• Going for it on Fourth Down: Rivalry Increases Risk Taking, Physiological Arousal, and Promotion Focus

      To, Christopher; Kilduff, Gavin J.; Ordoñez, Lisa; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Univ Arizona, Management & Org & Mkt (ACAD MANAGEMENT, 2018-08)
      Risk taking is fundamental to organizational decision making. Extending prior work that has identified individual and situational antecedents of risk taking, we explore a significant relational antecedent: rivalry. In both a field setting and a laboratory experiment, we explore how a competitor's identity and relationship with the decision maker influences risk taking. We analyze play-by-play archival data from the National Football League and find that interactions with rival (versus nonrival) partners increases risky behavior. In a laboratory experiment involving face-to-face competition, we demonstrate that rivalry increases risk taking via two pathways: increased promotion focus and physiological arousal. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating relational characteristics to understand risk taking. Our findings also advance our understanding of when and why competition promotes risk taking, and underscore the importance of identity and relationships in the psychology and physiology of competitive decision making in organizations.
    • A Micro-institutional Inquiry into Resistance to Environmental Pressures

      Schilke, Oliver; Univ Arizona, Sociol (ACAD MANAGEMENT, 2018-08)
      This article contributes to the emerging stream of micro-institutional research, which zooms in on the internal organizational processes that are responsible for organizations' differential responses to the external environment. Specifically, the investigation offers new knowledge of how organizational identity processes can shape whether decision-makers will resist versus give in to environmental pressures. Building on the notion that organizational identity acts as a filter through which decision-makers relate to the external environment, I develop the theoretical argument that strong organizational identification increases resistance to environmental pressures due to two mechanisms: (1) it bolsters the decision-maker's certainty and (2) it deflects the decision-maker's attention from the environment. A series of laboratory experiments not only test the mediated relationship between organizational identification and resistance to environmental pressures but also contrast different types of organizational identity. The empirical results support the hypothesized positive link between organizational identification and resistance, which becomes particularly strong when the organizational identity is normative (vs. utilitarian). The findings reported here enrich institutional theory by adding microfoundations to organizational practice adoption decisions and shedding new light on relevant enabling conditions for agency and within-field heterogeneity.
    • A Service Perspective for Human Capital Resources: A Critical Base for Strategy Implementation

      Greer, Charles R.; Lusch, Robert F.; Hitt, Michael A.; Univ Arizona, Entrepreneurship (ACAD MANAGEMENT, 2017-05)
      Although strategy formulation has received the lion's share of attention in strategic management research, strategy implementation is widely considered to provide the greatest challenges for top executives. Observers have cited the need for more research on implementation, and thought leaders have called for the use of interdisciplinary approaches. Thus, we explore strategy implementation from the perspective of relational capital and human capital resources (in which relationships are especially important) and the development, bundling, and deployment of these resources to create strategic capabilities. Our discussion of implementation is unique in that we explain how it can be improved when guided by service-dominant logic (SDL) from the marketing field. We show how the emphasis of SDL on the exchange of service (rather than transactional interactions) and the manifestations of a service perspective such as enduring relationships, collaboration, co-creation, open dialogue, trust, and status minimization can facilitate the bundling and deployment of human capital resources for effective strategy implementation. We explain how SDL can facilitate implementation in the context of interdependencies, business ecosystems, and interactions across organizational boundaries. We provide both propositions and suggestions for future research.
    • The Social Consequences of Voice: An Examination of Voice Type and Gender on Status and Subsequent Leader Emergence

      McClean, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Sean R.; Emich, Kyle J.; Woodruff, Col. Todd; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, Management & Org (ACAD MANAGEMENT, 2018-10)
      This paper explores the impact of two types of voice and gender on peer-rated social status and subsequent leader emergence. Across two studies-a three-wave field study and an experiment-we find that speaking up promotively, but not prohibitively, is positively and indirectly related to leader emergence via status, and that this relationship is conditional on the gender of the speaker. Specifically, men who spoke up promotively benefited the most in terms of status and leader emergence, not only compared to men who spoke up prohibitively, but also compared to women who spoke up promotively. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of voice by articulating how it impacts one's place in his or her group's social structure, and ultimately whether he or she is seen as a leader. We also add to our understanding of leader emergence by suggesting that talking a lot or participating at a high level in a group may not be enough to emerge as a leader-it also depends how you do it and who you are.