• Extending the life of water reuse reverse osmosis membranes using chlorination

      Souza-Chaves, Bianca M.; Alhussaini, Mohammed A.; Felix, Varinia; Presson, Luke K.; Betancourt, Walter Q.; Hickenbottom, Kerri L.; Achilli, Andrea; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona; University of Arizona; Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Center, University of Arizona; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2022-02)
      Numerous efforts have been made over the years to extend the lifespan of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. End-of-life RO membranes are periodically replaced and usually discarded in landfills. Periodic membrane modification using chlorination may be an alternative to recover their productivity without compromising process safety. In this research, RO membranes from an engineering-scale ultrafiltration-RO system treating reclaimed water were exposed five times to 2000 ppm-h of chlorine immediately after chemical cleaning. Water, conductivity, ion, and organic permeability coefficients and rejection were related to the chlorine dose. The breakthrough of six naturally occurring viruses with different levels of persistence to wastewater treatment was also monitored. After five chlorine doses, the apparent water permeability was recovered to 1.0–1.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1, a 3.1-fold increase compared to the end-of-life membranes, with only a 2% decrease in observed salt rejection. Interestingly, apparent conductivity and ion permeability slightly decreased after the first and second chlorine dose, likely because the chlorine removed irreversible fouling/scaling and thus reduced concentration polarization. After the third chlorine dose, as the RO membrane surface oxidized, more monovalent ions permeated through the membrane, while observed divalent ion rejection remained relatively high and constant (>97%). Similarly, the RO permeate dissolved organic carbon concentration and total fluorescence intensity decreased between end-of-life membrane and the second chlorine dose, followed by an increase after the third dose, and only humic substances and building block compounds (<2 kDa) were detected. All viruses were below or near the detection limit, indicating that oxidation did not compromise the integrity of the membrane in its ability to reject virus-sized particles. The results suggest that targeted chlorination may extend RO membrane lifespan by increasing apparent water permeability while maintaining RO-like selectivity.
    • The moderating role of mystical-type experiences on the relationship between existential isolation and meaning in life

      Sielaff, Alex; Horner, Dylan E.; Greenberg, Jeff; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-02)
      Mystical-type experiences (MTEs) are unique phenomenological experiences that are often reported to induce significant and persisting changes in the experiencer's worldview. Previous research suggests that higher levels of existential isolation (EI) are associated with lower levels of meaning in life (MIL). This study examines the hypothesis that people who have had an MTE (compared with those who have not) will not show such a relationship between EI and MIL. Data from two samples (N = 2055) support the idea that those who have not had an MTE show a negative relationship between EI and MIL while those who have had an MTE show no relationship between EI and MIL. Implications and future directions are discussed.
    • Soil microbial community and abiotic soil properties influence Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation differently in Arabidopsis halleri

      Kushwaha, Priyanka; Neilson, Julia W.; Maier, Raina M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Department of Environmental Science, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      Soil contamination with trace metal(loid) elements (TME) is a global concern. This has focused interest on TME-tolerant plants, some of which can hyperaccumulate extraordinary amounts of TME into above-ground tissues, for potential treatment of these soils. However, intra-species variability in TME hyperaccumulation is not yet sufficiently understood to fully harness this potential. Particularly, little is known about the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with hyperaccumulating plants and whether or not they facilitate TME uptake. The aim of this study is to characterize the diversity and structure of Arabidopsis halleri rhizosphere-influenced and background (i.e., non-Arabidopsis) soil microbial communities in four plant populations with contrasting Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation traits, two each from contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Microbial community properties were assessed along with geographic location, climate, abiotic soil properties, and plant parameters to explain variation in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. Site type (TME-contaminated vs. uncontaminated) and location explained 44% of bacterial/archaeal and 28% of fungal community variability. A linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis identified a greater number of taxa defining rhizosphere microbial communities than associated background soils. Further, in TME-contaminated soils, the number of rhizosphere-defining taxa was 6-fold greater than in the background soils. In contrast, the corresponding ratio for uncontaminated sites, was 3 and 1.6 for bacteria/archaea and fungi, respectively. The variables analyzed explained 71% and 76% of the variance in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation, respectively; however, each hyperaccumulation pattern was associated with different variables. A. halleri rhizosphere fungal richness and diversity associated most strongly with Zn hyperaccumulation, whereas soil Cd and Zn bioavailability had the strongest associations with Cd hyperaccumulation. Our results indicate strong associations between A. halleri TME hyperaccumulation and rhizosphere microbial community properties, a finding that needs to be further explored to optimize phytoremediation technology that is based on hyperaccumulation.
    • Do all facial emojis communicate emotion? The impact of facial emojis on perceived sender emotion and text processing

      Pfeifer, Valeria A.; Armstrong, Emma L.; Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona; Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      Facial emojis can express a variety of positive and negative emotions, and are commonly used in digital, written communication. However, little is known about how emojis impact text processing and how different emoji-text combinations give rise to a sender's mental state. In this study, we investigated how facial emojis with positive valence (= happy emojis) and facial emojis with negative valence (= upset emojis) embedded in emotionally ambiguous/neutral text affect the perceived mental state of the sender using ratings (Experiment 1) and the processing of the text messages using Event-Related Potentials (Experiment 2). We predicted that (1) the same text message with happy and upset emojis would convey different sender mental states, and (2) emoji valence would affect the processing of subsequent text in valence-specific ways. Our Experiment 1 results showed that while texts with upset emojis convey specific sender mental states, texts with happy emojis convey positive emotion more generally, with no further differentiation between emojis. In ERPs (Experiment 2), we found that emojis affect subsequent text processing at N400, and emoji valence affects processing downstream at the second word. We concluded that all facial-emojis impact text processing, but happy and upset emojis carry differential social-emotional salience and impact text processing differently when content becomes available.
    • Elevated temperatures drive abiotic and biotic degradation of organic matter in a peat bog under oxic conditions

      AminiTabrizi, Roya; Dontsova, Katerina; Graf Grachet, Nathalia; Tfaily, Malak M.; Department of Environmental Science, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      Understanding the effects of elevated temperatures on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition pathways in northern peatlands is central to predicting their fate under future warming. Peatlands role as carbon (C) sink is dependent on both anoxic conditions and low temperatures that limit SOM decomposition. Previous studies have shown that elevated temperatures due to climate change can disrupt peatland's C balance by enhancing SOM decomposition and increasing CO2 emissions. However, little is known about how SOM decomposition pathways change at higher temperatures. Here, we used an integrated research approach to investigate the mechanisms behind enhanced CO2 emissions and SOM decomposition under elevated temperatures of surface peat soil collected from a raised and Sphagnum dominated mid-continental bog (S1 bog) peatland at the Marcel Experimental Forest in Minnesota, USA, incubated under oxic conditions at three different temperatures (4, 21, and 35 °C). Our results indicated that elevated temperatures could destabilize peatland's C pool via a combination of abiotic and biotic processes. In particular, temperature-driven changes in redox conditions can lead to abiotic destabilization of Fe-organic matter (phenol) complexes, previously an underestimated decomposition pathway in peatlands, leading to increased CO2 production and accumulation of polyphenol-like compounds that could further inhibit extracellular enzyme activities and/or fuel the microbial communities with labile compounds. Further, increased temperatures can alter strategies of microbial communities for nutrient acquisition via changes in the activities of extracellular enzymes by priming SOM decomposition, leading to enhanced CO2 emission from peatlands. Therefore, coupled biotic and abiotic processes need to be incorporated into process-based climate models to predict the fate of SOM under elevated temperatures and to project the likely impacts of environmental change on northern peatlands and CO2 emissions.
    • Removal of uranium from contaminated groundwater using monorhamnolipids and ion flotation

      Hogan, David E.; Stolley, Ryan M.; Boxley, Chett; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Maier, Raina M.; Department of Environmental Science, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      Mining of uranium for defense-related purposes has left a substantial legacy of pollution that threatens human and environmental health. Contaminated waters in the arid southwest are of particular concern, as water resource demand and water scarcity issues become more pronounced. The development of remediation strategies to treat uranium impacted waters will become increasingly vital to meet future water needs. Ion flotation is one technology with the potential to address legacy uranium contamination. The green biosurfactant rhamnolipid has been shown to bind uranium and act as an effective collector in ion flotation. In this study, uranium contaminated groundwater (∼440 μg L−1 U) from the Monument Valley processing site in northeast Arizona was used as a model solution to test the uranium removal efficacy of ion flotation with biosynthetic (bio-mRL) and three synthetic monorhamnolipids with varying hydrophobic chain lengths: Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C12-C12, and Rha-C14-C14. At the groundwater's native pH 8, and at an adjusted pH 7, no uranium was removed from solution by any collector. However, at pH 6.5 bio-mRL and Rha-C10-C10 removed 239.2 μg L−1 and 242.4 μg L−1 of uranium, respectively. By further decreasing the pH to 5.5, bio-mRL was able to reduce the uranium concentration to near or below the Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 30 μg L−1. For the Rha-C12-C12 and Rha-C14-C14 collector ligands, decreasing the pH to 7 or below reduced the foam stability and quantity, such that these collectors were not suitable for treating this groundwater. To contextualize the results, a geochemical analysis of the groundwater was conducted, and a consideration of uranium speciation is described. Based on this study, the efficacy of monorhamnolipid-based ion flotation in real world groundwater has been demonstrated with suitable solution conditions and collectors identified.
    • Development of aquaculture protocols and gonadal differentiation of green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

      Teal, Chad N.; Schill, Daniel J.; Fogelson, Susan B.; Roberts, Colby M.; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Bonar, Scott A.; Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona; University of Arizona, School of Natural Resources and the Environment (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      We provide detailed rearing methods and describe green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) gonadal development and histological differentiation for both sexes. Developing in-depth aquaculture protocols and describing the gonadal differentiation of green sunfish could facilitate strategies to control nuisance populations, enhance stocking programs, and provide information for this species' use in bioassay trials or toxicology studies. Our methods resulted in consistent year-round production of green sunfish and allowed us to identify the timing of their gonadal differentiation through histological assessment. Our spawning methods provided year-round volitional spawns from green sunfish broodstock. Our rearing methods involved weaning larval green sunfish off live nauplii and onto only artificial diets by 37 days post-hatch (dph). Most of the offspring generation reached sexual maturity by 213 dph. Green sunfish are gonochoristic, with testes and ovaries differentiating directly from undifferentiated gonads. Ovaries begin to differentiate by 39 dph and testes begin to differentiate by 69 dph. This information can provide biologists consistent means to produce this Centrachid and understand their gonadal development.
    • Surrogate approximation of the Grad–Shafranov free boundary problem via stochastic collocation on sparse grids

      Elman, Howard C.; Liang, Jiaxing; Sánchez-Vizuet, Tonatiuh; Department of Mathematics, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      In magnetic confinement fusion devices, the equilibrium configuration of a plasma is determined by the balance between the hydrostatic pressure in the fluid and the magnetic forces generated by an array of external coils and the plasma itself. The location of the plasma is not known a priori and must be obtained as the solution to a free boundary problem. The partial differential equation that determines the behavior of the combined magnetic field depends on a set of physical parameters (location of the coils, intensity of the electric currents going through them, magnetic permeability, etc.) that are subject to uncertainty and variability. The confinement region is in turn a function of these stochastic parameters as well. In this work, we consider variations on the current intensities running through the external coils as the dominant source of uncertainty. This leads to a parameter space of dimension equal to the number of coils in the reactor. With the aid of a surrogate function built on a sparse grid in parameter space, a Monte Carlo strategy is used to explore the effect that stochasticity in the parameters has on important features of the plasma boundary such as the location of the x-point, the strike points, and shaping attributes such as triangularity and elongation. The use of the surrogate function reduces the time required for the Monte Carlo simulations by factors that range between 7 and over 30.
    • Tracking the desert's edge with a Pleistocene relict

      Wilder, Benjamin T.; Becker, Amanda T.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie; Desert Laboratory on Tumamoc Hill, University of Arizona; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
      In addition to the Sky Islands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, a series of 900–1200 m desert peaks surrounded by arid lowlands support temperate affiliated species at their summits. The presence of disjunct long-lived plant taxa on under-explored desert mountains, especially Isla Tiburón at 29° latitude in the Gulf of California, suggests a more southerly extent of Ice Age woodlands than previously understood. The phylogeography of the desert edge species Canotia holacantha (Celastraceae) was investigated to test the hypothesis that insular desert peak populations represent remnants of Pleistocene woodlands rather than recent dispersal events. Sequences of four chloroplast DNA regions totaling 2032 bp were amplified from 74 individuals of 14 populations across the entire range of C. holacantha as well as nine individuals that represented the other two species in its clade (C. wendtii and Acanthothamnus aphyllus) and two outgroups. Results suggest that a Canotia common ancestor occurred on the landscape, which underwent a population contraction ca. 15 kya. The Isla Tiburón C. holacantha population and the Chihuahuan Desert microendemic C. wendtii have the greatest genetic differentiation, are sister to one another, and basal to all other Canotia populations. Three haplotypes within C. holacantha were recovered, which correspond to regional geography and thus identified as the Arizona, Sonora, and Tiburón haplotypes, within which Acanthothamnus aphyllus is nested rather than as a sister genus. These results indicate a once broad distribution of Canotia/Acanthothamnus when the current peripheral desert ecotone habitat was more widespread during the Pleistocene, now present in relict populations on the fringes of the southern desert, in the Chihuahuan Desert, with scattered populations on desert peaks, and a common or abundant distribution at the northern boundary of the Sonoran Desert. These results suggest Canotia has tracked the shift of the desert's edge both in latitude and elevation since the end of the last Ice Age.
    • Arid Ecosystem Vegetation Canopy-Gap Dichotomy: Influence on Soil Microbial Composition and Nutrient Cycling Functional Potential

      Kushwaha, Priyanka; Neilson, Julia W.; Barberán, Albert; Chen, Yongjian; Fontana, Catherine G.; Butterfield, Bradley J.; Maier, Raina M.; Department of Environmental Science, University of Arizona (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-12-11)
      Increasing temperatures and drought in desert ecosystems are predicted to cause decreased vegetation density combined with barren ground expansion. It remains unclear how nutrient availability, microbial diversity, and the associated functional capacity vary between the vegetated canopy and gap soils. The specific aim of this study was to characterize canopy versus gap microsite effect on soil microbial diversity, the capacity of gap soils to serve as a canopy soil microbial reservoir, nitrogen (N)-mineralization genetic potential (ureC gene abundance) and urease enzyme activity, and microbial-nutrient pool associations in four arid-hyperarid geolocations of the western Sonoran Desert, Arizona, United States. Microsite combined with geolocation explained 57% and 45.8% of the observed variation in bacterial/archaeal and fungal community composition, respectively. A core microbiome of amplicon sequence variants was shared between the canopy and gap soil communities; however, canopy soils included abundant taxa that were not present in associated gap communities, thereby suggesting that these taxa cannot be sourced from the associated gap soils. Linear mixed-effects models showed that canopy soils have significantly higher microbial richness, nutrient content, and organic N-mineralization genetic and functional capacity. Furthermore, ureC gene abundance was detected in all samples, suggesting that ureC is a relevant indicator of N mineralization in deserts. Additionally, novel phylogenetic associations were observed for ureC, with the majority belonging to Actinobacteria and uncharacterized bacteria. Thus, key N-mineralization functional capacity is associated with a dominant desert phylum. Overall, these results suggest that lower microbial diversity and functional capacity in gap soils may impact ecosystem sustainability as aridity drives openspace expansion in deserts.
    • Phytoextraction efficiency of Arabidopsis halleri is driven by the plant and not by soil metal concentration

      Dietrich, Charlotte C.; Tandy, Susan; Murawska-Wlodarczyk, Kamila; Banaś, Angelika; Korzeniak, Urszula; Seget, Barbara; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Department of Environmental Science, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      The hyperaccumulation trait allows some plant species to allocate remarkable amounts of trace metal elements (TME) to their foliage without suffering from toxicity. Utilizing hyperaccumulating plants to remediate TME contaminated sites could provide a sustainable alternative to industrial approaches. A major hurdle that currently hampers this approach is the complexity of the plant-soil relationship. To better anticipate the outcome of future phytoremediation efforts, we evaluated the potential for soil metal-bioavailability to predict TME accumulation in two non-metallicolous and two metallicolous populations of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. We also examined the relationship between a population's habitat and its phytoextraction efficiency. Total Zn and Cd concentrations were quantified in soil and plant material, and bioavailable fractions in soil were quantified via Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT). We found that shoot TME accumulation varied independent from both total and bioavailable soil TME concentrations in metallicolous individuals. In fact, hyperaccumulation patterns appear more plant- and less soil-driven: one non-metallicolous population proved to be as efficient in accumulating Zn on non-polluted soil as the metallicolous populations in their highly contaminated environment. Our findings demonstrate that in-situ information on plant phytoextraction efficiency is indispensable to optimize site-specific phytoremediation measures. If successful, hyperaccumulating plant biomass may provide valuable source material for application in the emerging field of green chemistry. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd
    • When and why we disclose distress on SNSs: Perceived affordances, disclosure goals, and anticipated negative evaluations

      Zhao, Pengfei; Lapierre, Matthew A.; Rains, Stephen A.; Segrin, Chris; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Social networking sites (SNSs) offer unprecedented opportunities for broadcasting self-disclosure. However, questions regarding when and why people tend to post distressing information on SNSs have received insufficient scholarly attention. Rooted in the functional approach of self-disclosure, we investigated how perceived SNS affordances (i.e., network accessibility, visibility, and visibility control) are associated with broadcasting distress disclosure tendencies on SNSs via disclosure goals. Working with 398 college students, we found that people disclose distress on SNSs for seeking support and expressing emotions. However, anticipated negative evaluations can lessen the associations between disclosure goals and distress disclosures on SNSs. Furthermore, the results revealed that network accessibility was indirectly associated with distress disclosures on SNSs via support-seeking goals while visibility control was indirectly related to distress disclosures via emotion expression goals. The indirect effects indicate the importance of studying disclosure goals when investigating the associations between affordances and disclosures. Together, this study advances our understanding regarding online distress disclosures by integrating SNS affordances, disclosures goals, and subjective risks.
    • Applying molecular dynamics simulation to take the fracture fingerprint of polycrystalline SiC nanosheets

      Molaei, Fatemeh; Zarghami Dehaghani, Maryam; Salmankhani, Azam; Fooladpanjeh, Sasan; Sajadi, S. Mohammad; Esmaeili Safa, Mohammad; Abida, Otman; Habibzadeh, Sajjad; Hamed Mashhadzadeh, Amin; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Graphene-like nanosheets are the key elements of advanced materials and systems. The mechanical behavior of the structurally perfect 2D nanostructures is well documented, but that of polycrystalline ones is less understood. Herein, we applied molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to take the fracture fingerprint of polycrystalline SiC nanosheets (PSiCNS), where monocrystalline SiC nanosheets (MSiCNS) was the reference nanosheet. The mechanical responses of defect-free and defective MSiCNS and PSiCNS having regular cracks and circular-shaped notches were captured as a function of temperature (100–1200 K), such that elevated temperatures were unconditionally deteriorative to the properties. Moreover, larger cracks and notches more severely decreased the strength of PSiCNS, e.g. Young's modulus dropped to ca. 41% by the crack enlargement. The temperature rise similarly deteriorated the failure stress and Young's modulus of PSiCNS. However, the stress intensity factor increased by the enlargement of the crack length but decreased against temperature. We believe that the findings of the present study can shed some light on designing mechanically stable nanostructures for on-demand working conditions. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
    • The Bramson delay in a Fisher–KPP equation with log-singular nonlinearity

      Bouin, Emeric; Henderson, Christopher; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      We consider a class of reaction–diffusion equations of Fisher–KPP type in which the nonlinearity (reaction term) f is merely C1 at u=0 due to a logarithmic competition term. We first derive the asymptotic behavior of (minimal speed) traveling wave solutions that is, we obtain precise estimates on the decay to zero of the traveling wave profile at infinity. We then use this to characterize the Bramson shift between the traveling wave solutions and solutions of the Cauchy problem with localized initial data. We find a phase transition depending on how singular f is near u=0 with quite different behavior for more singular f. This is in contrast to the smooth case, that is, when f∈C1,δ, where these behaviors are completely determined by f′(0). In the singular case, several scales appear and require new techniques to understand. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd
    • Involvement of T-type calcium channels in the mechanism of low dose morphine-induced hyperalgesia in adult male rats

      Abbasloo, Elham; Abdollahi, Farzaneh; Saberi, Arezoo; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Kaeidi, Ayat; Akhlaghinasab, Fereshteh; Sheibani, Vahid; Thomas, Theresa Currier; Kobeissy, Firas Hosni; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      It has been shown that systemic and local administration of ultra-low dose morphine induced a hyperalgesic response via mu-opioid receptors. However, its exact mechanism(s) has not fully been clarified. It is documented that mu-opioid receptors functionally couple to T-type voltage dependent Ca+2 channels. Here, we investigated the role of T-type calcium channels, amiloride and mibefradil, on the induction of low-dose morphine hyperalgesia in male Wistar rats. The data showed that morphine (0.01 μg i.t. and 1 μg/kg i.p.) could elicit hyperalgesia as assessed by the tail-flick test. Administration of amiloride (5 and 10 μg i.t.) and mibefradil (2.5 and 5 μg i.t.) completely blocked low-dose morphine-induced hyperalgesia in spinal dorsal horn. Amiloride at doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg (i.p.) and mibefradil (9 mg/kg ip) 10 min before morphine (1 μg/kg i.p.) inhibited morphine-induced hyperalgesia. Our results indicate a role for T-type calcium channels in low dose morphine-induced hyperalgesia in rats.
    • Water storage and release policies for all large reservoirs of conterminous United States

      Turner, Sean W.D.; Steyaert, Jennie Clarice; Condon, Laura; Voisin, Nathalie; University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Large-scale hydrological and water resource models (LHMs) require water storage and release schemes to represent flow regulation by reservoirs. Owing to a lack of observed reservoir operations, state-of-the-art LHMs deploy a generic reservoir scheme that may fail to represent local operating behaviors. Here we introduce a new dataset of bespoke water storage and release policies for 1,930 reservoirs of conterminous United States. The Inferred Storage Targets and Release Functions (ISTARF-CONUS) dataset relies on a new inventory of observed daily reservoir operations (ResOpsUS) to generate reservoir operating rules for 595 data-rich reservoirs. These functions are developed in a standardized form that allows for extrapolation of operating schemes to 1,335 data-scarce reservoirs—leading to the first inventory of empirically derived reservoir operating policies for all large CONUS reservoirs documented in the Global Reservoir and Dams (GRanD) database. Evaluation of the new scheme in daily simulations forced with observed inflow demonstrates substantial and robust improvement for both release and storage relative to the popular Hanasaki method. Performance of the extrapolation approach for data-scarce reservoirs is evaluated with leave-one-out validation and is shown to also offer modest gains on average over Hanasaki. ISTARF-CONUS may be readily adopted in any LHM featuring large reservoirs of the conterminous United States.
    • Lung developmental is altered after inhalation exposure to various concentrations of calcium arsenate

      Chau, Binh; Witten, Mark L.; Cromey, Doug; Chen, Yin; Lantz, R. Clark; Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Exposure to dust from active and abandoned mining operations may be a very significant health hazard, especially to sensitive populations. We have previously reported that inhalation of real-world mine tailing dusts during lung development can alter lung function and structure in adult male mice. These real-world dusts contain a mixture of metal(loid)s, including arsenic. To determine whether arsenic in inhaled dust plays a role in altering lung development, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice to a background dust (0 arsenic) or to the background dust containing either 3% or 10% by mass, calcium arsenate. Total level of exposure was kept at 100 μg/m3. Calcium arsenate was selected since arsenate is the predominant species found in mine tailings. We found that inhalation exposure during in utero and postnatal lung development led to significant increases in pulmonary baseline resistance, airway hyper-reactivity, and airway collagen and smooth muscle expression in male C57Bl/6 mice. Responses were dependent on the level of calcium arsenate in the simulated dust. These changes were not associated with increased expression of TGF-β1, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, responses were correlated with decreases in the expression of club cell protein 16 (CC16). Dose-dependent decreases in CC16 expression and increases in collagen around airways was seen for animals exposed in utero only (GD), animals exposed postnatally only (PN) and animals continuously exposed throughout development (GDPN). These data suggest that arsenic inhalation during lung development can decrease CC16 expression leading to functional and structural alterations in the adult lung.
    • Modelling collective decision-making: Insights into collective anti-predator behaviors from an agent-based approach

      Watzek, Julia; Hauber, Mark E.; Jack, Katharine M.; Murrell, Julie R.; Tecot, Stacey R.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Collective decision-making is a widespread phenomenon across organisms. Studying how animal societies make group decisions to the mutual benefit of group members, while avoiding exploitation by cheaters, can provide unique insights into the underlying cognitive mechanisms. As a step toward dissecting the proximate mechanisms that underpin collective decision-making across animals, we developed an agent-based model of antipredatory alarm signaling and mobbing during predator-prey encounters. Such collective behaviors occur in response to physical threats in many distantly related species with vastly different cognitive abilities, making it a broadly important model behavior. We systematically assessed under which quantitative contexts potential prey benefit from three basic strategies: predator detection, signaling about the predator (e.g., alarm calling), and retreating from vs. approaching the predator. Collective signaling increased survival rates over individual predator detection in several scenarios. Signaling sometimes led to fewer prey detecting the predator but this effect disappeared when prey animals that had seen the predator both signaled and approached it, as in mobbing. Critically, our results highlight that collective decision-making in response to a threat can emerge from simple rules without needing a central leader or needing to be under conscious control.
    • The abundances of F, Cl, and H2O in eucrites: Implications for the origin of volatile depletion in the asteroid 4 Vesta

      McCubbin, Francis M.; Lewis, Jonathan A.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Elardo, Stephen M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      We conducted a petrologic study of apatite within eight unbrecciated, non-cumulate eucrites and two monomict, non-cumulate eucrites. These data were combined with previously published data to quantify the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O in the bulk silicate portion of asteroid 4 Vesta (BSV). Using a combination of apatite-based melt hygrometry/chlorometry and appropriately paired volatile/refractory element ratios, we determined that BSV has 3.0–7.2 ppm F, 0.39–1.8 ppm Cl, and 3.6–22 ppm H2O. The abundances of F and H2O are depleted in BSV relative to CI chondrites to a similar degree as F and H2O in the bulk silicate portion of the Moon. This degree of volatile depletion in BSV is similar to what has been determined previously for many moderately volatile elements in 4 Vesta (e.g., Na, K, Zn, Rb, Cs, and Pb). In contrast, Cl is depleted in 4 Vesta by a greater degree than what is recorded in samples from Earth or the Moon. Based on the Cl-isotopic compositions of eucrites and the bulk rock Cl/F ratios determined in this study, the eucrites likely formed through serial magmatism of a mantle with heterogeneous δ37Cl and Cl/F, not as extracts from a partially crystallized global magma ocean. Furthermore, the volatile depletion and Cl-isotopic heterogeneity recorded in eucrites is likely inherited, at least in part, from the precursor materials that accreted to form 4 Vesta and is unlikely to have resulted solely from degassing of a global magma ocean, magmatic degassing of eucrite melts, and/or volatile loss during thermal metamorphism. Although our results can be reconciled with the past presence of wide-scale melting on 4 Vesta (i.e., a partial magma ocean), any future models for eucrite petrogenesis involving a global magma ocean would need to account for the preservation of a heterogeneous eucrite source with respect to Cl/F ratios and Cl isotopes.
    • Risk factors of sepsis among patients with qSOFA<2 in the emergency department

      Shibata, Junichiro; Osawa, Itsuki; Ito, Honoka; Soeno, Shoko; Hara, Konan; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Goto, Tadahiro; Department of Economics, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
      Objective: Studies have suggested that qSOFA can be used for early detection of sepsis immediately upon arrival at the emergency department (ED). Despite this, little is known about the risk factors associated with the subsequent diagnosis of sepsis among patients with qSOFA<2 in the ED. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using ED data from a large tertiary medical center in Japan, 2018–2020. We included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) presenting to the ED with suspected infection (e.g., having a fever) and qSOFA<2. We identified patients who developed sepsis based on the Sepsis-3 criteria, and compared patient characteristics (e.g., demographics, vital signs upon the initial triage, chief complaint, and comorbidities) between patients who developed sepsis or not. Additionally, we identified the potential risk factors of sepsis among patients with qSOFA<2 using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: We identified 151 (7%) patients who developed sepsis among 2025 adult patients with suspected infection and qSOFA<2. Compared with patients who did not develop sepsis, patients who developed sepsis were likely to be older and have vital signs suggestive of imminent sepsis (e.g., high respiratory rate). In the multivariable logistic regression model, the potential risk factors of sepsis among patients with qSOFA<2 were older age (adjusted OR, 1.92 [95%CI 1.19–3.19]), vital signs suggestive of imminent sepsis (e.g., adjusted OR of altered mental status, 3.50 [95%CI 2.25–5.50]), receipt of oxygen therapy upon arrival at the ED (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95%CI 1.38–2.26]), chief complaint of sore throat (adjusted OR, 2.15 [95%CI 1.08–4.13]), and the presence of comorbid diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (e.g., adjusted OR of diabetes mellitus, 1.47 [95%CI 1.10–1.96]). On the contrary, chief complaint of abdominal and chest pain were associated with a lower risk of sepsis (e.g., adjusted OR of abdominal pain, 0.26 [95%CI 0.14–0.45]). Conclusions: We found that older age, vital signs prognosticating sepsis, and the presence of some comorbidities were the potential risk factors of sepsis in patients with qSOFA<2. These potential risk factors could be useful to efficiently recognize patients who might develop sepsis in the ED.