• Altered cisplatin pharmacokinetics during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis contributes to reduced nephrotoxicity

      Jilek, J.L.; Frost, K.L.; Jacobus, K.A.; He, W.; Toth, E.L.; Goedken, M.; Cherrington, N.J.; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2021)
      Disease-mediated alterations to drug disposition constitute a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Cisplatin (CDDP) elicits nephrotoxicity due to exposure in proximal tubule cells during renal secretion. Alterations to renal drug transporter expression have been discovered during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), however, associated changes to substrate toxicity is unknown. To test this, a methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced rat model was used to evaluate NASH-associated changes to CDDP pharmacokinetics, transporter expression, and toxicity. NASH rats administered CDDP (6 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed 20% less nephrotoxicity than healthy rats. Likewise, CDDP renal clearance decreased in NASH rats from 7.39 to 3.83 mL/min, renal secretion decreased from 6.23 to 2.80 mL/min, and renal CDDP accumulation decreased by 15%, relative to healthy rats. Renal copper transporter-1 expression decreased, and organic cation transporter-2 and ATPase copper transporting protein-7b increased slightly, reducing CDDP secretion. Hepatic CDDP accumulation increased 250% in NASH rats relative to healthy rats. Hepatic organic cation transporter-1 induction and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 and multidrug resistance-associated protein-4 reduction may contribute to hepatic CDDP sequestration in NASH rats, although no drug-related toxicity was observed. These data provide a link between NASH-induced hepatic and renal transporter expression changes and CDDP renal clearance, which may alter nephrotoxicity. © 2021 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
    • The key role of gut–liver axis in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity and enterotoxicity

      He, Y.; Ma, J.; Fan, X.; Ding, L.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Q.-Y.; Lin, G.; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2021)
      Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are the most common phytotoxins with documented human hepatotoxicity. PAs require metabolic activation by cytochromes P450 to generate toxic intermediates which bind to proteins and form protein adducts, thereby causing cytotoxicity. This study investigated the role of the gut–liver axis in PA intoxication and the underlying mechanisms. We exposed mice to retrorsine (RTS), a representative PA, and for the first time found RTS-induced intestinal epithelium damage and disruption to intestinal barrier function. Using mice with tissue-selective ablation of P450 activity, we found that hepatic P450s, but not intestinal P450s, were essential for PA bioactivation. Besides, in RTS-exposed, bile duct-cannulated rats, we found the liver-derived reactive PA metabolites were transported by bile into the intestine to exert enterotoxicity. The impact of gut-derived pathogenic factors in RTS-induced hepatotoxicity was further studied in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis. DSS treatment increased the hepatic endotoxin level and depleted hepatic reduced glutathione, thereby suppressing the PA detoxification pathway. Compared to RTS-exposed normal mice, the colitic mice displayed more severe RTS-induced hepatic vasculature damage, fibrosis, and steatosis. Overall, our findings provide the first mode-of-action evidence of PA-induced enterotoxicity and highlight the importance of gut barrier function in PA-induced liver injury. © 2021 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences