• 53-43 Ma Deformation of Eastern Tibet Revealed by Three Stages of Tectonic Rotation in the Gongjue Basin

      Zhang, Yang; Huang, Wentao; Huang, Baochun; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Yang, Tao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guo, Zhaojie; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-05)
      The Gongjue basin from the eastern Qiangtang terrane is located in the transition region where the regional structural lineation curves from east-west-oriented in Tibet to north-south-oriented in Yunnan. In this study, we sampled the red beds in the basin from the lower Gongjue to upper Ranmugou formations for the first time covering the entire stratigraphic profile. The stratigraphic ages are bracketed within 53-43Ma by new detrital zircon U-Pb ages constraining the maximum deposition age to 52.51.5Ma. Rock magnetic and petrographic studies indicate that detrital magnetite and hematite are the magnetic carriers. Positive reversals and fold tests demonstrate that the characteristic remanent magnetization has a primary origin. The Gongjue and Ranmugou formations yield mean characteristic remanent magnetization directions of D-s/I-s=31.0 degrees/21.3 degrees and D-s/I-s=15.9 degrees/22.0 degrees, respectively. The magnetic inclination of these characteristic remanent magnetizations is significantly shallowed compared to the expected inclination for the locality. However, the elongation/inclination correction method does not provide a meaningful correction, likely because of syn-depositional rotation. Rotations relative to the Eurasian apparent polar wander path occurred in three stages: Stage I, 33.33.4 degrees clockwise rotation during the deposition of the Gongjue and lower Ranmugou formations; Stage II, 26.93.7 degrees counterclockwise rotation during deposition of the lower and middle Ranmugou formation; and Stage III, 17.73.3 degrees clockwise rotation after 43Ma. The complex rotation history recorded in the basin is possibly linked to sinistral shear along the Qiangtang block during India indentation into Asia and the early stage of the extrusion of the northwestern Indochina blocks away from eastern Tibet.
    • A New Crater Near InSight: Implications for Seismic Impact Detectability on Mars

      Daubar, I. J.; Lognonne, P.; Teanby, N. A.; Collins, G. S.; Clinton, J.; Staehler, S.; Spiga, A.; Karakostas, F.; Ceylan, S.; Malin, M.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-08)
      A new 1.5 m diameter impact crater was discovered on Mars only similar to 40 km from the InSight lander. Context camera images constrained its formation between 21 February and 6 April 2019; follow-up High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images resolved the crater. During this time period, three seismic events were identified in InSight data. We derive expected seismic signal characteristics and use them to evaluate each of the seismic events. However, none of them can definitively be associated with this source. Atmospheric perturbations are generally expected to be generated during impacts; however, in this case, no signal could be identified as related to the known impact. Using scaling relationships based on the terrestrial and lunar analogs and numerical modeling, we predict the amplitude, peak frequency, and duration of the seismic signal that would have emanated from this impact. The predicted amplitude falls near the lowest levels of the measured seismometer noise for the predicted frequency. Hence, it is not surprising this impact event was not positively identified in the seismic data. Finding this crater was a lucky event as its formation this close to InSight has a probability of only similar to 0.2, and the odds of capturing it in before and after images are extremely low. We revisit impact-seismic discriminators in light of real experience with a seismometer on the Martian surface. Using measured noise of the instrument, we revise our previous prediction of seismic impact detections downward, from similar to a few to tens, to just similar to 2 per Earth year, still with an order of magnitude uncertainty.
    • A Very Young Age for True Polar Wander on Europa From Related Fracturing

      Schenk, Paul; Matsuyama, Isamu; Nimmo, Francis; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-09)
      En echelon fissures 100-300 km long on Europa are found to be concentric and external to arcuate troughs previously attributed to true polar wander (TPW) of Europa's ice shell, strengthening the case for TPW. Fissures are composed of parallel faults distributed over 10-to-20-km-wide zones, with deformation focused in a main fissure 1-2 km wide and up to 200 m deep. Fissures crosscut all known terrains, including (apparently) ejecta of bright ray crater Manannan, establishing that fissures and by inference TPW are among the most recent geologic events on Europa. Very late similar to 70 degrees of TPW shell rotation requires that most observed structures on Europa are not in their original configuration with respect to other stress regimes, requiring complete reanalysis of Europa's strain history. If reorientation happened recently, we predict that any crater distribution asymmetries and shell thickness variations measured by Europa Clipper will be offset from expected equilibrium patterns. Plain Language Summary The large icy ocean world of Europa has a very young surface that has been highly deformed. Recent evidence for "polar wander," or reorientation of the floating outer ice shell away from its original orientation, has been confirmed by the recognition that long fissures are part of the polar wander tectonic pattern and arc among the youngest features on the planet. This means that polar wander occurred very recently and that older features are no longer in their original locations and will require a complete reassessment of Europa's tectonic history.
    • Accelerated Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss Under High Greenhouse Gas Forcing as Simulated by the Coupled CESM2.1‐CISM2.1

      Muntjewerf, Laura; Sellevold, Raymond; Vizcaino, Miren; Ernani da Silva, Carolina; Petrini, Michele; Thayer‐Calder, Katherine; Scherrenberg, Meike D. W.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Katsman, Caroline A.; Fyke, Jeremy; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-08-16)
      The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is now losing mass at a rate of 0.7 mm of sea level rise (SLR) per year. Here we explore future GrIS evolution and interactions with global and regional climate under high greenhouse gas forcing with the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1), which includes an interactive ice sheet component (the Community Ice Sheet Model v2.1 [CISM2.1]) and an advanced energy balance-based calculation of surface melt. We run an idealized 350-year scenario in which atmospheric CO2 concentration increases by 1% annually until reaching four times pre-industrial values at year 140, after which it is held fixed. The global mean temperature increases by 5.2 and 8.5 K by years 131-150 and 331-350, respectively. The projected GrIS contribution to global mean SLR is 107 mm by year 150 and 1,140 mm by year 350. The rate of SLR increases from 2 mm yr(-1) at year 150 to almost 7 mm yr(-1) by year 350. The accelerated mass loss is caused by rapidly increasing surface melt as the ablation area expands, with associated albedo feedback and increased sensible and latent heat fluxes. This acceleration occurs for a global warming of approximately 4.2 K with respect to pre-industrial and is in part explained by the quasi-parabolic shape of the ice sheet, which favors rapid expansion of the ablation area as it approaches the interior "plateau."
    • Adding stable carbon isotopes improves model representation of the role of microbial communities in peatland methane cycling

      Deng, Jia; McCalley, Carmody K; Frolking, Steve; Chanton, Jeff; Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth; Tyson, Gene; Rich, Virginia; Hines, Mark; Saleska, Scott R.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-06)
      Climate change is expected to have significant and uncertain impacts on methane (CH4) emissions from northern peatlands. Biogeochemical models can extrapolate site-specificCH(4) measurements to larger scales and predict responses of CH4 emissions to environmental changes. However, these models include considerable uncertainties and limitations in representing CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes. To improve predictions of CH4 transformations, we incorporated acetate and stable carbon (C) isotopic dynamics associated with CH4 cycling into a biogeochemistry model, DNDC. By including these new features, DNDC explicitly simulates acetate dynamics and the relative contribution of acetotrophic and hydro-genotrophic methanogenesis (AM and HM) to CH4 production, and predicts the C isotopic signature (delta C-13) in soil C pools and emitted gases. When tested against biogeochemical and microbial community observations at two sites in a zone of thawing permafrost in a subarctic peatland in Sweden, the new formulation substantially improved agreement with CH4 production pathways and delta C-13 in emitted CH4 (delta C-13-CH4), a measure of the integrated effects of microbial production and consumption, and of physical transport. We also investigated the sensitivity of simulated delta C-13-CH4 to C isotopic composition of substrates and, to fractionation factors for CH4 production (alpha(AM) and alpha(HM)), CH4 oxidation (alpha(MO)), and plant-mediated CH4 transport (alpha(TP)). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the delta C-13-CH4 is highly sensitive to the factors associated with microbial metabolism (alpha(AM), alpha(HM), and alpha(MO)). The model framework simulating stable C isotopic dynamics provides a robust basis for better constraining and testing microbial mechanisms in predicting CH4 cycling in peatlands.
    • Age-Related Climate Response of Tree-Ring delta C-13 and delta O-18 From Spruce in Northwestern China, With Implications for Relative Humidity Reconstructions

      Xu, Guobao; Wu, Guoju; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Tuo; Wang, Bo; Hudson, Amy; Trouet, Valerie; Univ Arizona, Lab Tree Ring Res (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-07)
      Understanding varying climate responses in tree-ring data across tree ages is important, but little is known about tree-age effects on climate responses in tree-ring stable isotopes. To detect whether age differences in tree-ring delta C-13 and delta O-18 could lead to differing climate responses, we measured tree-ring cellulose delta C-13 and delta O-18 (1901-2010) from Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) trees in northwestern China with ages ranging from 110 to 470 years, which we binned into three age groups. Tree-ring delta C-13 (pin-corrected) and delta O-18 exhibited similar year-to-year variability between age groups and did not feature age-related trends. delta C-13 series from old trees (270-470 years) showed stronger legacy effects, reflecting influences from the antecedent period (due to carbohydrate reserves and climate), compared to young trees (110-125 years). Both tree-ring delta C-13 and delta O-18 values decreased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and precipitation and with decreasing mean and maximum temperatures during the main growing season (May-August). delta C-13 and delta O-18 exhibited age-dependent climate responses: Young trees had a stronger climate response in delta C-13 but a weaker or similar climate response in delta O-18 compared to old trees. We developed multiple growing-season RH reconstructions based on composite chronologies using delta C-13 and delta O-18 series from different age groups. In particular, we found that including delta C-13 from young trees improved the skill of RH reconstructions because of the age-specific mechanisms driving the delta C-13-climate relationship, but that caution is warranted with regard to extreme values. We therefore suggest that young trees should be considered when using stable isotopes, particularly in delta C-13, for climate reconstruction.
    • Agreement of CMIP5 Simulated and Observed Ocean Anthropogenic CO2 Uptake

      Bronselaer, Benjamin; Winton, Michael; Russell, Joellen; Sabine, Christopher L.; Khatiwala, Samar; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci; Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory; Princeton NJ USA; Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory; Princeton NJ USA; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson AZ USA; NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Seattle WA USA; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-12-28)
      Previous studies found large biases between individual observational and model estimates of historical ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake. We show that the largest bias between the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble mean and between two observational estimates of ocean anthropogenic carbon is due to a difference in start date. After adjusting the CMIP5 and observational estimates to the 1791-1995 period, all three carbon uptake estimates agree to within 3Pg of C, about 4% of the total. The CMIP5 ensemble mean spatial bias compared to the observations is generally smaller than the observational error, apart from a negative bias in the Southern Ocean and a positive bias in the Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans compensating each other in the global mean. This dipole pattern is likely due to an equatorward and weak bias in the position of Southern Hemisphere westerlies and lack of mode and intermediate water ventilation.
    • The Alichur Dome, South Pamir, Western India–Asia Collisional Zone: Detailing the Neogene Shakhdara–Alichur Syn‐collisional Gneiss‐Dome Complex and Connection to Lithospheric Processes

      Worthington, James R.; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Stübner, Konstanze; Khan, Jahanzeb; Malz, Nicole; Schneider, Susanne; Kapp, Paul; Chapman, James B.; Stevens Goddard, Andrea; Brooks, Hanna L.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-01-15)
      Neogene, syn-collisional extensional exhumation of Asian lower-middle crust produced the Shakhdara-Alichur gneiss-dome complex in the South Pamir. The <1 km-thick, mylonitic-brittle, top-NNE, normal-sense Alichur shear zone (ASZ) bounds the 125 x 25 km Alichur dome to the north. The Shakhdara dome is bounded by the <4 km-thick, mylonitic-brittle, top-SSE South Pamir normal-sense shear zone (SPSZ) to the south, and the dextral Gunt wrench zone to its north. The Alichur dome comprises Cretaceous granitoids/gneisses cut by early Miocene leucogranites; its hanging wall contains non/weakly metamorphosed rocks. The 22-17 Ma Alichur-dome-injection-complex leucogranites transition from foliation-parallel, centimeter- to meter-thick sheets within the ASZ into discordant intrusions that may comprise half the volume of the dome core. Secondary fluid inclusions in mylonites and mylonitization-temperature constraints suggest Alichur-dome exhumation from 10-15 km depth. Thermochronologic dates bracket footwall cooling between 410-130 degrees C from 16-4 Ma; tectonic cooling/exhumation rates (42 degrees C/Myr, 1.1 km/Myr) contrast with erosion-dominated rates in the hanging wall (2 degrees C/Myr, <0.1 km/Myr). Dome-scale boudinage, oblique divergence of the ASZ and SPSZ hanging walls, and dextral wrenching reflect minor approximately E-W material flow out of the orogen. We attribute broadly southward younging extensional exhumation across the central South Pamir between 20-4 Ma to: (i) Mostly northward, foreland-directed flow of hot crust into a cold foreland during the growth of the Pamir orocline; and (ii) Contrasting effects of basal shear related to underthrusting Indian lithosphere, enhancing extension in the underthrust South Pamir and inhibiting extension in the non-underthrust Central Pamir.
    • Along-strike continuity of structure, stratigraphy, and kinematic history in the Himalayan thrust belt: The view from Northeastern India

      DeCelles, P. G.; Carrapa, B.; Gehrels, G. E.; Chakraborty, T.; Ghosh, P.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Geological Studies Unit; Indian Statistical Institute; Kolkata India; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2016-12)
      The Himalaya consists of thrust sheets tectonically shingled together since similar to 58 Ma as India collided with and slid beneath Asia. Major Himalayan structures, including the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), Main Central Thrust (MCT), Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), persist along strike from northwestern India to Arunachal Pradesh near the eastern end of the orogenic belt. Previous work suggests significant basement involvement and a kinematic history unique to the Arunachal Himalaya. We present new geologic and geochronologic data to support a regional structural cross section and kinematic restoration of the Arunachal Himalaya. Large Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss bodies (Bomdila Gneiss) previously interpreted as Indian basement have ages of similar to 1774-1810 Ma, approximately 50 Ma younger than Lesser Himalayan strata into which their granitic protoliths intruded. Bomdila Gneiss is therefore part of the Lesser Himalayan cover sequence, and no evidence exists for basement involvement in the Arunachal Himalaya. Minimum shortening in rocks structurally beneath the STD is similar to 421 km. The MCT was active during the early Miocene; STD extension overlapped MCT shortening and continued until approximately 15-12 Ma; and growth of the LHD began similar to 11 Ma, followed by slip along the MBT (post-7.5 Ma) and MFT (post-1 Ma) systems. Earlier thrusting events involved long-distance transport of strong, low-taper thrust sheets, whereas events after 12-10 Ma stacked smaller, weaker thrust sheets into a steeply tapered orogenic wedge dominated by duplexing. A coeval kinematic transition is observed in other Himalayan regions, suggesting that orogenic wedge behavior was controlled by rock strength and erodibility.
    • Ambient observations of hygroscopic growth factor and f (RH) below 1: Case studies from surface and airborne measurements

      Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin; Ortega, Amber; Crosbie, E.; Wonaschütz, Anna; Perring, Anne E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ziemba, L. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2016-11-27)
      This study reports a detailed set of ambient observations of optical/physical shrinking of particles from exposure to water vapor with consistency across different instruments and regions. Data have been utilized from (i) a shipboard humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer during the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment in 2011, (ii) multiple instruments on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys in 2013, and (iii) the Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe during ambient measurements in Tucson, Arizona, during summer 2014 and winter 2015. Hygroscopic growth factor (ratio of humidified-to-dry diameter, GF = D-p,D-wet/D-p,D-dry) and f(RH) (ratio of humidified-to-dry scattering coefficients) values below 1 were observed across the range of relative humidity (RH) investigated (75-95%). A commonality of observations of GF and f(RH) below 1 in these experiments was the presence of particles enriched with carbonaceous matter, especially from biomass burning. Evidence of externally mixed aerosol, and thus multiple GFs with at least one GF < 1, was observed concurrently with f(RH) < 1 during smoke periods. Possible mechanisms responsible for observed shrinkage are discussed and include particle restructuring, volatilization effects, and refractive index modifications due to aqueous processing resulting in optical size modification. To further investigate ambient observations of GFs and f(RH) values less than 1, it is recommended to add an optional prehumidification bypass module to hygroscopicity instruments, to preemptively collapse particles prior to controlled RH measurements.
    • An Efficient Ice Sheet/Earth System Model Spin-up Procedure for CESM2-CISM2: Description, Evaluation, and Broader Applicability

      Lofverstrom, Marcus; Fyke, Jeremy G.; Thayer-Calder, Katherine; Muntjewerf, Laura; Vizcaino, Miren; Sacks, William J.; Lipscomb, William H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-08)
      Spinning up a highly complex, coupled Earth system model (ESM) is a time consuming and computationally demanding exercise. For models with interactive ice sheet components, this becomes a major challenge, as ice sheets are sensitive to bidirectional feedback processes and equilibrate over glacial timescales of up to many millennia. This work describes and demonstrates a computationally tractable, iterative procedure for spinning up a contemporary, highly complex ESM that includes an interactive ice sheet component. The procedure alternates between a computationally expensive coupled configuration and a computationally cheaper configuration where the atmospheric component is replaced by a data model. By periodically regenerating atmospheric forcing consistent with the coupled system, the data atmosphere remains adequately constrained to ensure that the broader model state evolves realistically. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by spinning up the preindustrial climate in the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2), coupled to the Community Ice Sheet Model Version 2 (CISM2) over Greenland. The equilibrium climate state is similar to the control climate from a coupled simulation with a prescribed Greenland ice sheet, indicating that the iterative procedure is consistent with a traditional spin-up approach without interactive ice sheets. These results suggest that the iterative method presented here provides a faster and computationally cheaper method for spinning up a highly complex ESM, with or without interactive ice sheet components. The method described here has been used to develop the climate/ice sheet initial conditions for transient, ice sheet-enabled simulations with CESM2-CISM2 in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6).
    • Analysis of aerosol composition data for western United States wildfires between 2005 and 2015: Dust emissions, chloride depletion, and most enhanced aerosol constituents

      Schlosser, Joseph S.; Braun, Rachel A.; Bradley, Trevor; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B.; Aldhaif, Abdulmonam A.; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Mardi, Ali Hossein; Xian, Peng; Sorooshian, Armin; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-08-27)
      This study examines major wildfires in the western United States between 2005 and 2015 to determine which species exhibit the highest percent change in mass concentration on day of peak fire influence relative to preceding nonfire days. Forty-one fires were examined using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) data set. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) constituents exhibited the highest percent change increase. The sharpest enhancements were for the volatile (OC1) and semivolatile (OC2) OC fractions, suggestive of secondary organic aerosol formation during plume transport. Of the noncarbonaceous constituents, Cl, P, K, NO3-, and Zn levels exhibited the highest percent change. Dust was significantly enhanced in wildfire plumes, based on significant enhancements in fine soil components (i.e., Si, Ca, Al, Fe, and Ti) and PMcoarse (i.e., PM10-PM2.5). A case study emphasized how transport of wildfire plumes significantly impacted downwind states, with higher levels of fine soil and PMcoarse at the downwind state (Arizona) as compared to the source of the fires (California). A global model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS) did not capture the dust influence over California or Arizona during this case event because it is not designed to resolve dust dynamics in fires, which motivates improved treatment of such processes. Significant chloride depletion was observed on the peak EC day for almost a half of the fires examined. Size-resolved measurements during two specific fires at a coastal California site revealed significant chloride reductions for particle aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 10 mu m.
    • Analysis of remotely sensed and surface data of aerosols and meteorology for the Mexico Megalopolis Area between 2003 and 2015

      Mora, Marco; Braun, Rachel A.; Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton Virginia USA; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-08-27)
      This paper presents an aerosol characterization study from 2003 to 2015 for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using remotely sensed aerosol data, ground-based measurements, air mass trajectory modeling, aerosol chemical composition modeling, and reanalysis data for the broader Megalopolis of Central Mexico region. The most extensive biomass burning emissions occur between March and May concurrent with the highest aerosol optical depth, ultraviolet aerosol index, and surface particulate matter (PM) mass concentration values. A notable enhancement in coarse PM levels is observed during vehicular rush hour periods on weekdays versus weekends owing to nonengine-related emissions such as resuspended dust. Among wet deposition species measured, PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse (PM10-PM2.5) were best correlated with NH4+, SO42-, and Ca2+, suggesting that the latter three constituents are important components of the aerosol seeding raindrops that eventually deposit to the surface in the study region. Reductions in surface PM mass concentrations were observed in 2014-2015 owing to reduced regional biomass burning as compared to 2003-2013.
    • The anatomy of a wrinkle ridge revealed in the wall of Melas Chasma, Mars

      Cole, Hank M.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab; Department of Geophysics; Colorado School of Mines; Golden Colorado USA; Division of Space Sciences; Southwest Research Institute; Boulder Colorado USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-05)
      Wrinkle ridges are among the most common tectonic structures on the terrestrial planets and provide important records of the history of planetary strain and geodynamics. The observed broad arches and superposed narrow wrinkles are thought to be the surface manifestation of blind thrust faults, which terminate in near-surface volcanic sequences and cause folding and layer-parallel shear. However, the subsurface tectonic architecture associated with the ridges remains a matter of debate. Here we present direct observations of a wrinkle ridge thrust fault where it has been exposed by erosion in the southern wall of Melas Chasma on Mars. The thrust fault has been made resistant to erosion, likely due to volcanic intrusion, such that later erosional widening of the trough exposed the fault plane as a 70km long ridge extending into the chasma. A plane fit to this ridge crest reveals a thrust fault with a dip of 13 degrees (+8 degrees, -7 degrees) between 1 and 3.5km depth below the plateau surface, with no evidence for listric character in this depth range. This dip is significantly lower than the commonly assumed value of 30 degrees, which, if representative of other wrinkle ridges, indicates that global contraction on Mars may have been previously underestimated.
    • Ancient Martian Aeolian Sand Dune Deposits Recorded in the Stratigraphy of Valles Marineris and Implications for Past Climates

      Chojnacki, Matthew; Fenton, Lori K.; Weintraub, Aaron Robert; Edgar, Lauren A.; Jodhpurkar, Mohini J.; Edwards, Christopher S.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-08-07)
      Aeolian sediment transport, deposition, and erosion have been ongoing throughout Mars's history. This record of widespread aeolian processes is preserved in landforms and geologic units that retain important clues about past environmental conditions including wind patterns. In this study we describe landforms within Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris, that occur in distinct groups with linear to crescentic shapes, arranged with a characteristic wavelength; some possess slope profiles analogous to modern sand dunes yet show evidence for lithification. Based on the features' dimensions, asymmetry, and spatial patterns relative to modern equivalents, we interpret these landforms to be two classes of aeolian bedforms: decameter-scale megaripples and sand dunes. The presence of superposed erosional features and depositional units indicates that these landforms were cemented and likely ancient. Melas paleodunes are found atop Hesperian-aged layered deposits, but we estimate them to be younger, likely lithified in the Amazonian period. Although a range of degradation was observed, some paleodunes are >10 m tall and maintain steep lee sides (>25 degrees), an uncommon scenario for terrestrial examples as other geologic processes lead to dune obliteration. The preserved paleobedform geometries are largely consistent with those of modern aeolian indicators, suggesting no major shifts in wind regime or contributing boundary conditions. Finally, we propose that their appearance and context require sequential periods of dune migration, stabilization following catastrophic burial, cementation, differential erosion, exposure, and burial. The presence of wholly preserved duneforms appears to be more common on Mars compared to the Earth and may signal something important about Martian landscape evolution.
    • Andean Mountain Building and Foreland Basin Evolution During Thin‐ and Thick‐Skinned Neogene Deformation (32–33°S)

      Mackaman‐Lofland, Chelsea; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Constenius, Kurt N.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Capaldi, Tomas N.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Ammirati, Jean‐Baptiste; Alvarado, Patricia; Orozco, Paola; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-02-27)
      The southern Central Andes recorded retroarc shortening, basin evolution, and magmatic arc migration during Neogene changes in subduction. At 31-33 degrees S, above the modern flat-slab segment, spatial and temporal linkages between thin- and thick-skinned foreland shortening, basement-involved exhumation of the main Cordillera, and lower-crustal hinterland thickening remain poorly resolved. We integrate new geochronological and thermochronological data for thrust sheets and Neogene foreland basin fill with structural, sedimentological, and passive seismic results to reconstruct the exhumation history and evaluate potential geometric linkages across structural domains. Ar-40/Ar-39 ages for volcanic horizons and zircon U-Pb ages for synorogenic clastic deposits in the Manantiales Basin constrain the minimum duration of synorogenic sedimentation to 22-14 Ma. Detrital zircon age distributions record sequential unroofing of hinterland thrust sheets until 15 Ma, followed by eastward (cratonward) advance of the deformation front, shutoff of western sediment sources, and a shift from fluvial to alluvial fan deposition at 14 Ma. Apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages confirm rapid exhumation of basement-involved structural blocks and basin partitioning by 14-5 Ma, consistent with the timing of the Manantiales facies and provenance shifts and a coeval (12-9 Ma) pulse of thin-skinned shortening and exhumation previously identified in the eastern foreland. Late Miocene-Pliocene (8-2 Ma) cooling ages along the Chile-Argentina border point to hinterland uplift during the latest stage of Andean orogenesis. Finally, geophysical constraints on crustal architecture and low-temperature thermochronometry results are compatible with a hybrid thin- and thick-skinned decollement spanning retroarc domains.
    • Anthropogenic Aerosols Cause Recent Pronounced Weakening of Asian Summer Monsoon Relative to Last Four Centuries

      Liu, Yu; Cai, Wenju; Sun, Changfeng; Song, Huiming; Cobb, Kim M.; Li, Jianping; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wu, Lixin; Cai, Qiufang; Liu, Ruoshi; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019-05-28)
      The Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) affects ecosystems, biodiversity, and food security of billions of people. In recent decades, ASM strength (as represented by precipitation) has been decreasing, but instrumental measurements span only a short period of time. The initiation and the dynamics of the recent trend are unclear. Here for the first time, we use an ensemble of 10 tree ring-width chronologies from the west-central margin of ASM to reconstruct detail of ASM variability back to 1566 CE. The reconstruction captures weak/strong ASM events and also reflects major locust plagues. Notably, we found an unprecedented 80-year trend of decreasing ASM strength within the context of the 448-year reconstruction, which is contrary to what is expected from greenhouse warming. Our coupled climate model shows that increasing anthropogenic sulfate aerosol emissions over the Northern Hemisphere could be the dominant factor contributing to the ASM decrease. Plan Language Summary Monsoonal rainfall has a certain influence on agriculture and industry in the regions of Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM). An understanding of the spatial-temporal variability of the ASM and the associated dynamics is vital for terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, forests, and landscapes. We have developed a 448-year ASM reconstruction back to 1566 CE using 10 tree ring chronologies from the margin region of ASM. We find that historical severe droughts and locust plague disasters during weak ASM events. The recent decreasing ASM trend persisting for over 80 years is unprecedented over the past 448 years. Coupled climate models show that increasing anthropogenic aerosol emissions are the dominant underlying factor. Our aim is that the time series will find a wide range of utility for understanding past climate variability and for predicting future climate change.
    • Applying Nyquist's method for stability determination to solar wind observations

      Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, Michael L.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab; Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Cambridge Massachusetts USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-10)
      The role instabilities play in governing the evolution of solar and astrophysical plasmas is a matter of considerable scientific interest. The large number of sources of free energy accessible to such nearly collisionless plasmas makes general modeling of unstable behavior, accounting for the temperatures, densities, anisotropies, and relative drifts of a large number of populations, analytically difficult. We therefore seek a general method of stability determination that may be automated for future analysis of solar wind observations. This work describes an efficient application of the Nyquist instability method to the Vlasov dispersion relation appropriate for hot, collisionless, magnetized plasmas, including the solar wind. The algorithm recovers the familiar proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, as well as instabilities that had been previously identified using fits extracted from in situ observations in Gary et al. (2016). Future proposed applications of this method are discussed. Plain Language Summary Waves in some plasma systems can grow, rather than damp, in time drawing energy from the departures from equilibrium. We present a means of efficiently determining if a particular system is susceptible to such unstable behavior. Such determination is typically made by solving a difficult mathematical problem or making simplifying assumptions about the system. Our technique is compared to previously studied cases with good agreement. We then discuss plans for future application of the technique to measurements of the solar wind, a hot and tenuous magnetized plasma that fills our solar system.
    • An Aridity Index‐Based Formulation of Streamflow Components

      Alves Meira Neto, Antonio; Roy, Tirthankar; Tarso S. de Oliveria, Paulo; Troch, Peter A.; Univ Arizona, Hydrol & Atmospher Sci; Univ Arizona, Biosphere 2 (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-09-04)
      Direct runoff and baseflow are the two primary components of total streamflow, and their accurate estimation is indispensable for a variety of hydrologic applications. While direct runoff is the quick response stemming from surface and shallow subsurface flow paths and is often associated with floods, baseflow represents the groundwater contribution from stored sources (e.g., groundwater) to streams and is crucial for environmental flow regulations, and water supply, among others. L'vovich (1979, ) proposed a two-step water balance partitioning, where precipitation is divided into direct runoff and catchment wetting, followed by the disaggregation of the latter into baseflow and evapotranspiration. Here, we investigate the role of the aridity index (ratio between mean-annual potential evapotranspiration and precipitation) in controlling the long-term (mean-annual) fluxes of direct runoff and baseflow. We present an analytical solution beginning with similar assumptions as proposed by Budyko (1974, ), leading to two complementary expressions for the two fluxes. The aridity index explained 77% and 89% of variability in direct runoff and baseflow from 378 catchments within the continental United States, while our formulations were able to reproduce the patterns of water balance partitioning proposed by L'vovich (1979, ) at the mean-annual timescale. Our approach can be used to further understand how climate and landscape controls the terrestrial water balance at mean-annual timescales, while also representing a step toward the prediction of baseflow and direct runoff at ungauged basins.
    • Assessing Gauge Undercatch Correction in Arctic Basins in Light of GRACE Observations

      Behrangi, Ali; Singh, Alka; Song, Yang; Panahi, Milad; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019-10-09)
      Precipitation measurements at gauges are often considered as reference truth for evaluation of satellite precipitation products. However, gauges may contain large errors. A major source of gauge‐measurement error is snowfall undercatch in high latitudes. We show that the two popular correction factors (CFs) used in the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre monitoring and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project products are different by more than 50%. The CFs can be as large as 3; thus, the choice of CF introduces large uncertainties. Here, in light of observation of storage change from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and by using the mass conservation principle, we assess the two popular CFs over six Arctic basins. By investigating monthly time series and multiyear precipitation rates over the studied basins using GRACE‐based analysis, the CF based on Fuchs dynamic correction model used in Global Precipitation Climatology Centre monitoring is preferred.