• Collateral Damage: The Impact of Foreclosures on New Home Mortgage Lending in the 1930s

      Fishback, Price; Fleitas, Sebastian; Rose, Jonathan; Snowden, Ken; Univ Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-16)
      The Great Depression of the 1930s involved a severe disruption in the supply of home mortgage credit. This paper empirically identifies a mechanism lying behind this credit crunch: the impairment of lenders' balance sheets by illiquid foreclosed real estate. With data on hundreds of building and loans (B&Ls), the leading mortgage lenders in this period, we find that the overhang of foreclosed real estate explains about 30 percent of the drop in new lending between 1930 and 1935.
    • Coronary artery spasm in a 15-year-old male in diabetic ketoacidosis

      Strah, Danielle; Seckeler, Michael; Mendelson, Jenny; University of Arizona, Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology); Department of Pediatrics (Critical Care and Emergency Medicine), University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2021-03-15)
      Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction are known complications of long-standing diabetes mellitus in adults, but coronary artery spasm is far more rare and has not been reported in children. We present a 15-year-old male in diabetic ketoacidosis who developed diffuse ST segment elevations and elevated troponin with normal coronary arteries on coronary angiography and no signs of pericarditis that was due to coronary artery spasm. © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press.
    • Marshallsussmanite, NaCaMnSi 3 O 8 (OH), a new pectolite-group mineral providing insight into hydrogen bonding in pyroxenoids

      Origlieri, M.J.; Downs, R.T.; Hoffman, D.R.; Ducea, M.N.; Post, J.E.; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
      Marshallsussmanite (IMA2013-067) is a new pyroxenoid mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Marshallsussmanite has ideal formula NaCaMnSi3O8(OH) and triclinic P symmetry. Marshallsussmanite forms vitreous pink bladed crystals to 2.1 cm. The mineral shows perfect cleavage on both {100} and {001}. The chemical composition from electron microprobe (average of 20 analyses) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer analysis (average of three analyses) is Li2O 0.43, Na2O 8.06, MgO 0.08, CaO 15.33, MnO 21.79, SiO2 51.71; totalling 97.40 wt.%. The empirical formula, normalized to 3 Si and assuming 1 H apfu is Li0.100Na0.906Ca0.953Mg0.007Mn1.071Si3O8(OH). Unit-cell parameters from single crystal X-ray diffraction are a = 7.7854(4), b = 6.9374(4), c = 6.8516(3) Å, α = 90.683(3)°, β = 94.330(3)°, γ = 102.856(3)°, V = 359.59(3) Å3; Z = 2. The crystal structure refinement converged with Robs = 0.0248 and site occupancy refinement gives crystal chemistry [Na0.948Li0.052][Ca0.793Mn0.207] [Mn0.937Ca0.063]Si3O8(OH). Marshallsussmanite is a single chain silicate with a repeat interval of three tetrahedra (i.e. dreier chain). Marshallsussmanite is a member of the pectolite group of pyroxenoids, which also includes barrydawsonite-(Y), cascandite, pectolite, serandite and tanohataite. Parallel silicate chains form layers, intercalated with well-ordered cation layers. Calcium and Mn both exhibit octahedral coordination, while Na has four bonded interactions in a coordination sphere (radius 3 Å) of seven separate O atoms. Procrystal electron density and bond valence modelling results are compared. The mineral has an unusually strong hydrogen bond with O4O3 separation of 2.458(2) Å. Unlike pectolite and serandite, O4 in marshallsussmanite acts as an H-bond donor and O3 is an H-bond acceptor. Cation ordering in pyroxenoids has a substantial impact on the H position and corresponding H-bonding schemata. Copyright © The Author(s), 2018. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

      Brobeck, John T.; University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2016-09-28)
      Frank Dobbins in memoriam In 1976 Louise Litterick proposed that Cambridge, Magdalene College, Pepys Library MS 1760 was originally prepared for Louis XII and Anne of Brittany of France but was gifted to Henry VIII of England in 1509. That the manuscript actually was prepared as a wedding gift from Louis to his third wife Mary Tudor in 1514, however, is indicated by its decorative and textual imagery, which mirrors the decoration of a book of hours given by Louis to Mary and the textual imagery used in her four royal entries. Analysis of the manuscript’s tabula and texts suggests that MS 1760 was planned by Louis’s chapelmaster Hilaire Bernonneau (d. 1524) at the king’s behest. The new theory elucidates the content and significance of Gascongne’s twelve-voice canon Ista est speciosa, which appeared beneath an original portrait of Mary Tudor and was intended to mirror the perfection of the Blessed Virgin and her ‘godchild’ Mary.
    • Neolithic pathways in East Asia: early sedentism on the Mongolian Plateau

      Zhao, Chao; Janz, Lisa; Bukhchuluun, Dashzeveg; Odsuren, Davaakhuu; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2021-01-27)
      The shift to sedentary lifeways represents a significant change in human adaptation. Despite the broadly contemporaneous timing of this transition across East Asia during the Holocene Climatic Optimum, such changes varied regionally. This article synthesises new and existing data from Neolithic sites on the Mongolian Plateau to reveal a simultaneous shift towards investment in site architecture, with distinct variation in the organisation of settlement and subsistence across biogeographic zones. The development of sedentary communities here emphasises the importance of climatic amelioration for incipient sedentism, and demonstrates how differences in ecological and cultural contexts can encourage various responses to the same environmental stimuli. Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Antiquity Publications Ltd.
    • Northern Welsh

      Bell, E.; Archangeli, D.B.; Anderson, S.J.; Hammond, M.; Webb-Davies, P.; Brooks, H.; University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
    • Optical Image Generation and High-precision Line-of-Sight Extraction for Mars Approach Navigation

      Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Gu, Long; Sun, Jun; Xiao, Dongdong; College of Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA (Cambridge University Press, 2018-07-03)
      High-precision line-of-sight extraction technique is essential for autonomous optical navigation during the Mars approach phase. To support future Mars exploration missions, an optical image simulation system is a necessary ground verification facility for Mars image generation and line-of-sight extraction algorithm tests. In this paper, an optical image generation procedure is first developed according to projection relationships, reference flight profiles and camera parameters. Next, a hybrid image processing and line-of-sight extraction algorithm is proposed through objective segmentation and rough edge detection, pseudo-edge elimination and precise edge detection, and robust ellipse fitting. Finally, an optical image simulation system is established, and the experimental results show that the proposed procedure can effectively simulate the optical image in the field-of-view of a Mars spacecraft, and the hybrid extraction algorithm can obtain high-precision Mars centroid information.
    • Phonological Processing of Stress by Native English Speakers Learning Spanish as a Second Language

      Ortín, R.; Simonet, M.; Department of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
      One feature of Spanish that presents some difficulties to second language (L2) learners whose first language (L1) is English concerns lexical stress. This study explores one aspect of the obstacle these learners face, weak phonological processing routines concerning stress inherited from their native language. Participants were L1 English L2 learners of Spanish. The experiment was a sequence-recall task with auditory stimuli minimally contrasting in stress (target) or segmental composition (baseline). The results suggest that learners are more likely to accurately recall sequences with stimuli contrasting in segmental composition than stress, suggesting reduced phonological processing of stress relative to a processing baseline. Furthermore, an increase in proficiency- A ssessed by means of grammatical and lexical tests-was found to be modestly associated with an increase in the accuracy of processing stress. We conclude that the processing routines of native English speakers lead to an acquisitional obstacle when learning Spanish as a L2. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press.
    • Preclassic Maya Houses and Rituals: Excavations at the Karinel Group, Ceibal

      MacLellan, Jessica; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06)
      The site of Ceibal was founded around the beginning of sedentary life in the Maya lowlands. Excavations at the Karinel Group within the site reveal domestic structures and ritual deposits dating to the Middle Preclassic, Late Preclassic, and Terminal Preclassic periods (c. 1000 BC-AD 300). The results complement data from Ceibal's Central Plaza and publications on early households in other regions of the lowlands, inviting future investigations of temporal and geographic variation in Preclassic Maya domestic rituals.
    • The Structure of Root Data and Smooth Regular Embeddings of Reductive Groups

      Taylor, Jay; University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05)
      We investigate the structure of root data by considering their decomposition as a product of a semisimple root datum and a torus. Using this decomposition, we obtain a parametrization of the isomorphism classes of all root data. By working at the level of root data, we introduce the notion of a smooth regular embedding of a connected reductive algebraic group, which is a refinement of the commonly used regular embeddings introduced by Lusztig. In the absence of Steinberg endomorphisms, such embeddings were constructed by Benjamin Martin. In an unpublished manuscript, Asai proved three key reduction techniques that are used for reducing statements about arbitrary connected reductive algebraic groups, equipped with a Frobenius endomorphism, to those whose derived subgroup is simple and simply connected. Using our investigations into root data we give new proofs of Asai's results and generalize them so that they are compatible with Steinberg endomorphisms. As an illustration of these ideas, we answer a question posed to us by Olivier Dudas concerning unipotent supports.
    • Test-Retest Reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview to Aid in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosis

      Hergert, D.C.; Sicard, V.; Stephenson, D.D.; Pabbathi Reddy, S.; Robertson-Benta, C.R.; Dodd, A.B.; Bedrick, E.J.; Gioia, G.A.; Meier, T.B.; Shaff, N.A.; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
      Objective: Retrospective self-report is typically used for diagnosing previous pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). A new semi-structured interview instrument (New Mexico Assessment of Pediatric TBI; NewMAP TBI) investigated test-retest reliability for TBI characteristics in both the TBI that qualified for study inclusion and for lifetime history of TBI. Method: One-hundred and eight-four mTBI (aged 8-18), 156 matched healthy controls (HC), and their parents completed the NewMAP TBI within 11 days (subacute; SA) and 4 months (early chronic; EC) of injury, with a subset returning at 1 year (late chronic; LC). Results: The test-retest reliability of common TBI characteristics [loss of consciousness (LOC), post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), retrograde amnesia, confusion/disorientation] and post-concussion symptoms (PCS) were examined across study visits. Aside from PTA, binary reporting (present/absent) for all TBI characteristics exhibited acceptable (≥0.60) test-retest reliability for both Qualifying and Remote TBIs across all three visits. In contrast, reliability for continuous data (exact duration) was generally unacceptable, with LOC and PCS meeting acceptable criteria at only half of the assessments. Transforming continuous self-report ratings into discrete categories based on injury severity resulted in acceptable reliability. Reliability was not strongly affected by the parent completing the NewMAP TBI. Conclusions: Categorical reporting of TBI characteristics in children and adolescents can aid clinicians in retrospectively obtaining reliable estimates of TBI severity up to a year post-injury. However, test-retest reliability is strongly impacted by the initial data distribution, selected statistical methods, and potentially by patient difficulty in distinguishing among conceptually similar medical concepts (i.e., PTA vs. confusion). Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2021.
    • Truth and Genre in Pindar

      Park, Arum; University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2013-05)
      By convention epinician poetry claims to be both obligatory and truthful, yet in the intersection of obligation and truth lies a seeming paradox: the poet presents his poetry as commissioned by a patron but also claims to be unbiased enough to convey the truth. In Slater's interpretation Pindar reconciles this paradox by casting his relationship to the patron as one of guest-friendship: when he declares himself a guest-friend of the victor, he agrees to the obligation ‘a) not to be envious of his xenos and b) to speak well of him. The argumentation is: Xenia excludes envy, I am a xenos, therefore I am not envious and consequently praise honestly’. Slater observes that envy may foster bias against the patron, but the problem of pro-patron bias remains: does the poet's friendship with and obligation to his patron produce praise at the expense of truth?
    • Use of rotational angiography in congenital cardiac catheterisations to generate three-dimensional-printed models

      Seckeler, Michael D.; Boe, Brian A.; Barber, Brent J.; Berman, Darren P.; Armstrong, Aimee K.; University of Arizona, Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology) (Cambridge University Press, 2021-02-18)
      Background: Three-dimensional printing is increasingly utilised for congenital heart defect procedural planning. CT or MR datasets are typically used for printing, but similar datasets can be obtained from three-dimensional rotational angiography. We sought to assess the feasibility and accuracy of printing three-dimensional models of CHD from rotational angiography datasets. Methods: Retrospective review of CHD catheterisations using rotational angiography was performed, and patient and procedural details were collected. Imaging data from rotational angiography were segmented, cleaned, and printed with polylactic acid on a Dremel® 3D Idea Builder (Dremel, Mount Prospect, IL, USA). Printing time and materials' costs were captured. CT scans of printed models were compared objectively to the original virtual models. Two independent, non-interventional paediatric cardiologists provided subjective ratings of the quality and accuracy of the printed models. Results: Rotational angiography data from 15 catheterisations on vascular structures were printed. Median print time was 3.83 hours, and material costs were $2.84. The CT scans of the printed models highly matched with the original digital models (root mean square for Hausdorff distance 0.013 ± 0.003 mesh units). Independent reviewers correctly described 80 and 87% of the models (p = 0.334) and reported high quality and accuracy (5 versus 5, p = NS; κ = 0.615). Conclusion: Imaging data from rotational angiography can be converted into accurate three-dimensional-printed models of CHD. The cost of printing the models was negligible, but the print time was prohibitive for real-time use. As the speed of three-dimensional printing technology increases, novel future applications may allow for printing patient-specific devices based on rotational angiography datasets. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press.