• Challenges of mainstreaming green infrastructure in built environment professions

      Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Staddon, Chad; de Vito, Laura; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Ward, Sarah; Schoeman, Yolandi; Hart, Aimee; Booth, Giles; Univ Arizona, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy; Univ Arizona, Sch Landscape Architecture & Planning; et al. (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-06-12)
      Green infrastructure (GI) has been identified as a promising approach to help cities adapt to climate change through the provision of multiple ecosystem services. However, GI contributions to urban resilience will not be realized until it is more fully mainstreamed in the built environment and design professions. Here, we interrogate five key challenges for the effective implementation of GI: (1) design standards; (2) regulatory pathways; (3) socio-economic considerations; (4) financeability; and (5) innovation. Methods include a literature review, case studies, and interviews with resilience managers. We propose a people-centred and context-dependent approach to advance effective implementation of GI in urban planning. We highlight two underlying currents that run across all of the challenges - (1) the role of political will as a pre-condition for tackling all challenges holistically; and (2) the role of stakeholder engagement in achieving public support, harnessing funding, and maintaining and monitoring GI in the long term.
    • Randomized controlled trial of supportive care interventions to manage psychological distress and symptoms in Latinas with breast cancer and their informal caregivers

      Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Sikorskii, Alla; Pasvogel, Alice; Weihs, Karen; Lopez, Ana Maria; Chalasani, Pavani; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat; et al. (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-06-12)
      Objective: The purpose of this study was to test two 2-month psychosocial interventions (Telephone Interpersonal Counseling [TIPC] and Supportive Health Education [SHE]) to improve quality of life (QOL) outcomes for Latinas with breast cancer and their informal caregivers. Methods: Two hundred and forty-one Latinas with breast cancer and their caregivers were assessed at baseline, immediately after the 2-month intervention, at 4 and 6 months after baseline. QOL outcomes were psychological distress, symptoms and social support. Results: Linear mixed effects models showed that for cancer survivors at 2 months, TIPC produced lower adjusted mean depression scores compared to SHE. At 4 months, SHE had reduced total number of symptoms, global symptom distress, and social isolation compared to TIPC. Only total number of symptoms was lower in SHE than in TIPC at 6 months. Among caregivers at 2 months, total number of symptoms, global symptom distress, and anxiety were lower, and self-efficacy for symptom management was higher in SHE compared to TIPC. Caregiver depression was lower in TIPC compared to SHE at 4 months. Conclusions: These telephone delivered interventions improved different outcomes. TIPC demonstrated superior benefits for depression management and SHE was more successful in anxiety and cancer-related symptom management.
    • Describing a Public-health Summer Camp for Underserved Children: Healthy 2B Me

      Gachupin, Francine C.; Morehouse, Laura; Bergier, Nicole; Thomson, Cynthia; Univ Arizona, Dept Family & Community Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-04-04)
      Healthy 2B Me aims to educate and empower underserved children ages seven to 11 years old to improve their health and well-being through a supportive, educational and entertaining public health-themed summer day camp. Qualitative data collected through camper exit slips, final posters/presentations, and parent surveys were analyzed to identify salient themes demonstrating the impact of camp participation on children's health. Both camper and parent responses suggested improvements in participant knowledge, attitude and behavior in relation to diet, physical activity, sun safety, hand washing, smoking and kindness. This article describes how the Healthy 2B Me camp contributes to our understanding of how to design and assess a health-themed, positive youth-development summer camp for underserved children.
    • Comparison of the Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Serum Exosomes from Marek's Disease Virus-Vaccinated and Protected and Lymphoma-Bearing Chickens

      Neerukonda, Sabari Nath; Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; McCarthy, Fiona; Pendarvis, Kenneth; Parcells, Mark S; Univ Arizona, Dept Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci (MDPI, 2019-02-05)
      Marek's disease virus (MDV) is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), a complex pathology of chickens characterized by paralysis, immunosuppression, and T-cell lymphomagenesis. MD is controlled in poultry production via vaccines administered in ovo or at hatch, and these confer protection against lymphoma formation, but not superinfection by MDV field strains. Despite vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, mechanisms eliciting systemic protection remain unclear. Here we report the contents of serum exosomes to assess their possible roles as indicators of systemic immunity, and alternatively, tumor formation. We examined the RNA and protein content of serum exosomes from CVI988 (Rispens)-vaccinated and protected chickens (VEX), and unvaccinated tumor-bearing chickens (TEX), via deep-sequencing and mass spectrometry, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs) and predicted miRNA targets indicated a greater abundance of tumor suppressor miRNAs in VEX compared to TEX. Conversely, oncomiRs originating from cellular (miRs 106a-363) and MDV miRNA clusters were more abundant in TEX compared to VEX. Most notably, mRNAs mapping to the entire MDV genome were identified in VEX, while mRNAs mapping to the repeats flanking the unique long (IRL/TRL) were identified in TEX. These data suggest that long-term systemic vaccine-induced immune responses may be mediated at the level of VEX which transfer viral mRNAs to antigen presenting cells systemically. Proteomic analyses of these exosomes suggested potential biomarkers for VEX and TEX. These data provide important putative insight into MDV-mediated immune suppression and vaccine responses, as well as potential serum biomarkers for MD protection and susceptibility.
    • Construction and Optimization of Through-Hole LED Models for Use in Designing Traffic Signboards

      Lee, Ted; Chen, Yi-Chun; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (MDPI, 2019-02)
      A modeling procedure was proposed for the through-hole LEDs commonly used in traffic signs. The measurements from a sample batch of LEDs were performed at several midfield distances to provide a set of representative angular intensity distributions as the target pattern in the modeling process. The flat outer dimensions of the LED were accurately measured while the curvature and refractive index of the packaging dome were roughly estimated. These physical parameters were used to build a preliminary LED model in the Monte Carlo simulation software. The simulated angular intensity distribution at each distance was generated by tracing 20,000,000 rays. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) between the measured and simulated data was calculated to represent the resemblance of the model to the real LED. The roughly estimated parameters were then varied within their physical limits to optimize the NCC value. The possibilities of two parameters having interactions were also considered. The final model has all NCCs above 98.8% between the target and simulated patterns.
    • Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Mastisol Adhesive Used for Skin Closure in Orthopedic Surgery: A Case Report

      Ezeh, Ugonna E; Price, Harper N; Belthur, Mohan V; Univ Arizona, Dept Child Hlth, Coll Med (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018-09-01)
      We report on a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from Mastisol liquid adhesive. We are aware of a few reports in the medical literature, but none describes an allergic reaction during the third exposure to the offending agent. Our patient was a 20-year-old Caucasian man with a history of cerebral palsy spastic hemiplegia who underwent single-event multilevel soft-tissue surgery to optimize function of his left upper extremity. He developed a severe cutaneous allergic reaction after his third exposure to Mastisol. He was subsequently admitted to the inpatient service and managed without further complications by a multidisciplinary team comprising orthopedics, pediatrics, and dermatology. We discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this entity, and we also review relevant available literature on the subject. We aim at creating further awareness of allergic reactions because of exposure to available skin-prepping and wound-dressing agents.
    • Transdisciplinarity across two-tiers The case of applied linguistics and literary studies in U.S. foreign language departments

      Warner, Chantelle; Univ Arizona (JOHN BENJAMINS PUBLISHING CO, 2018)
      In the ten years since the Modern Language Association published their report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) dissatisfaction with the "two-tiered configuration" of US foreign language departments has become increasingly vocal. While the target of the criticism is often the curriculum, it has often been noted that programmatic bifurcations mirror institutional hierarchies, e.g. status differences between specialists in literary and cultural studies and experts in applied linguistics and language pedagogy (e.g. Maxim et al., 2013; Allen & Maxim, 2012). This chapter looks at the two-tiered structure of collegiate modern language departments from the perspectives of the transdisciplinary shape-shifters who maneuver within them - scholars working between applied linguistics and literary studies. These individuals must negotiate the methodologies and the institutional positions available to them - in many instances, the latter is what has prompted them to work between fields in the first place. The particular context of US foreign language and literature departments serves as a case study of the lived experiences of doing transdisciplinary work in contexts that are characterized by disciplinary hierarchies and the chapter ends with a call for applied linguistics to consider not only the epistemic, but also the institutional and affective labor needed to sustain transdisciplinary work.
    • Dilated Blood and Lymphatic Microvessels, Angiogenesis, Increased Macrophages, and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Lipedema Thigh Skin and Fat Tissue

      AL-Ghadban, Sara; Cromer, Walter; Allen, Marisol; Ussery, Christopher; Badowski, Michael; Harris, David; Herbst, Karen L.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, TREAT Program; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Immunobiol & Biorepository (HINDAWI LTD, 2019)
      Background and Aim. Lipedema is a common painful SAT disorder characterized by enlargement of fat primarily in the legs of women. Case reports of lipedema tissue samples demonstrate fluid and fibrosis in the interstitial matrix, increased macrophages, and adipocyte hypertrophy. The aims of this project are to investigate blood vasculature, immune cells, and structure of lipedema tissue in a cohort of women. Methods. Forty-nine participants, 19 controls and 30 with lipedema, were divided into groups based on body mass index (BMI): Non-Obese (BMI 20 to <30kg/m(2)) and Obese (BMI 30 to <40kg/m(2)). Histological sections from thigh skin and fat were stained with H&E. Adipocyte area and blood vessel size and number were quantified using ImageJ software. Markers for macrophages (CD68), mast cells (CD117), T cells (CD3), endothelial cells (CD31), blood (SMA), and lymphatic (D2-40 and Lyve-1) vessels were investigated by IHC and IF. Results. Non-Obese Lipedema adipocyte area was larger than Non-Obese Controls (p=0.005) and similar to Obese Lipedema and Obese Controls. Macrophage numbers were significantly increased in Non-Obese (p<0.005) and Obese (p<0.05) Lipedema skin and fat compared to Control groups. No differences in T lymphocytes or mast cells were observed when comparing Lipedema to Control in both groups. SMA staining revealed increased dermal vessels in Non-Obese Lipedema patients (p<0.001) compared to Non-Obese Controls. Lyve-1 and D2-40 staining showed a significant increase in lymphatic vessel area but not in number or perimeter in Obese Lipedema participants (p<0.05) compared to Controls (Obese and Non-Obese). Areas of angiogenesis were found in the fat in 30% of lipedema participants but not controls. Conclusion. Hypertrophic adipocytes, increased numbers of macrophages and blood vessels, and dilation of capillaries in thigh tissue of non-obese women with lipedema suggest inflammation, and angiogenesis occurs independent of obesity and demonstrates a role of altered vasculature in the manifestation of the disease.
    • Pulmonary hypertension occurring with diazoxide use in a preterm infant with hypoglycemia

      Kylat, Ranjit I; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pediat, Div Neonatal Perinatal Med & Dev Biol (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019-01-01)
      Pharmacologic modulation to open the KATP channels with diazoxide is useful in treating hyperinsulinemia. Diazoxide is being used more often in neonates with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. This report highlights a case of severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) with re-opening of ductus arteriosus in an extremely premature infant after the use of diazoxide. The rapid onset of PH with respiratory failure was completely reversible. This case emphasizes the need for extreme caution with use of diazoxide in the premature infant population, especially those with chronic lung disease of prematurity. In addition, the use of diazoxide should be limited to the persistent form of congenital hyperinsulinism, after adequate work up has been completed to evaluate for other causes of hypoglycemia. It is postulated that development of PH could be related to KATP agonsim.
    • Women in Israelite Religion: The State of Research Is All New Research

      Nakhai, Beth; Univ Arizona, Arizona Ctr Juda Studies (MDPI, 2019-02)
      Historically, those studying Israelite religion have ignored the existence of women in Iron Age Israel (1200-587 BCE). They have, therefore, accounted neither for the religious beliefs of half of ancient Israel's population nor for the responsibilities that women assumed for maintaining religious rituals and traditions. Such reconstructions of Israelite religion are seriously flawed. Only in the last four decades have scholars, primarily women, begun to explore women's essential roles in Israel's religious culture. This article utilizes evidence from the Hebrew Bible and from archaeological sites throughout Israel. It demonstrates that some women had roles within the Jerusalem Temple. Most women, however, resided in towns and villages throughout the Land. There, they undertook responsibility for clan-based and community-based religious rituals and rites, including pilgrimage, seasonal festivals, rites of military victory, and rites of mourning. They fulfilled, as well, essential roles within the sphere of domestic or household religion. At home, they provided medico-magical healing for all family members, as well as care for women and babies throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and beyond. They, and the men in their communities, worshipped Yahweh, Israel's primary deity, and the goddess Asherah, as well; for most people, these two divinities were inextricably linked.
    • North-south dipole in winter hydroclimate in the western United States during the last deglaciation

      Hudson, Adam M; Hatchett, Benjamin J; Quade, Jay; Boyle, Douglas P; Bassett, Scott D; Ali, Guleed; De Los Santos, Marie G; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-03-18)
      During the termination of the last glacial period the western U.S. experienced exceptionally wet conditions, driven by changes in location and strength of the mid-latitude winter storm track. The distribution of modern winter precipitation is frequently characterized by a north-south wet/dry dipole pattern, controlled by interaction of the storm track with ocean-atmosphere conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Here we show that a dipole pattern of similar geographic extent persisted and switched sign during millennial-scale abrupt climate changes of the last deglaciation, based on a new lake level reconstruction for pluvial Lake Chewaucan (northwestern U.S.), and a compilation of regional paleoclimate records. This suggests the dipole pattern is robust, and one mode may be favored for centuries, thereby creating persistent contrasting wet/dry conditions across the western U.S. The TraCE-21k climate model simulation shows an equatorward enhancement of winter storm track activity in the northeastern Pacific, favoring wet conditions in southwestern U.S. during the second half of Heinrich Stadial 1(16.1-14.6 ka) and consistent with paleoclimate evidence. During the Bolling/Allerod (14.6-12.8 ka), the northeastern Pacific storm track contracted poleward, consistent with wetter conditions concentrated poleward toward the northwest U.S.
    • Implications of variable late Cenozoic surface uplift across the Peruvian central Andes

      Sundell, Kurt E; Saylor, Joel E; Lapen, Thomas J; Horton, Brian K; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-03-19)
      Changes in Earth's surface elevation can be linked to the geodynamic processes that drive surface uplift, which in turn modulate regional climate patterns. We document hydrogen isotopic compositions of hydrated volcanic glasses and modern stream waters to determine late Cenozoic surface uplift across the Peruvian central Andes. Modern water isotopic compositions reproduce mean catchment elevations to a precision better than +/- 500 m (1 sigma). Glass isotopic data show a spatiotemporally variable transition from isotopically heavy to isotopically light compositions. The latter are consistent with modern water on the plateau. When interpreted in the context of published paleoelevation estimates and independent geological information, the isotopic data indicate that elevation rapidly increased by 2-2.5 km from 20-17 Ma in the central Western Cordillera, and from 15-10 Ma in the southern Western Cordillera and Altiplano; these patterns are consistent with foundering of mantle lithosphere via Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Eastern Cordillera was slowly elevated 1.5-2 km between 25 and 10 Ma, a rate consistent with crustal shortening as the dominant driver of surface uplift. The Ayacucho region attained modern elevation by similar to 22 Ma. The timing of orographic development across southern Peru is consistent with the early Miocene onset and middle Miocene intensification of hyperarid conditions along the central Andean Pacific coast.
    • Shrinkage of Nepal’s Second Largest Lake (Phewa Tal) Due to Watershed Degradation and Increased Sediment Influx

      Watson, C.; Kargel, Jeffrey; Regmi, Dhananjay; Rupper, Summer; Maurer, Joshua; Karki, Alina; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (MDPI, 2019-02-02)
      Phewa Lake is an environmental and socio-economic asset to Nepal and the city of Pokhara. However, the lake area has decreased in recent decades due to sediment influx. The rate of this decline and the areal evolution of Phewa Lake due to artificial damming and sedimentation is disputed in the literature due to the lack of a historical time series. In this paper, we present an analysis of the lake's evolution from 1926 to 2018 and model the 50-year trajectory of shrinkage. The area of Phewa Lake expanded from 2.44 +/- 1.02 km(2) in 1926 to a maximum of 4.61 +/- 0.07 km(2) in 1961. However, the lake area change was poorly constrained prior to a 1957-1958 map. The contemporary lake area was 4.02 +/- 0.07 km(2) in April 2018, and expands seasonally by 0.18 km(2) due to the summer monsoon. We found no evidence to support a lake area of 10 km(2) in 1956-1957, despite frequent reporting of this value in the literature. Based on the rate of areal decline and sediment influx, we estimate the lake will lose 80% of its storage capacity in the next 110-347 years, which will affect recreational use, agricultural irrigation, fishing, and a one-megawatt hydroelectric power facility. Mitigation of lake shrinkage will require addressing landslide activity and sediment transport in the watershed, as well as urban expansion along the shores.
    • How Groundwater Level Fluctuations and Geotechnical Properties Lead to Asymmetric Subsidence: A PSInSAR Analysis of Land Deformation over a Transit Corridor in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area

      Khorrami, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Babak; Ghasemi Tousi, Erfan; Shakerian, Mahyar; Maghsoudi, Yasser; Rahgozar, Peyman; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (MDPI, 2019-02-02)
      Los Angeles has experienced ground deformations during the past decades. These ground displacements can be destructive for infrastructure and can reduce the land capacity for groundwater storage. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate the existing ground displacement patterns along a new metro tunnel in Los Angeles, known as the Sepulveda Transit Corridor. The goal is to find the most crucial areas suffering from subsidence or uplift and to enhance the previous reports in this metropolitan area. For this purpose, we applied a Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar using 29 Sentinel-1A acquisitions from June 2017 to May 2018 to estimate the deformation rate. The assessment procedure demonstrated a high rate of subsidence in the Inglewood field that is near the study area of the Sepulveda Transit Corridor with a maximum deformation rate of 30 mm/yr. Finally, data derived from in situ instruments as groundwater level variations, GPS observations, and soil properties were collected and analyzed to interpret the results. Investigation of geotechnical boreholes indicates layers of fine-grained soils in some parts of the area and this observation confirms the necessity of more detailed geotechnical investigations for future constructions in the region. Results of investigating line-of-sight displacement rates showed asymmetric subsidence along the corridor and hence we proposed a new framework to evaluate the asymmetric subsidence index that can help the designers and decision makers of the project to consider solutions to control the current subsidence.
    • Amplification of spin-transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions with an antiferromagnetic barrier

      Cheng, Yihong; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Shufeng; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-03-13)
      We theoretically study spin-transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with an antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) as the tunnel barrier. When a finite voltage bias is applied to the MTJ, the energy relaxation of the tunnel electrons leads to asymmetric heating of two metallic layers. Consequently, there would be a magnon current flowing across the AFI layer, resulting a magnon transfer torque in addition to the electron spin-transfer torque. Comparing to MTJs with a nonmagnetic insulator which prohibits the magnon transmission, we find the magnon transfer torque with an AFI barrier could be several times larger than the conventional spin-transfer torque of the tunnel electrons. This study presents a potential method to realize more efficient switching in MTJs and provides a motivation of experimental search for AFI-based MTJs.
    • Scalable Approach for Continuous-Wave Deep-Ultraviolet Laser at 213nm

      Kaneda, Yushi; Tago, Tsuyoshi; Sasa, Toshiaki; Sasaura, Masahiro; Nakao, Hiroaki; Hirohashi, Junji; Furukawa, Yasunori; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019-03-18)
      We present a novel approach for generation at 213nm in continuous-wave, corresponding to the fifth harmonic of common 1064nm laser, in pure continuous-wave mode. The approach is scalable in output power. Starting from two infrared fiber laser sources, we demonstrated 0.456W output at 213nm. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
    • The operational environment and rotational acceleration of asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx observations

      Hergenrother, C W; Maleszewski, C K; Nolan, M C; Li, J-Y; Drouet d'Aubigny, C Y; Shelly, F C; Howell, E S; Kareta, T R; Izawa, M R M; Barucci, M A; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-03-19)
      During its approach to asteroid (101955) Bennu, NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft surveyed Bennu's immediate environment, photometric properties, and rotation state. Discovery of a dusty environment, a natural satellite, or unexpected asteroid characteristics would have had consequences for the mission's safety and observation strategy. Here we show that spacecraft observations during this period were highly sensitive to satellites (sub-meter scale) but reveal none, although later navigational images indicate that further investigation is needed. We constrain average dust production in September 2018 from Bennu's surface to an upper limit of 150 g s-1 averaged over 34 min. Bennu's disk-integrated photometric phase function validates measurements from the pre-encounter astronomical campaign. We demonstrate that Bennu's rotation rate is accelerating continuously at 3.63 ± 0.52 × 10-6 degrees day-2, likely due to the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect, with evolutionary implications.
    • Correlated Electronic Properties of a Graphene Nanoflake: Coronene

      Prodhan, Suryoday; Mazumdar, Sumit; Ramasesha, S; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (MDPI, 2019-02-18)
      We report studies of the correlated excited states of coronene and substituted coronene within the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) correlated -electron model employing the symmetry-adapted density matrix renormalization group technique. These polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons can be considered as graphene nanoflakes. We review their electronic structures utilizing a new symmetry adaptation scheme that exploits electron-hole symmetry, spin-inversion symmetry, and end-to-end interchange symmetry. The study of the electronic structures sheds light on the electron correlation effects in these finite-size graphene analogues, which diminishes going from one-dimensional to higher-dimensional systems, yet is significant within these finite graphene derivatives.
    • Utility-based resource management in an oversubscribed energy-constrained heterogeneous environment executing parallel applications

      Machovec, Dylan; Khemka, Bhavesh; Kumbhare, Nirmal; Pasricha, Sudeep; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay; Akoglu, Ali; Koenig, Gregory A.; Hariri, Salim; Tunc, Cihan; et al. (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019-04)
      The worth of completing parallel tasks is modeled using utility functions, which monotonically-decrease with time and represent the importance and urgency of a task. These functions define the utility earned by a task at the time of its completion. The performance of a computing system is measured as the total utility earned by all completed tasks over some interval of time (e.g., 24 h). We have designed, analyzed, and compared the performance of a set of heuristic techniques to maximize system performance when scheduling dynamically arriving parallel tasks onto a high performance computing (HPC) system that is oversubscribed and energy constrained. We consider six utility-aware heuristics and four existing heuristics for comparison. A new concept of temporary place holders is compared with scheduling using permanent reservations. We also present a novel energy filtering technique that constrains the maximum energy-per-resource used by each task. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performance of these heuristics and techniques in multiple energy-constrained oversubscribed HPC environments. We conduct an experiment with a subset of the heuristics on a physical testbed system for one scheduling scenario. We demonstrate that our proposed utility-aware resource management heuristics are able to significantly outperform existing techniques. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Selecting a theoretical framework to guide a research study of older adults' perceptions and experiences of falling in the hospital

      Dolan, Hanne; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2019-06-01)
      A paucity of research has explored the older adult's experience of falling in the hospital. Understanding the central concepts associated with a fall while hospitalized is essential for further fall prevention research and practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of selecting a theoretical framework to guide a qualitative study exploring the older adult's experience of falling while hospitalized. An analysis of six established illness self-management theories and models from nursing and psychology was conducted using Walker and Avant's framework for theory analysis. The Health Belief Model was selected as the most appropriate theoretical framework, as it entails concepts applicable to the experience of falling and captures the complexity of the phenomenon of inpatient falls, which is important for nursing.