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GPx3 supports ovarian cancer progression by manipulating the extracellular redox environmentOvarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and is primarily diagnosed at late stage when considerable metastasis has occurred in the peritoneal cavity. At late stage abdominal cavity ascites accumulation provides a tumor-supporting medium in which cancer cells gain access to growth factors and cytokines that promote survival and metastasis. However, little is known about the redox status of ascites, or whether antioxidant enzymes are required to support ovarian cancer survival during transcoelomic metastasis in this medium. Gene expression cluster analysis of antioxidant enzymes identified two distinct populations of high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSA), the most common ovarian cancer subtype, which specifically separated into clusters based on glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) expression. High GPx3 expression was associated with poorer overall patient survival and increased tumor stage. GPx3 is an extracellular glutathione peroxidase with reported dichotomous roles in cancer. To further examine a potential pro-tumorigenic role of GPx3 in HGSA, stable OVCAR3 GPx3 knock-down cell lines were generated using lentiviral shRNA constructs. Decreased GPx3 expression inhibited clonogenicity and anchorage-independent cell survival. Moreover, GPx3 was necessary for protecting cells from exogenous oxidant insult, as demonstrated by treatment with high dose ascorbate. This cytoprotective effect was shown to be due to GPx3-dependent removal of extracellular H2O2. Importantly, GPx3 was necessary for clonogenic survival when cells were cultured in patient-derived ascites fluid. While oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of malignant ascites was heterogeneous in our patient cohort, and correlated positively with ascites iron content, GPx3 was required for optimal survival regardless of ORP or iron content. Collectively, our data suggest that HGSA ovarian cancers cluster into distinct groups of high and low GPx3 expression. GPx3 is necessary for HGSA ovarian cancer cellular survival in the ascites tumor environment and protects against extracellular sources of oxidative stress, implicating GPx3 as an important adaptation for transcoelomic metastasis.
Thiol regulation by Mn porphyrins, commonly known as SOD mimicsSuperoxide dismutases play an important role in human health and disease. Three decades of effort have gone into synthesizing SOD mimics for clinical use. The result is the Mn porphyrins which have SOD-like activity. Several clinical trials are underway to test the efficacy of these compounds in patients, particularly as radioprotectors of normal tissue during cancer treatment. However, aqueous chemistry data indicate that the Mn porphyrins react equally well with multiple redox active species in cells including H2O2, O2•-, ONOO-, thiols, and ascorbate among others. The redox potential of the Mn porphyrins is midway between the potentials for the oxidation and reduction of O2•-. This positions them to react equally well as oxidants and reductants in cells. The result of this unique chemistry is that: 1) the species the Mn porphyrins react with in vivo will depend on the relative concentrations of the reactive species and Mn porphyrins in the cell of interest, and 2) the Mn porphyrins will act as catalytic (redox cycling) agents in vivo. The ability of the Mn porphyrins to catalyze protein S-glutathionylation means that Mn porphyrins have the potential to globally modulate cellular redox regulatory signaling networks. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data that indicate the Mn porphyrins have diverse reactions in vivo that are the basis of the observed biological effects. The ability to catalyze multiple reactions in vivo expands the potential therapeutic use of the Mn porphyrins to disease models that are not SOD based.