• Aligning the AACP Strategic Engagement Agenda with Key Federal Priorities in Health: Report of the 2016-17 Argus Commission

      Crabtree, Brian; Bootman, J. Lyle; Boyle, Cynthia J.; Chase, Patricia; Piascik, Peggy; Maine, Lucinda L.; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm; Chair, Wayne State University Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences; University of Arizona College of Pharmacy; University of Maryland Eastern Shore School of Pharmacy; et al. (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2017-10)
      The Argus Commission identified three major federal priorities related to health care, including the precision medicine initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the opioid abuse epidemic. Current activities at the federal level were summarized and an analysis of activities within the profession, and academic pharmacy specifically, was prepared. The implications for pharmacy education, research and practice are compelling in all three areas. Recommendations, suggestions and two policy statements aim to optimize the attention to these priorities by the academy. Further, aligning the AACP Strategic Engagement agenda with the opportunities and threats acknowledged in the analysis is essential.
    • An Analysis of Quality Improvement Education at US Colleges of Pharmacy.

      Cooley, Janet; Stolpe, Samuel F; Montoya, Amber; Walsh, Angela; Hincapie, Ana L; Arya, Vibhuti; Nelson, Melissa L; Warholak, Terri; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2017-04)
      Objective. Analyze quality improvement (QI) education across US pharmacy programs. Methods. This was a two stage cross-sectional study that inspected each accredited school website for published QI curriculum or related content, and e-mailed a questionnaire to each school asking about QI curriculum or content. T-test and chi square were used for analysis with an alpha a priori set at .05. Results. Sixty responses (47% response rate) revealed the least-covered QI topics: quality dashboards /sentinel systems (30%); six-sigma or other QI methodologies (45%); safety and quality measures (57%); Medicare Star measures and payment incentives (58%); and how to implement changes to improve quality (60%). More private institutions covered Adverse Drug Events than public institutions and required a dedicated QI class; however, required QI projects were more often reported by public institutions. Conclusion. Despite the need for pharmacists to understand QI, it is not covered well in school curricula.
    • Dietary Supplement Use, Knowledge, and Perceptions Among Student Pharmacists

      Axon, David R.; Vanova, Janka; Edel, Courtney; Slack, Marion; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2017)
      Objective. To compare dietary supplement use between student pharmacists and the general population, and assess knowledge, attitudes toward use, and dietary supplement effectiveness; and to explore how student pharmacists view their education on dietary supplements. Methods. Paper questionnaires administered to student pharmacists collected data about their use, knowledge, and attitudes of dietary supplements. Use was compared to the 2007 National Health Interview survey findings. Results. Of 179 students who responded, 52% had used at least one dietary supplement in their lifetime versus 25% in the general population. Students perceived supplement label information as unhelpful, research into supplements inadequate, and supplements non-essential to health. Students thought supplement knowledge was important but their education was inadequate. Conclusion. Dietary supplement use was higher in this sample of student pharmacists than the general population. Student pharmacists had limited knowledge and need more education on dietary supplements.
    • Establishing the Validity and Reliability Evidence of Preceptor Assessment of Student Tool

      Zhou, Lili; Almutairi, Abdulaali R.; Alsaid, Nimer S.; Warholak, Terri L.; Cooley, Janet; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm; University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona; University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona; University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona; University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona; et al. (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2017-10)
      Objective. To evaluate the validity and reliability evidence of the preceptor assessment of student tool (PAST) which was designed to assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student rotation performance. Methods. Evaluation data were loaded into WINSTEPS software to conduct a Rasch rating scale analysis. Validity evidence was examined from construct and content validity perspectives, and reliability was assessed via student and item separation index and reliability coefficient. Data from 435 observations were included in the analysis. Results. All 19 items measured the same construct of interest and the five-point rating scale functioned appropriately and differentiated students' ability. However, the item/person map indicated an absence of items at the end of the measurement continuum. Conclusion. Although adding items at the end of the measurement continuum may be beneficial, PAST showed good validity and reliability evidence when used to evaluate PharmD student rotations and is suitable to assess mastery learning.
    • Health Informatics Competencies for Pharmacists in Training

      Martin, Linda Gore; Warholak, Terri L; Hincapie, Ana L; Gallo, Tyler; Kjos, Andrea L; Task Force On Informatics, Aacp Joint; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2019-03-01)
      Objective. To gather feedback from focus groups regarding health informatics competencies that should be taught in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula and to revise the competencies based on this feedback. Methods. The pharmacy informatics task force of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) used 11 sources to create a list of pharmacy informatics competencies. Subsequently, faculty feedback about the competency list was obtained via two synchronous online focus groups in August 2015. The list was then revised based on the feedback. Results. Eight people (a department chair, six faculty members and a graduate student) participated in the focus groups (six were from private and two were from public institutions). Participants felt the list had too many competencies to be covered in a timely manner and some indicated that basic computer and Internet competencies should be considered pre-requisites. Participants also recommended that competencies be split by proposed curricular placement (eg, prerequisite, required, elective, didactic, experiential) for each objective. The competency list was revised in response to focus group feedback. Conclusion. The proposed curriculum aligns with the new Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) standards requiring that professional pharmacy curricula cover multiple aspects of health informatics. The proposed competencies list can serve as a reference to assist in the development of the curriculum and ensure compliance with the new standards.
    • Implementation of an Interprofessional Medication Therapy Management Experience

      Schussel, Katherine E; Forbes, Stephanie; Taylor, Ann M; Cooley, Janet H; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Ctr Hlth Outcomes & Pharmacoecon Res; Univ Arizona, Medicat Management Ctr (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2019)
      Objective. To measure the impact of an interprofessional experience (IPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) on students' attitudes and skills regarding interprofessional collaboration (IPC). Methods. This interprofessional MTM experience spanned three weeks, with health science students (medicine, nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy) meeting once weekly. The IPE facilitated interprofessional student collaboration via small-group sessions to conduct MTM consultations for patients with complex chronic conditions. Student learning and attitudinal changes were evaluated by comparing pre- and post-IPE survey responses and a qualitative summary of the students' clinical recommendations. Efficacy of student groups was measured via patient satisfaction surveys and was reported by frequency of response. Results. Twenty-seven students participated in the program and 22 completed both pre- and post-IPE surveys (81% response rate). The survey included open-ended and Likert-type items assessing students' attitudes and skills regarding the IPE as well as their reactions to the experience. Significant changes were observed for two attitudinal items regarding interprofessional teams: maintaining enthusiasm/interest and responsiveness to patients' emotional and financial needs. Patient-reported satisfaction and students' complex clinical recommendations provided further evidence of student learning. Conclusion. This novel IPE in MTM promoted interprofessional collaboration and education in this unique patient care area. Students' attitudes toward and skills in interprofessional collaboration improved, and the patients who received care reported positive experiences. Many health professions programs face challenges in meeting IPE requirements. The results of our study may provide the impetus for other institutions to develop similar programs to meet this urgent need.
    • Pharmacy Competencies for Interprofessional Integrative Health Care Education.

      Lee, Jeannie K; Hume, Anne L; Willis, Robert; Boon, Heather; Lebensohn, Patricia; Brooks, Audrey; Kligler, Ben; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2018-08-01)
      Objective. To address the gap in evidence-based knowledge among pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists regarding complementary and integrative health approaches due to insufficient education and a lack of standardized training. Methods. The National Center for Integrative Primary Healthcare (NCIPH) developed 22 pharmacy competencies linked to a set of 10 interprofessional "metacompetencies" in integrative health care. Results. The NCIPH pharmacy competencies are well-aligned with the current educational standards and Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes for pharmacy programs. Therefore, the NCIPH competencies may provide a foundation for the incorporation of interprofessional integrative health care education into pharmacy curricula. Conclusion. The NCIPH pharmacy competencies in integrative health care, linked to the interprofessional "metacompetencies," are aligned with educational standards and outcomes, and may serve as a basis for pharmacy curriculum.
    • Quality Improvement and Safety in US Pharmacy Schools

      McManus, Katherine; Metrejean, Christina; Schweitzer, Kali; Cooley, Janet; Warholak, Terri; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (AMER ASSOC COLL PHARMACY, 2019-11-01)
      Objective. To catalog the methods in which quality improvement (QI) and safety are taught in schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States and showcase exemplar QI programs. Methods. This descriptive, multi-phase study included an online questionnaire, syllabi review, and phone interviews. The study was approved by the University of Arizona Institutional Review Board (IRB). One representative from each US pharmacy school accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) was invited to participate. Participants indicated the type of QI education their school provided via online questionnaire. Following questionnaire completion, syllabi were requested from the schools and phone interviews were scheduled with a school representative to obtain additional information. From the data, exemplars were chosen using a predetermined, evidenced-based rubric. Results. Of the 136 schools contacted, 56 (41.2%) completed the survey. Of the responding schools reporting their QI and safety offerings, 41 (73.2%) had a required session/module; 24 (42.9%) had a required course; 21 (37.5%) had an elective course; 21 (37.5%) had an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE), advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), or internship; 17 (30.4%) had a required project; 17 (30.4%) had interprofessional education integrated into their course; 15 (26.8%) had an error laboratory; and 11 (19.6%) offered postgraduate training. Conclusion. Many of the responding US schools of pharmacy expose students to some aspect of QI and/or safety, most often via class session or module. The exemplar programs serve as examples of how QI can be further integrated into pharmacy curricula.