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Association of Statewide Implementation of the Prehospital Traumatic Brain Injury Treatment Guidelines With Patient Survival Following Traumatic Brain Injury: The Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) StudyImportance Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a massive public health problem. While evidence-based guidelines directing the prehospital treatment of TBI have been promulgated, to our knowledge, no studies have assessed their association with survival. Objective To evaluate the association of implementing the nationally vetted, evidence-based, prehospital treatment guidelines with outcomes in moderate, severe, and critical TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants The Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) Study included more than 130 emergency medical services systems/agencies throughout Arizona. This was a statewide, multisystem, intention-to-treat study using a before/after controlled design with patients with moderate to critically severe TBI (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Barell Matrix-Type 1 and/or Abbreviated Injury Scale Head region severity >= 3) transported to trauma centers between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2015. Data were analyzed between October 25, 2017, and February 22, 2019. Interventions Implementation of the prehospital TBI guidelines emphasizing avoidance/treatment of hypoxia, prevention/correction of hyperventilation, and avoidance/treatment of hypotension. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary: survival to hospital discharge; secondary: survival to hospital admission. Results Of the included patients, the median age was 45 years, 14666 (67.1%) were men, 7181 (32.9%) were women; 16408 (75.1% ) were white, 1400 (6.4%) were Native American, 743 (3.4% ) were Black, 237 (1.1%) were Asian, and 2791 (12.8%) were other race/ethnicity. Of the included patients, 21852 met inclusion criteria for analysis (preimplementation phase [P1]: 15228; postimplementation [P3]: 6624). The primary analysis (P3 vs P1) revealed an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.93-1.21; P = .40) for survival to hospital discharge. The aOR was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.38-2.09; P < .001) for survival to hospital admission. Among the severe injury cohorts (but not moderate or critical), guideline implementation was significantly associated with survival to discharge (Regional Severity Score-Head 3-4: aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52-2.72; P < .001; Injury Severity Score 16-24: aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.48; P = .02). This was also true for survival to discharge among the severe, intubated subgroups (Regional Severity Score-Head 3-4: aOR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.65-5.98; P < .001; Injury Severity Score 16-24: aOR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.19-11.34; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance Statewide implementation of the prehospital TBI guidelines was not associated with significant improvement in overall survival to hospital discharge (across the entire, combined moderate to critical injury spectrum). However, adjusted survival doubled among patients with severe TBI and tripled in the severe, intubated cohort. Furthermore, guideline implementation was significantly associated with survival to hospital admission. These findings support the widespread implementation of the prehospital TBI treatment guidelines.
Nationwide Analysis of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Civilian TraumaIMPORTANCE The need for improved methods of hemorrhage control and resuscitation has resulted in a reappraisal of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). However, there is a paucity of data regarding the use of REBOA on a multi-institutional level in the United States. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the outcomes in trauma patients after REBOA placement. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control retrospective analysis was performed of the 2015-2016 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program data set, a national multi-institutional database of trauma patients in the United States. A total of 593 818 adult trauma patients (aged >= 18 years) were analyzed and 420 patients were matched and included in the study; patients who were dead on arrival or were transferred from other facilities were excluded. Trauma patients who underwent REBOA placement in the ED were identified and matched with a similar cohort of patients (the no-REBOA group). Both groups were matched in a 1: 2 ratio using propensity score matching for demographics, vital signs, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, head abbreviated injury scale score, each body region abbreviated injury scale score, pelvic fractures, lower extremity vascular injuries and fractures, and number and grades of intra-abdominal solid organ injuries. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures were the rates of complications and mortality. RESULTS Of 593 818 trauma patients, 420 patients (the REBOA group, 140 patients; 36 women and 104 men; mean [SD] age, 44  years; the no-REBOA group, 280 patients; 77 women and 203 men; mean [SD] age, 43  years) were matched and included in the analysis. Among the REBOA group, median injury severity score was 29 (interquartile range [IQR], 18-38) and 129 patients (92.1%) had a blunt mechanism of injury. There was no significant difference between groups in median 4-hour blood transfusion (REBOA: packed red blood cells, 6 U [IQR, 3-8 U]; platelets, 4 U [IQR, 3-9 U], and plasma, 3 U [IQR, 2-5 U]; and no-REBOA: packed red blood cells, 7 U [IQR, 3-9 U]; platelets, 4 U [IQR, 3-8 U], and plasma, 3 U [IQR, 2-6 U]) or 24-hour blood transfusion (REBOA: packed red blood cells, 9 U [IQR, 5-20 U]; platelets, 7 U [IQR, 3-13 U], and plasma, 9 U [IQR, 6-20 U]; and no-REBOA: packed red blood cells, 10 U [IQR, 4-21 U]; platelets, 8 U [IQR, 3-12 U], and plasma, 10 U [IQR, 7-20 U]), median hospital length of stay (REBOA, 8 days [IQR, 1-20 days]; and no-REBOA, 10 days [IQR, 5-22 days]), or median intensive care unit length of stay (REBOA, 5 days [IQR, 2-14 days]; and no-REBOA, 6 days [IQR, 3-15 days]). The mortality rate was higher in the REBOA group as compared with the no-REBOA group (50 [35.7%] vs 53 [18.9%]; P = .01). Patients who underwent REBOA placement were also more likely to develop acute kidney injury (15 [10.7%] vs 9 [3.2%]; P = .02) and more likely to undergo lower extremity amputation (5 [3.6%] vs 2 [0.7%]; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Placement of REBOA in severely injured trauma patients was associated with a higher mortality rate compared with a similar cohort of patients with no placement of REBOA. Patients in the REBOA group also had higher rates of acute kidney injury and lower leg amputations. There is a need for a concerted effort to clearly define when and in which patient population REBOA has benefit.