and n-back performance in a South African sample (38 women in the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, 38 men). On Day 1, participants completed practice n-back tasks. On Day 2, some completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whereas others experienced a relaxation period, before completing 1-back and 3-back tasks. We measured self-reported anxiety and salivary cortisol at baseline, post-manipulation and end of session. We reconstituted group assignment so that all women with elevated cortisol were in one group (ECWomen; n = 17), all men with elevated cortisol were in another (EC-Men; n = 19), all women without elevated cortisol were in a third (NoEC-Women; n = 21), and all men without elevated cortisol were in a fourth (NoEC-Men; n = 19) group. Analyses suggested this reconstitution was effective: in EC, but not NoEC, groups cortisol levels rose significantly from baseline to post-manipulation. Analyses of n-back data detected significant relations to task load (i.e., better performance on 1-back than on 3-back tasks), but no significant relations to sex, performance accuracy/speed, or cortisol variation. The data patterns are inconsistent with reports describing sex differences in effects of stress on WM performance. We speculate that cross-study methodological differences account for these inconsistencies, and, particularly, that between-study variation in the magnitude of baseline cortisol levels might affect outcomes. For instance, diurnal cortisol rhythms of South African samples might have flatter curves, and lower baseline values, than predominantly Caucasian samples from the United States and western Europe due to greater prenatal and lifetime stress, more socioeconomic disadvantage and faster ancestral life history (LH) strategies. We describe ways to disconfirm this hypothesis, and urge further cross-national research exploring these possibilities.
    • Moisture-Limited Tree Growth for a Subtropical Himalayan Conifer Forest in Western Nepal

      Sigdel, Shalik; Dawadi, Binod; Camarero, J.; Liang, Eryuan; Leavitt, Steven; Univ Arizona, Tree Ring Res Lab (MDPI, 2018-06)
      Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) is a common tree species with ecological and economic importance across the subtropical forests of the central Himalayas. However, little is known about its growth response to the recent warming and drying trends observed in this region. Here, we developed a 268-year-long ring-width chronology (1743-2010) from western Nepal to investigate its growth response to climate. Based on nearby available meteorological records, growth was positively correlated with winter (November to February; r = 0.39, p < 0.05) as well as March to April (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) precipitation. Growth also showed a strong positive correlation with the sum of precipitation from November of the previous year to April of the current year (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). In contrast, a negative relationship with the mean temperature in March to April (r = -0.48, p < 0.05) suggests the influence of warming-induced evapotranspiration on tree growth. Spring droughts lasting 4-6 months constrain Chir pine growth. These results are supported by the synchronization between droughts and very narrow or locally missing rings. Warming and drying tendencies during winter and spring will reduce forest growth and resilience and make Chir pine forests more vulnerable and at higher risk of growth decline and dieback.
    • Search for heavy particles decaying into top-quark pairs using lepton-plus-jets events in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

      Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adiguzel, A.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Afik, Y.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akilli, E.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allaire, C.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M. I.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Ambroz, L.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amoroso, S.; Amrouche, C. S.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Anthony, M. T.; Antonelli, M.; Antrim, D. J. A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Pereira, R. Araujo; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (SPRINGER, 2018-07-19)
      A search for new heavy particles that decay into top-quark pairs is performed using data collected from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The integrated luminosity of the data sample is 36.1 fb(-1). Events consistent with top-quark pair production are selected by requiring a single isolated charged lepton, missing transverse momentum and jet activity compatible with a hadronic top-quark decay. Jets identified as likely to contain b-hadrons are required to reduce the background from other Standard Model processes. The invariant mass spectrum of the candidate top-quark pairs is examined for local excesses above the background expectation. No significant deviations from the Standard Model predictions are found. Exclusion limits are set on the production cross-section times branching ratio for hypothetical Z' bosons, Kaluza-Kein gluons and Kaluza-Klein gravitons that decay into top-quark pairs.
    • Climate costs of tropical cyclone losses also depend on rain

      Bakkensen, Laura A; Park, Doo-Sun R; Sarkar, Raja Shanti Ranjan; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-07)
      It is well established that climate change will lead to changes in tropical cyclone (TC) characteristics and affiliated impacts to human communities. While a growing social science literature estimates losses from TCs, almost all have characterized TCs by wind speed alone. However, TC winds are commonly accompanied by intense rainfall, both of which will likely be impacted by climate change. We assess the impact of rain on current and future TC losses and estimate the bias in loss calculations from omitting rainfall. Using a TC Integrated Assessment Model utilizing 60 000 simulated TCs making landfall in South Korea, we find rain to be a significant loss determinant. For both the wind-only and wind + rain cases, socioeconomic change will cause a decrease in fatalities and a large increase in property losses due to a shrinking population and growing wealth. Regarding climate change, the wind-only case considerably underestimates the climate costs of TC losses compared to the wind + rain case, driven by notable increases in future rainfall in contrast with minor wind intensity changes. While the relative impacts of TC wind versus rain under climate change will no doubt be different across countries, our results highlight the importance of accounting for both wind and rainfall in research and policy, especially in mitigation and adaptation planning.
    • Unstressed Vowel Reduction Across Majorcan Catalan Dialects: Production and Spoken Word Recognition

      Llompart, Miquel; Simonet, Miquel; Univ Arizona (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-09)
      This study investigates the production and auditory lexical processing of words involved in a patterned phonological alternation in two dialects of Catalan spoken on the island of Majorca, Spain. One of these dialects, that of Palma, merges /?/ and /o/ as [o] in unstressed position, and it maintains /u/ as an independent category, [u]. In the dialect of Soller, a small village, speakers merge unstressed /?/, /o/, and /u/ to [u]. First, a production study asks whether the discrete, rule-based descriptions of the vowel alternations provided in the dialectological literature are able to account adequately for these processes: are mergers complete? Results show that mergers are complete with regards to the main acoustic cue to these vowel contrasts, that is, F1. However, minor differences are maintained for F2 and vowel duration. Second, a lexical decision task using cross-modal priming investigates the strength with which words produced in the phonetic form of the neighboring (versus one's own) dialect activate the listeners' lexical representations during spoken word recognition: are words within and across dialects accessed efficiently? The study finds that listeners from one of these dialects, Soller, process their own and the neighboring forms equally efficiently, while listeners from the other one, Palma, process their own forms more efficiently than those of the neighboring dialect. This study has implications for our understanding of the role of lifelong linguistic experience on speech performance.
    • Oracle P-values and variable screening

      Hao, Ning; Zhang, Hao Helen; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (INST MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS, 2017)
      The concept of P-value was proposed by Fisher to measure inconsistency of data with a specified null hypothesis, and it plays a central role in statistical inference. For classical linear regression analysis, it is a standard procedure to calculate P-values for regression coefficients based on least squares estimator (LSE) to determine their significance. However, for high dimensional data when the number of predictors exceeds the sample size, ordinary least squares are no longer proper and there is not a valid definition for P-values based on LSE. It is also challenging to define sensible P-values for other high dimensional regression methods such as penalization and resampling methods. In this paper, we introduce a new concept called oracle P-value to generalize traditional P-values based on LSE to high dimensional sparse regression models. Then we propose several estimation procedures to approximate oracle P-values for real data analysis. We show that the oracle P-value framework is useful for developing new and powerful tools to enhance high dimensional data analysis, including variable ranking, variable selection, and screening procedures with false discovery rate (FDR) control. Numerical examples are then presented to demonstrate performance of the proposed methods.
    • Managing the Cascading Risks of Droughts: Institutional Adaptation in Transboundary River Basins

      Garrick, Dustin E.; Schlager, Edella; De Stefano, Lucia; Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-06)
      Transboundary river basins experience complex coordination challenges during droughts.The multiscale nature of drought creates potential for spillovers when upstream adaptation decisions have cascading impacts on downstream regions. This paper advances the institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework to examine drought adaptation decision-making in a multijurisdictional context. We integrate concepts of risk management into the IAD framework to characterize drought across its natural and human dimensions. A global analysis identifies regions where severe droughts combine with institutional fragmentation to require coordinated adaptation. We apply the risk-based IAD framework to examine drought adaptation in the Rio Bravo/Grandean archetypical transboundary river shared by the United States and Mexico and by multiple states within each country.The analysis draws on primary data and a questionnaire with 50 water managers in four distinct, yet interlinked, institutional catchments, which vary in terms of their drought characteristics, socioeconomic attributes, and governance arrangements. The results highlight the heterogeneity of droughts and uneven distribution of their impacts due to the interplay of drought hazards and institutional fragmentation. Transboundary water sharing agreements influence the types and sequence of interactions between upstream and downstream jurisdictions, which we describe as spillovers that involve both conflict and cooperation. Interdependent jurisdictions often draw on informal decision-making venues (e.g., data sharing, operational decisions) due to the higher transaction costs and uncertainty associated with courts and planning processes, yet existing coordination and conflict resolution venues have proven insufficient for severe, sustained droughts. Observatories will be needed to measure and manage the cascading risks of drought.
    • A Role for Nrf2 Expression in Defining the Aging of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells

      Ray, S.; Corenblum, M. J.; Anandhan, A.; Reed, A.; Ortiz, F. O.; Zhang, D. D.; Barnes, C. A.; Madhavan, L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurol; Univ Arizona, Undergrad Biol Res Program; Univ Arizona, Pharmacol & Toxicol; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurosci (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-04)
      Redox mechanisms are emerging as essential to stem cell function given their capacity to influence a number of important signaling pathways governing stem cell survival and regenerative activity. In this context, our recent work identified the reduced expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, or Nrf2, in mediating the decline in subventricular zone neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) regeneration during aging. Since Nrf2 is a major transcription factor at the heart of cellular redox regulation and homeostasis, the current study investigates the role that it may play in the aging of NSPCs that reside within the other major mammalian germinal niche located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Using rats from multiple aging stages ranging from newborn to old age, and aging Nrf2 knockout mice, we first determined that, in contrast with subventricular zone (SVZ) NSPCs, Nrf2 expression does not significantly affect overall DG NSPC viability with age. However, DG NSPCs resembled SVZ stem cells, in that Nrf2 expression controlled their proliferation and the balance of neuronal versus glial differentiation particularly in relation to a specific critical period during middle age. Also, importantly, this Nrf2-based control of NSPC regeneration was found to impact functional neurogenesis-related hippocampal behaviors, particularly in the Morris water maze and in pattern separation tasks. Furthermore, the enrichment of the hippocampal environment via the transplantation of Nrf2-overexpressing NSPCs was able to mitigate the age-related decline in DG stem cell regeneration during the critical middle-age period, and significantly improved pattern separation abilities. In summary, these results emphasize the importance of Nrf2 in DG NSPC regeneration, and support Nrf2 upregulation as a potential approach to advantageously modulate DG NSPC activity with age.
    • The Promoting Activity in Cancer Survivors (PACES) trial: a multiphase optimization of strategy approach to increasing physical activity in breast cancer survivors

      Rethorst, Chad D.; Hamann, Heidi A.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Sharp, Kendall J.; Argenbright, Keith E.; Haley, Barbara B.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Univ Arizona (BMC, 2018-07-18)
      Background: Despite the significant, empirically supported benefits of physical activity, the majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet recommended guidelines for physical activity. A variety of effective strategies to increase physical activity in breast cancer survivors have been identified. However, it is unknown which of these strategies is most effective or how these strategies might be combined to optimize intervention effectiveness. Methods: The proposed trial uses multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) to evaluate four evidence-based intervention strategies for increasing physical activity in breast cancer survivors. We will enroll 500 breast cancer survivors, age 18 and older, who are 3-months to 5 years post-treatment. Using a full-factorial design, participants will be randomized to receive a combination: 1) supervised exercise, 2) facility access, 3) self-monitoring, and 4) group-based active living counseling. The primary outcome, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) will be measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months using an Actigraph GT3X+. To evaluate intervention effects, a linear mixed-effects model will be conducted with MVPA as the outcome and with time (3 months and 6 months) as the within-subjects factor and intervention (i.e., supervised exercise, facility access, self-monitoring, and active living counseling) as the between subjects factor, along with all two-way interactions. Discussion: The purpose of the PACES study is to evaluate multiple strategies for increasing physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Results of this study will provide in an optimized intervention for increasing physical activity in breast cancer survivors.
    • High-contrast Polarimetry Observation of the T Tau Circumstellar Environment

      Yang, Yi; Mayama, Satoshi; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hashimoto, Jun; Rafikov, Roman; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Janson, Markus; Momose, Munetake; Nakagawa, Takao; Oh, Daehyeon; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-07-10)
      We conducted high-contrast polarimetry observations of T Tau in the H-band, using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics instrument mounted on the Subaru Telescope, revealing structures as near as 0 1 from the stars T Tau N and T Tau S. The whole T Tau system is found to be surrounded by nebulalike envelopes, and several outflow-related structures are detected in these envelopes. We analyzed the detailed polarization patterns of the circumstellar structures near each component of this triple young star system and determined constraints on the circumstellar disks and outflow structures. We suggest that the nearly face-on circumstellar disk of T Tau N is no larger than 0.''8, or 117 au, in the northwest, based on the existence of a hole in this direction, and no larger than 0.''27, or 40 au, in the south. A new structure, "N5," extends to about 0.''42, or 59 au, southwest of the star, and is believed to be part of the disk. We suggest that T Tau S is surrounded by a highly inclined circumbinary disk with a radius of about 0.''3, or 44 au, with a position angle of about 30 degrees, that is misaligned with the orbit of the T Tau S binary. After analyzing the positions and polarization vector patterns of the outflow-related structures, we suggest that T Tau S should trigger the well-known E-W outflow, and is also likely to be responsible for a southwest precessing outflow "coil" and a possible south outflow.
    • The 1.4 mm Core of Centaurus A: First VLBI Results with the South Pole Telescope

      Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Roy, Alan L.; Wagner, Jan; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Blanchard, Jay; Carlstrom, John E.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Crawford, Thomas M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Greer, Christopher H.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Henning, Jason W.; Inoue, Makoto; Keisler, Ryan; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Muders, Dirk; Müller, Cornelia; Nguyen, Chi H.; Ros, Eduardo; SooHoo, Jason; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Weintroub, Jonathan; Zensus, J. Anton; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-07-10)
      Centaurus A (Cen A) is a bright radio source associated with the nearby galaxy NGC 5128 where high-resolution radio observations can probe the jet at scales of less than a light day. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment performed a single-baseline very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observation of Cen A in 2015 January as part of VLBI receiver deployment for the SPT. We measure the correlated flux density of Cen A at a wavelength of 1.4 mm on a similar to 7000 km (5 G lambda) baseline. Ascribing this correlated flux density to the core, and with the use of a contemporaneous short-baseline flux density from a Submillimeter Array observation, we infer a core brightness temperature of 1.4 x 10(11) K. This is close to the equipartition brightness temperature, where the magnetic and relativistic particle energy densities are equal. Under the assumption of a circular Gaussian core component, we derive an upper limit to the core size phi = 34.0 +/- 1.8 mu as, corresponding to 120 Schwarzschild radii for a black hole mass of 5.5 x. 10(7) M-circle dot.
    • The plasma interleukin-6 response to acute psychosocial stress in humans is detected by a magnetic multiplex assay: comparison to high-sensitivity ELISA

      Quinn, Andrea M.; Williams, Allison R.; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Raison, Charles L.; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Univ Arizona, Div Community & Syst Hlth Sci, Coll Nursing (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)
      Circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory biomarker widely assessed in humans to study the inflammatory response to acute psychological stress, have for decades been quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, biobehavioral researchers are increasingly using cytokine multiplex assays instead of ELISA to measure IL-6 and other cytokines. Despite this trend, multiplex assays have not been directly compared to ELISA for their ability to detect subtle stress-induced changes of IL-6. Here, we tested the prediction that a high-sensitivity multiplex assay (human Magnetic Luminex Performance Assay, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) would detect changes in IL-6 as a result of acute stress challenge in a manner comparable to high-sensitivity ELISA. Blood was collected from 12 healthy adults immediately before and then 90 and 210min after the start of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an acute laboratory psychosocial stress challenge. In addition to quantifying IL-6 concentrations in plasma with both multiplex and ELISA, we also assessed concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-8, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-2 with multiplex. The multiplex detected IL-6 in all samples. Concentrations strongly correlated with values determined by ELISA across all samples (r=0.941, p<.001) as well as among samples collected at individual TSST time points. IL-6 responses to the TSST (i.e. area under the curve) captured by multiplex and ELISA were also strongly correlated (r(s)=0.937, p<.001). While other cytokines were detected by multiplex, none changed as a result of TSST challenge at time points examined. These results suggest high-sensitivity magnetic multiplex assay is able to detect changes in plasma concentrations of IL-6 as a result of acute stress in humans.