• Provenance of invaders has scale-dependent impacts in a changing wetland ecosystem

      Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Stevens, Lee; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Sax, Dov F.; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Stevens, Lee; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Sax, Dov F.; Univ Arizona, US Geol Survey, Dept Interior Southwest Climate Adapt Sci Ctr; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (PENSOFT PUBL, 2019-11-19)
      Exotic species are associated with a variety of impacts on biodiversity, but it is unclear whether impacts of exotic specks differ from those of native species with similar growth forms or native species invading disturbed sites. We compared presence and abundance of native and exotic invaders with changes in wetland plant species diversity over a 28-year period by re-surveying 22 ponds to identify factors correlated with observed changes. We also compared communities found within dense patches of native and exotic emergent species with similar habits. Within patches, we found no categorical diversity differences between areas dominated by native or exotic emergent species. At the pond scale, the cover of the exotic grass Phragmites australis best predicted change in diversity and evenness over time, likely owing to its significant increase in coverage over the study period. These changes in diversity and evenness were strongest in younger, less successionally-advanced ponds. Changes associated with cover of P. australis in these ponds were not consistent with expected diversity decreases, but instead with a dampening of diversity gains, such that the least-invaded ponds increased in diversity the most over the study period. There were more mixed effects on evenness, ranging from a reduction in evenness gains to actual losses of evenness in the ponds with highest invader cover. In this wetland complex, the habit, origin and invasiveness of species contribute to diversity responses in a scale- and context-dependent fashion. Future efforts to preserve diversity should focus on preventing the arrival and spread of invaders that have the potential to cover large areas at high densities, regardless of their origin. Future studies should also investigate more thoroughly how changes in diversity associated with species invasions are impacted by other ongoing ecosystem changes.
    • Dynamic pore-network modeling of air-water flow through thin porous layers

      Qin, Chao-Zhong; Guo, Bo; Celia, Michael; Wu, Rui; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-07-20)
      Thin porous layers, that have large aspect ratios, are seen in many applications such as hydrogen fuel cells and hygiene products, in which air-water immiscible flow is of great interest. Direct numerical simulations based on Navier-Stokes equation are computationally expensive, and even prohibitive for low capillary number flow such as water flooding in low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Alternatively, the pore-network modeling needs much less computational resources, while still retaining essentials of the pore-structure information. In this work, a dynamic pore-network model of air-water flow with phase change has been developed. We focus on drainage processes through thin porous layers, in which liquid water is the nonwetting phase. Three test cases are conducted, namely, air-water flow through a thin porous layer, air-water flow through a bilayer of fine and coarse thin porous layers, and water flooding in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell with phase change between water and its vapor. Using these test cases, we aim to demonstrate the application of dynamic pore-network modeling in thin porous media studies. In particular, we discuss the challenge of modeling thin porous media at the average scale, and highlight the role of phase change in removing liquid water from the cathode gas diffusion layer. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Rare earth elements (REY) sorption on soils of contrasting mineralogy and texture

      Dinali, Guilherme Soares; Root, Robert A; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Chorover, Jon; Lopes, Guilherme; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Arizona Lab Emerging Contaminants (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-07-01)
      Rare earth elements (REY) are the lanthanide elements (Z = 57-71), which have an ever-growing occurrence in present-day industries, agriculture, and modern life. Consequently, environmental concentrations are expected to increase accordingly as a result of intensified utilization. Soils are an important sink for REY, yet little research has been conducted concerning activity, inputs, and lability in soil systems. This study evaluated the REY (lanthanides + yttrium) sorption and partition coefficients (Kd) in two broadly representative natural soils (A horizon), with contrasting mineralogy and organic character, formed under distinct environmental conditions: an Oxisol from Brazil and a Mollisol from the USA. Batch reactions of soils suspended in a background electrolyte solution of 5 μmoles kg-1 of Ca(NO3)2 at 1:100 solid to solution were reacted with 80 μmoles kg-1 REY added individually and in multi-REY competitive systems to evaluated adsorption after 3 h and 72 h over a wide pH range (from ca. 2 to 8). Results showed sorption was similar for all REY within each soil type when examined at the natural measured soil pH; Mollisol pH 6.85, Oxisol pH 4.35. However, REY sorption (by Kd) was nearly two-fold greater in the Mollisol compared to the Oxisol for the single REY experiments. Multi-REY competitive sorption reactions showed a decrease in Kd for both soils at 3 and 72 h, and to a greater extent for the Mollisol, indicating soil type had a strong effect on the sorption affinity of each REY. It was also observed that REY sorption increased from low to high pH (pH 2-8) in the Oxisol, and increased with pH from 2 up to the point zero charge (PZC) in the Mollisol, then stabilized. The varying REY Kd values from these two distinct and abundant soils, with and without REY competition, and over a range of pH are explained in terms of soil mineralogy (i.e., 2:1 clays in the Mollisol; oxides in the Oxisol) and organic matter content. Our findings show that soil characteristic controls sorption, precipitation, and cation exchange capacity, which are the key mechanisms for predicting REY fate and transport in the environment.
    • Re-assessment of station blackout accident in VVER-1000 NPP with additional measures following Fukushima accident using Relap/Mod3.2

      Jabbari, M.; Hadad, K.; Pirouzmand, A.; Univ Arizona, Sabbat Radiat Oncol Dept (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-07)
      The Fukushima accident indicated that the safety systems of nuclear power plants should be re-assessed against site-specific extreme natural hazards using additional BDBA management equipment and organizational measures. The occurrence of loss of power supply (SBO) accident in VVER-1000 NPP, which is the most contributor to the total core damage frequency, is the focus of this study. The SBO accident analysis of the reference plant with and without operator actions are investigated by Relap5 code to identify the characteristics of additional measures, available times for operator actions (critical time points) as well as scenarios to manage the accident consequences. The additional BDBA management equipment includes robust and reliable portable additional electrical power backup sources and water supplies into the primary and secondary cooling system to remove the residual heat of the core. The main purpose of this study is an evaluation of efficiency and sufficiency of additional equipment and organizational measures at NPP site based on deterministic safety analysis during SBO accident. This analysis is also expected to prepare a useful guideline for the SBO management in VVER-1000/V-446 NPP. A validated Relap5 model of VVER-1000 is employed to implement the proposed SBO accident scenarios consisting of residual heat removal through primary and secondary cooling systems as well as additional measures to mitigate this accident. The main thermal-hydraulic parameters of NPP in response to SBO accident are compared with specified acceptance criteria. The deterministic safety analysis demonstrates the provided accident scenarios with specified additional BDBA management equipment ensures the long-term reliable cooling of the reactor core under loss of power supply condition. The result also illustrates that a high degree of confidence in the robustness of the VVER-1000 NPP could be achieved against SBO accident with the inclusion of additional measures. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Effects of urban green space morphological pattern on variation of PM2.5 concentration in the neighborhoods of five Chinese megacities

      Chen, Ming; Dai, Fei; Yang, Bo; Zhu, Shengwei; University of Arizona, School of Landscape Architecture and Planning (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-07)
      Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution is becoming a growing global problem with the rapid process of urbanization. Urban green space (UGS) can effectively alleviate PM; however, few studies have investigated the effects of the UGS morphological pattern on PM, especially from a spatial strategy perspective. This study probed the contribution and strength of UGS on variation of PM2.5 concentration based on morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA). Three relative indicators (range, duration, and rate) were used to represent PM2.5 changes, and seven MSPA classes (core, islet, perforation, edge, loop, bridge, and branch) were performed to measure UGS morphological patterns. Stepwise regression analysis was used to build the PM2.5 estimation models and partial correlation analysis was used to further analyze how well different MSPA classes influence PM2.5. Results showed that MSPA classes and meteorological factors combined can explain more of PM2.5 increase variance at a high PM2.5 level, and 40.7–81.4% for PM2.5 reduction variance, and meteorological factors contributed more to PM2.5 increase and reduction. Higher proportions of the core and bridge were conducive to restrict the growth and promote the reduction of PM2.5 concentration, however, a higher proportion of perforation, islet, and edge showed opposite results. The effects of loop and branch were complex. In addition, higher air temperature and lower relative humidity were effective in reducing PM2.5. Wind speed, also a significant factor, had an unstable influence. The study results may provide important insights and effective spatial strategies for urban managers to mitigate PM2.5.
    • Responses of soil respiration to rainfall pulses in a natural grassland community on the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China

      Niu, Furong; Chen, Ji; Xiong, Peifeng; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, He; Xu, Bingcheng; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019-07)
      Pulsed rainfall affects both aboveground vegetation dynamics and belowground biogeochemical processes, such as carbon cycling, in semi-arid regions. In order to study carbon released by soil respiration (SR) after rainfall pulses in natural grassland on the Loess Plateau, a rainfall simulation experiment was conducted in a grassland community co-dominated by a C-4 herbaceous grass [Botluiochloa ischaemum (L) Keng] and a C-3 leguminous subshrub [Lespedem davurica (Laxm.) Schindl] in the loess hilly-gully region. Soil respiration rate (R-s), soil temperature (T-s), and soil volumetric water content (S-v) were measured 1 day before and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after four rainfall treatments (ambient rainfall plus a 5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm rainfall pulse) and one control treatment (only ambient rainfall) in June and August 2013. Results showed that R-s and S-v largely increased one day after simulated rainfall > 5 mm. In June, the peak R-s under 10, 20, and 30 mm rainfall was 0.80-1.03 mu mol C m(-2) s(-1) in B. ischaemum, with a 25-62% increase compared with the control treatment, and 0.74-1.0 mu mol C m(-2) s(-1) (+51-104%) in L. davurica. In August, the peak R-s was 1.23-1.73 mu mol C m(-2) s(-1) (+23-73%) and 1.52-1.70 mu mol C m(-2) s(-1) (+81-102%) in B. ischaemum and L davurica, respectively. The magnitude and duration of the increase in SR were positively related to the rainfall size, and a more considerable increase was observed in August. There was a threshold rainfall (i.e., 5-10 mm) for triggering SR increases in both months. And different responses were found between the two species, there was more substantial SR increases in L davurica in comparison to B. ischaemum. After rainfall pulses, soil moisture and soil temperature co-regulated SR. During the relatively dry season (i.e., June), SR was negatively correlated with soil temperature and the temperature sensitivity Q(10) value of SR was small (0.5-0.6), while it changed to positively in August and the Q(10) was largely increased (3.2-4.3). Conversely, soil moisture was positively related to SR in both months and explained a large portion of the variation in SR (32-43% and 42-52% in B. ischaemum and L. davurica, respectively). These findings indicated that soil moisture was the major environmental factor in controlling SR in this grassland. Overall, our study suggests that SR response following rainfall pulses is species-specific within the grassland community and tends to be controlled by soil moisture, and these should be considered in the regional carbon budget assessment in the background of vegetation rehabilitation and rainfall pattern changes.
    • Prothrombotic activity of cytokine-activated endothelial cells and shear-activated platelets in the setting of ventricular assist device support

      Apostoli, Alice; Bianchi, Valentina; Bono, Nina; Dimasi, Annalisa; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Moiia, Yana Roka; Montisci, Andrea; Sheriff, Jawaad; Bluestein, Danny; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pappalardo, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Redaelli, Alberto; Slepian, Marvin J; Consolo, Filippo; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2019-06-01)
      BACKGROUND: We systematically analyzed the synergistic effect of: (i) cytokine-mediated inflammatory activation of endothelial cells (ECs) with and (ii) shear-mediated platelet activation (SMPA) as a potential contributory mechanism to intraventricular thrombus formation in the setting of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. METHODS: Intact and shear-activated human platelets were exposed to non-activated and cytokine-activated ECs. To modulate the level of LVAD-related shear activation, platelets were exposed to shear stress patterns of varying magnitude (30, 50, and 70 dynes/cm(2), 10 minutes) via a hemodynamic shearing device. ECs were activated via exposure to inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha 10 and 100 ng/ml, 24 hours), consistent with inflammatory activation recorded in patients on LVAD circulatory support. RESULTS: Adhesivity of shear-activated platelets to ECs was significantly higher than that of intact/unactivated platelets, regardless of the initial activation level (70 dynes/cm(2) shear-activated platelets vs intact platelets: +80%, p < 0.001). Importantly, inflammatory activation of ECs amplified platelet prothrombinase activity progressively with increasing shear stress magnitude and TNF-a concentration: thrombin generation of 70 dynes/cm(2) shear-activated platelets was 2.6-fold higher after exposure and adhesion to 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha. activated ECs (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated synergistic effect of SMPA and cytokine-mediated EC inflammatory activation to enhance EC. platelet adhesion and platelet prothrombotic function. These mechanisms may contribute to intraventricular thrombosis in the setting of mechanical circulatory support.
    • Medium Earth Orbit dynamical survey and its use in passive debris removal

      Skoulidou, Despoina K.; Rosengren, Aaron J.; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Voyatzis, George; Univ Arizona, Aerosp & Mech Engn (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019-06-01)
      The Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region hosts satellites for navigation, communication, and geodetic/space environmental science, among which are the Global Navigation Satellites Systems (GNSS). Safe and efficient removal of debris from MEO is problematic due to the high cost for maneuvers needed to directly reach the Earth (reentry orbits) and the relatively crowded GNSS neighborhood (graveyard orbits). Recent studies have highlighted the complicated secular dynamics in the MEO region, but also the possibility of exploiting these dynamics, for designing removal strategies. In this paper, we present our numerical exploration of the long-term dynamics in MEO, performed with the purpose of unveiling the set of reentry and graveyard solutions that could be reached with maneuvers of reasonable Delta V cost. We simulated the dynamics over 120-200 years for an extended grid of millions of fictitious MEO satellites that covered all inclinations from 0 to 90 degrees, using non-averaged equations of motion and a suitable dynamical model that accounted for the principal geopotential terms, 3rd-body perturbations and solar radiation pressure (SRP). We found a sizeable set of usable solutions with reentry times that exceed similar to 40 years, mainly around three specific inclination values: 46 degrees, 56 degrees, and 68 degrees; a result compatible with our understanding of MEO secular dynamics. For Delta V <= 300 m/s (i.e., achieved if you start from a typical GNSS orbit and target a disposal orbit with e < 0.3), reentry times from GNSS altitudes exceed similar to 70 years, while low-cost (Delta V similar or equal to 5-35 m/s) graveyard orbits, stable for at lest 200 years, are found for eccentricities up to e approximate to 0.018. This investigation was carried out in the framework of the EC-funded "ReDSHIFT" project. (C) 2019 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Partial sample average approximation method for chance constrained problems

      Cheng, Jianqiang; Gicquel, Céline; Lisser, Abdel; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2019-06)
      In this paper, we present a new scheme of a sampling-based method to solve chance constrained programs. The main advantage of our approach is that the approximation problem contains only continuous variables whilst the standard sample average approximation (SAA) formulation contains binary variables. Although our approach generates new chance constraints, we show that such constraints are tractable under certain conditions. Moreover, we prove that the proposed approach has the same convergence properties as the SAA approach. Finally, numerical experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the SAA approach on a set of tested instances.
    • Approximating geodesics via random points

      Davis, Erik; Sethuraman, Sunder; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (INST MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS, 2019-06)
      Given a cost functional F on paths gamma in a domain D subset of R-d, in the form 1 F(gamma) = integral(1)(0) f (gamma(t), gamma(t)) dt , it is of interest to approximate its minimum cost and geodesic paths. Let X-1,...X-n be points drawn independently from D according to a distribution with a density. Form a random geometric graph on the points where X-i and X-j are connected when 0 < vertical bar X-i - X-j vertical bar < epsilon, and the length scale epsilon = epsilon(n) vanishes at a suitable rate. For a general class of functionals F, associated to Finsler and other distances on D, using a probabilistic form of Gamma convergence, we show that the minimum costs and geodesic paths, with respect to types of approximating discrete cost functionals, built from the random geometric graph, converge almost surely in various senses to those corresponding to the continuum cost F, as the number of sample points diverges. In particular, the geodesic path convergence shown appears to be among the first results of its kind.
    • Dental microwear texture analysis of Homo sapiens sapiens: Foragers, farmers, and pastoralists

      Schmidt, Christopher W.; Remy, Ashley; Van Session, Rebecca; Willman, John; Krueger, Kristin; Scott, Rachel; Mahoney, Patrick; Beach, Jeremy; McKinley, Jaqueline; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Chiu, Laura; Buzon, Michele; De Gregory, J. Rocco; Sheridan, Susan; Eng, Jacqueline; Watson, James; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol, Arizona State Museum (Wiley, 2019-06)
      Objectives. The current study seeks to determine if a sample of foragers, farmers, and pastoralists can be distinguished by their dental microwear texture signatures. Materials and Methods. The study included a sample of 719 individuals from 51 archaeological sites (450 farmers, 192 foragers, 77 pastoralists). All were over age 12 and sexes were pooled. Using a Sensofar® white-light confocal profiler we collected dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) data from a single first or second molar from each individual. We leveled and cleaned data clouds following standard procedures and analyzed the data with Sfrax® and Toothfrax® software. The DMTA variables were complexity and anisotropy. Statistics included ANOVA with partial eta squared and Hedges's g. We also performed a follow-up K-means cluster analysis. Results. We found significant differences between foragers and farmers and pastoralists for complexity and anisotropy, with foragers having greater complexity than either the farmers or the pastoralists. The farmers and pastoralists had greater anisotropy than the foragers. The Old World foragers had significantly higher anisotropy values than New World foragers. Old and New World farmers did not differ. Among the Old World farmers, those dating from the Neolithic through the Late Bronze Age had higher complexity values than those from the Iron Age through the medieval period. The cluster analysis discerned foragers and farmers but also indicated similarity between hard food foragers and hard food farmers. Discussion. Our findings reaffirm that DMTA is capable of distinguishing human diets. We found that foragers and farmers, in particular, differ in their microwear signatures across the globe. There are some exceptions, but nothing that would be unexpected given the range of human diets and food preparation techniques. This study indicates that in general DMTA is an efficacious means of paleodietary reconstruction in humans.
    • Effects of neighborhood green space on PM2.5 mitigation: Evidence from five megacities in China

      Chen, Ming; Dai, Fei; Yang, Bo; Zhu, Shengwei; Univ Arizona, Sch Landscape Architecture & Planning (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-06)
      Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been a major threat to air quality and public health in major cities in China for more than a decade. Green space has been deemed to be effective in mitigating PM pollution; however, few studies have examined its effectiveness at the neighborhood scale. In this study, the authors probe the contributions from different landscape components in the green space (i.e., tree, grass), as well as the spatial scale of planning on fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations in urban neighborhoods. PM2.5 data including 37 samples from five megacities were collected from the National Environmental Monitoring Centre in China. Results showed that, neighborhood green space greatly contributed to the spatial variation in PM2.5. The total green space coverage, tree coverage, and grass coverage were all negatively correlated with PM2.5 concentration (p < 0.05). The higher green space coverage the site had, the lower the daily mean, daily minimum, and daily maximum of PM2.5 concentration were there. Tree coverage, in particular, was effective in reducing the PM2.5 concentrations, and, more importantly, its effectiveness was more significant with the higher ambient PM2.5 level. According to the examination on the effect of spatial scale, the capability for a neighborhood green space to attenuate PM2.5 pollution would be vanished when its size smaller than 200 m, and would be maximized when its size within 400-500 m. These results will contribute to the evidence-based design and management of green space to mitigating urban PM pollution.
    • Quantum fluctuations at the Planck scale

      Melia, Fulvio; University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Applied Math Program; University of Arizona, Department of Astronomy (SPRINGER BERLIN HEIDELBERG, 2019-06)
      The recently measured cutoff, kmin=4.34±0.50/rcmb (with rcmb the comoving distance to the last scattering surface), in the fluctuation spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, appears to disfavor slow-roll inflation and the associated transition of modes across the horizon. We show in this Letter that kmin instead corresponds to the first mode emerging out of the Planck domain into the semi-classical universe. The required scalar-field potential is exponential, though not inflationary, and satisfies the zero active mass condition, ρϕ+3pϕ=0. Quite revealingly, the observed amplitude of the temperature anisotropies requires the quantum fluctuations in ϕ to have classicalized at ∼3.5×1015 GeV, consistent with the energy scale in grand unified theories. Such scalar-field potentials are often associated with Kaluza–Klein cosmologies, string theory and even supergravity.
    • After the end: Linguistic predictors of psychological distress 4 years after marital separation

      Bourassa, Kyle J.; Hasselmo, Karen; Sbarra, David A.; Univ Arizona (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019-06)
      Divorce is a stressful life event that is associated with increased risk for poor mental and physical health. A key goal for research in this area is to understand individual differences in who fares well or poorly over time, and whether behavioral markers of risk immediately after a separation predict longer term adjustment. This article investigates psychological distress in a sample of separated adults (N = 134, 84 of whom completed all follow-up assessments) who participated in an initial study and a follow-up assessment approximately 4.5 years later. Using multiple regression we examined whether two linguistic behaviors-the use of words from categories such as first-person pronouns and present tense words (verbal immediacy) and first-person plural pronouns (we-talk; e.g., "we" or "our")-predicted self-reported psychological distress at follow-up. Increased use of first-person plural pronouns predicted greater psychological distress 4.5 years after marital separation. Additional analyses revealed that this effect was driven largely by differences in self-concept disturbance over time. The extent to which people use first-person plural pronouns following marital separation predicts increased risk for psychological distress years later, and this behavioral indicator may identify people who are at greater risk for poor adjustment over time.
    • Characteristics of Lawyers Who Are Subject to Complaints and Misconduct Findings

      Sklar, Tara; Taouk, Yamna; Studdert, David; Spittal, Matthew; Paterson, Ron; Bismark, Marie; Univ Arizona, James E Rogers Coll Law, Hlth Law (WILEY, 2019-06)
      Regulators of the legal profession are charged with protecting the public by ensuring lawyers are fit to practice law. However, their approach tends to be reactive and case based, focusing on the resolution of individual complaints. Regulators generally do not seek to identify patterns and trends across their broader caseloads and the legal profession as a whole. Using administrative data routinely collected by the main regulator of the legal profession in Victoria, Australia, we characterized complaints lodged between 2005 and 2015 and the lawyers against whom they were made. We also analyzed risk factors for complaints and misconduct findings. We found that the odds of being subject to a complaint were higher among lawyers who were male, older, had trust account authority, and whose legal practices were smaller, in nonurban locations, and incorporated. A deeper understanding of these risk factors could support efforts to improve professional standards and reform regulatory practices.
    • Knowing the Great Plains Weather: Field Life and Lay Participation on the American Frontier during the Railroad Era

      Vetter, Jeremy; Univ Arizona, Dept Hist (DUKE UNIV PRESS, 2019-06)
      On the US Great Plains frontier in the late nineteenth century, perhaps no area of scientific knowledge was more contested than the weather, which connected with debates around the long-term climate of this semiarid region. Observation of the weather was shared across the divide between scientists and lay people, illustrating an early historical predecessor of enlisting citizen scientists to help in the production of knowledge. Situating this example of lay participation in the larger context of diverse modes of field practice during the railroad era, this article examines the production of weather knowledge on the Great Plains frontier, especially in Kansas, to explore some important stages in the process of coordinating lay observers, including the ground-level practices of organizing lay people into networks for producing knowledge, and marginalizing and discrediting folk knowledge about the weather that was autonomous from the authorized scientific community. The author argues for greater attention to the historical emergence of crucial hierarchical, structured aspects of lay participation in science, inflected by the Chinese concept of shi, in contrast to the recently common focus on flattened, collaborative networks.
    • The Gothic-Romantic Hybridity in Mary Robinson’s Lyrical Tales

      Hogle, Jerrold E.; Univ Arizona, Dept English (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-05-19)
      Mary Darby Robinson is well known for writing her final volume of poems, the Lyrical Tales (1800), as a direct answer, sometimes poem by poem, to Wordsworth and Coleridge's 1798 Lyrical Ballads. What has been less studied is how deliberately hybrid in style and allusions her response-poems are in the Tales, especially how prominently they foreground Gothic imagery, theatricality, and hyperbole in poems that also ape the emerging "romantic" mode of the Ballads themselves. Part of that "cheekiness," I argue, stems from the condemnation of the Gothic that both Wordsworth and especially Coleridge had articulated in print, while also echoing it, albeit in highly modified ways, in their poetry. Most of what Robinson attempts with her hybrid Tales, though, develops the penchant in Gothic for symbolizing deep and unresolved ideological conflicts in Western culture. Her answers to Wordsworth and Coleridge, which I exemplify with selected Robinson Tales, therefore, bring out those very conflicts underlying, haunting, and even tormenting the speakers and the subject-matter in the original Lyrical Ballads.
    • A benders-local branching algorithm for second-generation biodiesel supply chain network design under epistemic uncertainty

      Babazadeh, Reza; Ghaderi, Hamid; Pishvaee, Mir Saman; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-05-08)
      This paper proposes a possibilistic programming model in order to design a second-generation biodiesel supply chain network under epistemic uncertainty of input data. The developed model minimizes the total cost of the supply chain from supply centers to the biodiesel and glycerin consumer centers. Waste cooking oil and Jatropha plants, as non-edible feedstocks, are considered for biodiesel production. To cope with the epistemic uncertainty of the parameters, a credibility-based possibilistic programming approach is employed to convert the original possibilistic programming model into a crisp counterpart. An accelerated benders decomposition algorithm using efficient acceleration mechanisms is devised to deal with the computational complexity of solving the proposed model in an efficient manner. The performance of the proposed possibilistic programming model and the efficiency of the developed accelerated benders decomposition algorithm are validated by performing a computational analysis using a real case study in Iran. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Impact of Sleep and Dialysis Mode on Quality of Life in a Mexican Population

      Quan, Stuart F; University of Arizona College of Medicine (Arizona Thoracic Society, 2019-05-03)
      Background: Health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is reduced with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but little is known about the impact of sleep disorders, dialysis modality and demographic factors on HR-QOL of Mexican patients with ESRD. Methods: 121 adults with ESRD were enrolled from 4 dialysis units in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, stratified by unit and dialysis modality (hemodialysis [HD], continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [CAPD] and automated peritoneal dialysis [APD]). Analysis included clinical information and data from the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) short form (SF-36) HR-QOL measure and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: Overall, sleep symptoms and disorders were common (e.g., 37.2% insomnia). SF-36 scores were worse versus US and Mexican norms. HD patients reported better, while CAPD patients poorer HR-QOL for Vitality. With multivariate modelling dialysis modality, sleep disorders as a group and lower income were significantly associated with poorer overall SF-36 and mental health HR-QOL. Overall and Mental Composite Summary models showed HR-QOL was significantly better for both APD and HD with small to moderate effect sizes. Cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated an advantage for APD. Conclusions: Mexican ESRD patients have reduced HR-QOL, and sleep disorders may be an important driver of this finding. APD should be the preferred mode of dialysis in Mexico.
    • Remote Health Care at U.S. Antarctic Stations: A Comparison with Standard Emergency Medical Practice

      Iserson, Kenneth V; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2019-05-01)
      Background: The three U.S. Antarctic research stations' medical facilities exist in an isolated, harsh environment, typical of many such facilities throughout the world. Emergency physicians frequently staff these medical facilities; however, most who are considering this have many misconceptions about the stations and about the scope of medical practice that exists there. Objective: This article illuminates how Antarctic medical practice is comparable with and dissimilar to other emergency medicine experiences and highlights information that any emergency physician-applicant to an isolated medical position should learn prior to accepting the position. Discussion: Antarctic medical care both parallels and differs from typical emergency medical practice in many ways, including the patient population, facilities, supplies, equipment, clinical duties (e.g., providing out-and inpatient medical and dental care, performing laboratory tests and imaging), and nonclinical duties (e.g., disaster planning, teaching, food service inspection, and public health officer). Climate-related limitations on medical evacuation epitomize the stations' isolation. Medical practice may be complicated by ethical issues common in other small isolated settings, such as a lack of privacy and confidentiality. Clinicians considering an isolated practice opportunity should ask basic questions to learn as much detailed information as possible prior to taking the positions. Conclusion: Medical practice at U.S. Antarctic stations, as at many remote health care facilities throughout the world, has similarities to standard emergency medical practice. Even so, significant differences result in a steep learning curve. Any clinicians considering practicing in these locations should carefully evaluate the practice and the environment in advance of any deployment. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.