• Social context-dependent singing alters molecular markers of synaptic plasticity signaling in finch basal ganglia Area X

      So, Lisa Y.; Miller, Julie E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurosci; Univ Arizona, Dept Speech Language & Hearing Sci (Elsevier BV, 2021-02)
      Vocal communication is a crucial skill required throughout life. However, there is a critical gap in our understanding of the underlying molecular brain mechanisms, thereby motivating our use of the zebra finch songbird model. Adult male zebra finches show differences in neural activity patterns in song-dedicated brain nuclei when they sing in two distinct social contexts: a male singing by himself (undirected, UD) and a male singing to a female (female-directed, FD). In our prior work, we showed that in song-dedicated basal ganglia Area X, protein levels of a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NMDAR2B) increased with more UD song and decreased with more FD song. We hypothesized that molecules downstream of this receptor would show differential protein expression levels in Area X between UD and FD song. Specifically, we investigated calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta (CaMKIIB), homer scaffold protein 1 (HOMER1), serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), and mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) following singing and non-singing states in Area X. We show relationships between social context and protein levels. HOMER1 protein levels decreased with time spent singing FD song, and mTOR protein levels decreased with the amount of and time spent singing FD song. For both HOMER1 and mTOR, there were no differences with the amount of UD song. With time spent singing UD, CaMKIIB protein levels trended in a U-shaped curve whereas Akt protein levels trended down. Both molecules showed no change with FD song. Our results support differential involvement of molecules in synaptic plasticity pathways between UD and FD song behaviors.
    • Atomic Embeddability, Clustered Planarity, and Thickenability

      Fulek, Radoslav; Tóth, Csaba D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2020-12-23)
      We study the atomic embeddability testing problem, which is a common generalization of clustered planarity (c-planarity, for short) and thickenability testing, and present a polynomial time algorithm for this problem, thereby giving the first polynomial time algorithm for c-planarity. C-planarity was introduced in 1995 by Feng, Cohen, and Eades as a variant of graph planarity, in which the vertex set of the input graph is endowed with a hierarchical clustering and we seek an embedding (crossing free drawing) of the graph in the plane that respects the clustering in a certain natural sense. Until now, it has been an open problem whether c-planarity can be tested efficiently, despite relentless efforts. The thickenability problem for simplicial complexes emerged in the topology of manifolds in the 1960s. A 2-dimensional simplicial complex is thickenable if it embeds in some orientable 3-dimensional manifold. Recently, Carmesin announced that thickenability can be tested in polynomial time. Our algorithm for atomic embeddability combines ideas from Carmesin's work with algorithmic tools previously developed for weak embeddability testing. We express our results purely in terms of graphs on surfaces, and rely on the machinery of topological graph theory. Finally we give a polynomial-time reduction from c-planarity to thickenability and show that a slight generalization of atomic embeddability to the setting in which clusters are toroidal graphs is NP-complete.
    • Carbon photochemistry at Mars: Updates with recent data

      Lo, Daniel Y.; Yelle, Roger V.; Lillis, Robert J.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (Elsevier BV, 2020-12)
      We provide a comprehensive characterization of the photochemistry behind atomic carbon in the Mars atmosphere. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model, with an extensive reaction list incorporating new high-resolution photodissociation cross-sections (Heays et al., 2017) and the recently experimentally confirmed CO2 + h nu -> C+O-2 (Lu et al., 2014), we investigate the dominant channels for the production and loss of atomic carbon, against a subsolar background atmosphere based on MAVEN Deep Dip 2 observations. We confirm the results from previous studies that CO photodissociation and CO+ dissociative recombination are important contributors to atomic C production, and that reaction with O-2 to form CO is the main loss channel. However, we also find significant contributions from CO2 + -> h nu -> C + O-2 , HCO+ + e -> C + OH and charge exchange of C+ with CO2 . These additional production channels give rise to significantly higher C densities than have been previously reported, with a peak at 4 x 10(5) cm(-3) at a CO2 density of 1.7 x 10(10) cm(-3) (similar to 146 km altitude). We find the C densities to vary with H2O densities over a Martian year, with the wetter perihelion season having 13% lower C column densities. Contrary to Anbar et al.(1993), we find C densities to be relatively insensitive to the temperature-dependence of cross-sections for CO2 and CO photodissociation. A good understanding of carbon photochemistry in the present-day Martian atmosphere provides the essential foundational framework for determining the fate of atmospheric carbon in the study of Mars' climate evolution.
    • Excited bottomonia in quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD

      Larsen, Rasmus; Meinel, Stefan; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, Peter; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (ELSEVIER, 2020-11-26)
      We present the first lattice QCD study of up to 3S and 2P bottomonia at non-zero temperatures. Correlation functions of bottomonia were computed using novel bottomonium operators and a variational technique, within the lattice non-relativistic QCD framework. We analyzed the bottomonium correlation functions based on simple physically-motivated spectral functions. We found evidence of sequential in-medium modifications, in accordance with the sizes of the bottomonium states.
    • Governmentalities, hydrosocial territories & recognition politics: The making of objects and subjects for climate change adaptation in Ecuador

      Mills-Novoa, Megan; Boelens, Rutgerd; Hoogesteger, Jaime; Vos, Jeroen; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-10)
      Adaptation to climate change has become a major policy and project focus for donors and governments globally. In this article, we provide insight into how adaptation projects mobilize distinct imaginaries and knowledge claims that create territories for intervention (the objects) as well as targeted populations (the subjects) to sustain them. Drawing on two emblematic climate change adaptation projects in Ecuador, we show how these objects and subjects are created through a knowledge production process that (a) creates a discursive climate change rationale; (b) sidesteps uncertainty related to climate change impacts; (c) fosters a circular citational practice that (self-)reinforces the project's expert knowledge; and (d) makes complex social variables commensurable based on the project's rationality, interests, and quantifiable indicators. The emerging hydrosocial territories 'in need of intervention' require subjects that inhabit, produce and reproduce these territories, in accordance with specific climate change discourses and practices. To manufacture and align these subjects, projects employ participatory practices that are informed by recognition politics aimed at disciplining participants toward particular identities and ways of thinking and acting. We analyze these distinct strategies as multiple governmentalities enacted through participatory adaptation projects seeking to produce specific climate change resilient hydrosocial territories and corresponding subjects.
    • Superiority of Bayes estimators over the MLE in high dimensional multinomial models and its implication for nonparametric Bayes theory

      Bhattacharya, Rabi; Oliver, Rachel; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      The performance of Bayes estimators is examined, in comparison with the MLE, in multinomial models with a relatively large number of cells. The prior for the Bayes estimator is taken to be the conjugate Dirichlet, i.e., the multivariate Beta, with exchangeable distributions over the coordinates, including the non-informative uniform distribution. The choice of the multinomial is motivated by its many applications in business and industry, but also by its use in providing a simple nonparametric estimator of an unknown distribution. It is striking that the Bayes procedure outperforms the asymptotically efficient MLE over most of the parameter spaces for even moderately large dimensional parameter spaces and rather large sample sizes. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis process modeling for integration with seawater reverse osmosis desalination

      Binger, Zachary M.; Achilli, Andrea; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      Osmotically driven membrane processes such as forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis may hold key advantages when integrated with seawater reverse osmosis to form hybrid FO-RO and RO-PRO systems. In this work, module-scale modeling of these two processes was improved by accurately representing the features of a spiral-wound membrane. The model captures important characteristics such as the cross-flow stream orientation, membrane baffling, and channel dimensions unique to spiral-wound membranes. The new module-scale model was then scaled to the system-level to compare various system designs for FO-RO and RO-PRO systems, most notably, a multi-stage recharge design was defined. Results indicate that the multi-stage recharge design leads to an increase in wastewater utilization, as high as 90%, when compared to the single-stage designs. Additionally, the multi-stage recharge configuration can increase the specific energy recovery of pressure retarded osmosis by over 75%. The multi-stage recharge design is found to be not only advantageous but may be also necessary to the integration of osmotically driven membrane processes with seawater reverse osmosis.
    • The modern evolution of geomorphology — Binghamton and personal perspectives, 1970–2019 and beyond

      Baker, Victor R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposia (BGS) began in 1970, initiated by Professors Donald R. Coates and Marie Morisawa of the State University of New York at Binghamton. The 50 BGS meeting topics through 2019 can be organized into five general themes, as follows: (1) Applications; (2) Methods; (3) Process and Form; (4) History, Philosophy, and Theory; (5) Systems. My own geomorphological research can be divided among these themes, though it has not always been in tune with any prevailing paradigm. The experience of the BGS meetings suggests that the immediate future of geomorphology will follow current trends involving technological advances in such areas as geochronology, geospatial analysis, lidar mapping, computer simulation, and systems-based predictive modeling. For the longer term it may be that the research frontiers will lie in outer and inner space, with the former involving the discovery and analysis of the surfaces of Earth-like planets within and beyond our own solar system. The challenges of inner space may be even more profound as they are imposed against the background of rapidly accelerating advances in artificial intelligence. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Meso-Cenozoic multiple exhumation in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric destruction

      Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Glorie, Stijn; Jepson, Gilby; Xue, Fei; Kim, Sung Won; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The Shandong Peninsula in the eastern North China Craton (NCC) forms part of the region that witnessed extensive tectonic reactivation with concomitant craton destruction and lithospheric thinning during the Meso-Cenozoic. Previous studies concentrated mainly on the timing, mechanism and tectonic setting of the Meso-Cenozoic magmatism, with inadequate evidence from low temperature thermochronology to constrain the thermo-tectonic exhumation history of this region. In this study, we present new apatite U-Pb (AUPb) and fission track (AFT) data with corresponding thermal history models for igneous rocks from the two flanks of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) that bisects the Shandong Peninsula, with a view to gain insights into the Meso-Cenozoic exhumation history of this region and to evaluate its implications on the lithospheric destruction of the NCC. The newly obtained AUPb ages of 2.5-1.5 Ga for the Precambrian intrusive rocks and of 162-112 Ma for the Mesozoic igneous suite are mainly used to constrain their thermal history models. In addition, the Mesozoic AUPb ages of 162-112 Ma highly overlap with their corresponding zircon U-Pb ages (161-115 Ma), suggesting shallow granitoid emplacement and associated rapid post-magmatic cooling in response to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. The AFT dating results yield two groups of AFT central ages at 122-113 Ma and 98-59 Ma, and corresponding thermal history models also reveal two rapid cooling stages during the Early Cretaceous (130-105 Ma) and Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (85-55 Ma). By integrating previous low temperature therrmx:hronological studies with this study, we interpret that the Early Cretaceous rapid exhumation corresponds to the peak timing of craton destruction, resulting from the Paleo-Pacific slab rollback within a back-arc extensional setting. The Late Cretaceous rapid exhumation is interpreted as a response to continuing craton destruction, derived by the NNW-directed Pacific Plate subduction.The Paleogene cooling might represent the termination of craton destruction of Shandong Peninsula associated with a dextral motion along the TLFZ, triggered by the change in direction of the Pacific Plate from NNW to WNW and/or far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All lights reserved.
    • Neuroplasticity as a foundation for human enhancements in space

      Rappaport, Margaret Boone; Szocik, Konrad; Corbally, Christopher; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, Vatican Observ Res Grp (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The space medicine literature reports changes in neurological systems of astronauts after spaceflight, which has caused understandable concern. Rehabilitative medicine provides a preliminary context to address these changes and creative efforts in preflight training and post-flight remediation have resulted. Research can now begin to determine the neurological changes that are most and least debilitating, the most and least reversible, and which can be tolerated as an adaptation to space. It is not yet known which changes will require remediation with the help of human enhancements, or the type (genetic, pharmacological, prosthetic) when crew venture on long voyages to Mars, the asteroids, and outer planets. Absent from the discussion to date is the biological basis for neuroplastic changes in spaceflight-genetic, developmental, and evolutionary-especially insights from genomics experts and paleobiologists that suggest advantages. Humans are flexible, adaptive, and in many ways, well suited for space with the help of enhancements. Their neurological plasticity provides an almost unique foundation in the animal kingdom for genetic engineering, medication management, and remediation, so enhancements can be integrated naturally into human bodies, lives, and work. Here, the authors explore the nature of human neuroplasticity as a foundation for use of human enhancements.
    • Modern Ultra-Wideband Communications: Recent Overview and Future Prospects

      Gao, Xin; Huai, Lian; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (Inderscience, 2020-10)
      Regarding the modulation schemes and multiple access techniques, modern ultra-wideband (UWB) communication displays unique features in wideband, high-speed data transmission, low-power consumption and high security comparing to other wireless communication systems. We present a general review of historical development, key features and typical applications on UWB, then briefly discuss its recent progress in IEEE standards, application potentials for broadband wireless access and current benefits. Future development on UWB transmission schemes and challenges of system design, are concisely proposed in contrast to those of several other typical communication systems.
    • Combination of searches for Higgs boson pairs in pp collisions at s=13TeV with the ATLAS detector

      Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, D.C.; Abed Abud, A.; Abeling, K.; Abhayasinghe, D.K.; Abidi, S.H.; AbouZeid, O.S.; Abraham, N.L.; Abramowicz, H.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-1)
    • Sparse subsurface radar reflectors in Hellas Planitia, Mars

      Cook, Claire W.; Bramson, Ali M.; Byrne, Shane; Holt, John W.; Christoffersen, Michael S.; Viola, Donna; Dundas, Colin M.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-09-15)
      Geomorphological features potentially related to subsurface ice, such as scalloped depressions, expanded craters, pedestal craters, and banded terrain, are present in and around Hellas Planitia, Mars. We present a radar survey of the region using the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to identify candidate subsurface reflectors that may be due to the presence of potentially ice-rich deposits. We found that the majority of radar returns are likely from off-nadir surface topography ("clutter"), arising from the rough topography of the region. There is no widespread radar return from any subsurface interfaces. However, we identify a group of six reflectors adjacent to each other on a plateau in Malea Patera in which we have higher confidence. Landforms associated with a likely ice-rich mantle are associated with the plateau, but the thickness of this mantle does not correspond to the expected depth of the reflectors. However, layers beneath the mantle and marginal pitting at the edge of the plateau are similar to those associated with pedestal craters, which may be ice rich and are a similar thickness to the expected depth of the reflectors. Malea Patera has been interpreted to be a volcanic caldera, so the reflectors may be associated with a volcanic deposit within the plateau, although the evidence for this is inconclusive. Because this radar detection is localized and its origin ambiguous, we cannot use it to make conclusions about the thickness of subsurface deposits in the Hellas region as a whole. The lack of widespread radar reflectors in this region, as compared to the northern mid-latitudes where extensive radar reflections have been mapped, may be due in part to higher surface roughness, which creates radar clutter that may obscure subsurface reflectors. However on the southern rim of the basin and south of the basin, the lack of reflectors may indicate that the possible ice-rich deposits observed geomorphologically in this region are too thin to be resolved by SHARAD, are dielectrically similar to the underlying unit, or have a gradual vertical transition in ice content that is not reflective for the radar. This would imply that recent climate processes may have favored widespread, thick ice deposition or preservation in the northern hemisphere as compared to the southern hemisphere.
    • Outcomes Associated With Infection of Chronic Pain Spinal Implantable Electronic Devices: Insights From a Nationwide Inpatient Sample Study

      Goel, Vasudha; Kumar, Varun; Agrawal, Shivani N; Patwardhan, Amol M; Ibrahim, Mohab; DeSimone, Daniel C; Sivanesan, Eellan; Banik, Ratan K; Shankar, Hariharan; Univ Arizona, Dept Anesthesiol (WILEY, 2020-09-14)
      Objectives Chronic pain spinal implantable electronic devices (CPSIEDs) include devices that provide spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal drug therapy. In this study, we sought to evaluate the trends of CPSIED infections, related complications, and outcomes following the treatment of infection. Materials and Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contains data from 48 states, and the District of Columbia was used to identify patients with a primary diagnosis of CPSIED infection during the years 2005-2014. Patients with intrathecal pumps for the treatment of spasticity were excluded to limit the study population to patients with chronic pain disorders. Treatments were categorized as: 1) without device removal, 2) pulse generator or pump only removal, 3) intrathecal pump system removal, and 4) spinal cord stimulation system removal. Complications associated with CPSIED infections were identified using administrative billing codes. Results During the study period 2005-2014, a total of 11,041 patients were admitted to the hospital with CPSIED infections. The majority of the patients were treated without surgical intervention (56%), and a smaller proportion underwent complete system explantation (22.7%). In-hospital mortality or permanent disability due to paralysis after CPSIED infection was around 1.83% and 2.77%, respectively. Infectious complications such as meningitis, abscess formation, and osteomyelitis occurred in 4.93%, 5.08%, and 1.5%, respectively. The median cost of hospitalization was around US $14,118.00, and the median length of stay was approximately six days (interquartile range = 4-13 days). Conclusions The complications of CPSIED infection were higher among patients that did not undergo device removal.
    • Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and Risk of Metachronous Colorectal Adenoma

      Florea, Ana; Harris, Robin B; Klimentidis, Yann C; Kohler, Lindsay N; Jurutka, Peter W; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Div Nephrol, Dept Med, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot Sci; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Basic Med Sci (SPRINGER, 2020-09-12)
      Purpose Prior work has shown that higher circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) are associated with an increased likelihood of developing colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study to assess the relationship between circulating FGF-21 and odds of developing early neoplastic lesions in the colorectum. Methods A total of 94 study participants were included from the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) trial, a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effect of 8-10 mg/kg of body weight UDCA vs. placebo. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between baseline FGF-21 concentrations and odds of developing a metachronous adenoma. Results Of the characteristics compared across tertiles of FGF-21 concentrations, including age, race, sex, BMI, and other variables, only a previous personal history of colorectal polyps prior to entry into the UDCA trial was statistically significantly related to FGF-21 levels, with a proportion of 26.7%, 56.7%, and 50.0% across the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively (p < 0.05). Higher circulating concentrations of FGF-21 were statistically significantly associated with greater odds of developing a metachronous colorectal adenoma. After adjusting for potential confounders and when compared with the lowest tertile of FGF-21, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for metachronous colorectal adenoma in the second and third tertiles were 4.72 (95% CI, 1.42-15.72) and 3.82 (95% CI, 1.15-12.68), respectively (ptrend < 0.05). Conclusion Our results reveal for the first time that, in addition to a recently discovered association with colorectal cancer, circulating FGF-21 concentrations are significantly and directly associated with odds of developing metachronous colorectal adenoma.
    • 21 years of research for the twenty-first century: revisiting the journal of environmental policy and planning

      Ellis, Geraint; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.; Metze, Tamara; Wu, Xun; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-10)
    • Evaluation of green light exposure on headache frequency and quality of life in migraine patients: A preliminary one-way cross-over clinical trial

      Martin, Laurent F; Patwardhan, Amol M; Jain, Sejal V; Salloum, Michelle M; Freeman, Julia; Khanna, Rajesh; Gannala, Pooja; Goel, Vasudha; Jones-MacFarland, Felesia N; Killgore, William Ds; et al. (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-09-09)
      Background Pharmacological management of migraine can be ineffective for some patients. We previously demonstrated that exposure to green light resulted in antinociception and reversal of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in rodent pain models. Given the safety of green light emitting diodes, we evaluated green light as a potential therapy in patients with episodic or chronic migraine. Material and methods We recruited (29 total) patients, of whom seven had episodic migraine and 22 had chronic migraine. We used a one-way cross-over design consisting of exposure for 1-2 hours daily to white light emitting diodes for 10 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period followed by exposure for 1-2 hours daily to green light emitting diodes for 10 weeks. Patients were allowed to continue current therapies and to initiate new treatments as directed by their physicians. Outcomes consisted of patient-reported surveys. The primary outcome measure was the number of headache days per month. Secondary outcome measures included patient-reported changes in the intensity and frequency of the headaches over a two-week period and other quality of life measures including ability to fall and stay asleep, and ability to perform work. Changes in pain medications were obtained to assess potential reduction. Results When seven episodic migraine and 22 chronic migraine patients were analyzed as separate cohorts, white light emitting diodes produced no significant change in headache days in either episodic migraine or chronic migraine patients. Combining data from the episodic migraine and chronic migraine groups showed that white light emitting diodes produced a small, but statistically significant reduction in headache days from (days +/- SEM) 18.2 +/- 1.8 to 16.5 +/- 2.01 days. Green light emitting diodes resulted in a significant decrease in headache days from 7.9 +/- 1.6 to 2.4 +/- 1.1 and from 22.3 +/- 1.2 to 9.4 +/- 1.6 in episodic migraine and chronic migraine patients, respectively. While some improvement in secondary outcomes was observed with white light emitting diodes, more secondary outcomes with significantly greater magnitude including assessments of quality of life, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, Headache Impact Test-6, and Five-level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional survey without reported side effects were observed with green light emitting diodes. Conclusions regarding pain medications reduction with green light emitting diode exposure were not possible. No side effects of light therapy were reported. None of the patients in the study reported initiation of new therapies. Discussion Green light emitting diodes significantly reduced the number of headache days in people with episodic migraine or chronic migraine. Additionally, green light emitting diodes significantly improved multiple secondary outcome measures including quality of life and intensity and duration of the headache attacks. As no adverse events were reported, green light emitting diodes may provide a treatment option for those patients who prefer non-pharmacological therapies or may be considered in complementing other treatment strategies. Limitations of this study are the small number of patients evaluated. The positive data obtained support implementation of larger clinical trials to determine possible effects of green light emitting diode therapy. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov under NCT03677206.
    • Landscapes of appropriation and assimilation: the impact of immigrant-origin populations on U.S. cuisine

      Diaz, Christina J.; Ore, Peter D.; Univ Arizona, Sch Sociol (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-09)
      Although assimilation theories acknowledge that the host society adopts aspects of migrant culture, empirical work continues to focus on the assimilation trajectories of immigrants. This study represents the first effort to investigate, on a national level, whether Asians and Hispanics exert a cultural influence on local populations. We assess this possibility by using ethnic restaurants - both national chain and local establishments - as a test case. County-level data is pooled from the decennial U.S. Census, the American Community Survey, the Economic Research Service, the Voting and Elections Collection from CQ Press, and Reference U.S.A. to investigate the association of interest; Nielsen Marketing data is used to further supplement analyses. Results indicate that Asians and Hispanics may indeed influence local community expressions of culture - both in terms of restaurant availability and the extent to which those outside of the co-ethnic community engage in restaurant ownership. Moreover, we find compelling evidence that assimilation may be stronger in locations with advantaged majority populations. In combination, this manuscript offers innovative theoretical perspectives as well as preliminary evidence to suggest assimilation is indeed a multidirectional process.
    • Flood-fragility analysis of instream bridges – consideration of flow hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties, and variable scour depth

      Ahamed, Touhid; Duan, Jennifer G.; Jo, Hongki; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-08)
      Floods, bridge scour, and flood-associated loads have caused over sixty percent of bridge failures in the U.S. Current practices for the vulnerability assessment of instream bridges under the effect of such flood largely rely on qualitative methods, such as visual inspection, without considering uncertainties associated with structural behaviors and flood loads. Recently, numerical methods have been investigated to quantitatively consider such uncertainty effects by adapting fragility analysis concept that has been well established in the earthquake engineering area. However, river hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties of foundation, variable scour-depth effects, and their significance in structural fragility of bridges have rarely been systematically investigated. This study proposes a comprehensive fragility analysis framework that can effectively incorporate both flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties, in addition to commonly considered components in flood-fragility analysis of bridges. The significance of flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties has been demonstrated through a real-bridge case study. Conventional fragility curves with maximum scour depth may not represent actual vulnerability during floods, as the scour may not reach to the maximum in many cases. Therefore, fragility surface with two intensity measures, i.e. flow discharges and scour depths, is introduced for real-time vulnerability assessment during floods in this study.
    • Reportage from Blotetown: Yisroel-Yoysef Zevin (Tashrak) and the Shtetlization of New York City

      Ribak, Gil; Univ Arizona, Arizona Ctr Juda Studies (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-02)
      The neglected-but-popular Yiddish humorist Tashrak (penname of Yisroel-Yoysef Zevin) offers not just an opportunity to discover understudied aspects of the Jewish urban experience and modern Yiddish culture, but also allows us to tap into a less refined level of beliefs, behavior, judgments and attitudes of Yiddish-speaking Jews in America. Tashrak wittily conveyed to his readers a comforting image of the New World: New York City was just an enlarged shtetl, whose Jewish residents clashed over a host of issues, while encountering a number of stereotypical non-Jews. In his representation of internal Jewish divisions and disputes, relations with non-Jews, and the trials of modernity and assimilation, Tashrak followed, to some extent, the literary paths of earlier Yiddish and Hebrew writers. Yet critics often frowned upon his politics as either conservative or apolitical, and considered his literary style as lowbrow, thus they disregarded his work altogether, or referred to it as worthless.