• Health-seeking behaviors and health information gathering in older Mexican American males

      Ortiz-Dowling, Evangeline M.; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Larkey, Linda K.; Hooker, Steven P.; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing (EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION-AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, 2019-10)
      Evidence suggests that men's health disparities are linked to attitudes and beliefs toward health promotion and risk reduction, participation in high-risk behaviors, and limited health care access and use influenced by socioeconomic challenges. However, we know less about the specific factors related to health disparities in older Mexican American males. The purpose of this study was to explore the cultural. social, environmental, and gender factors influencing health-seeking behaviors and health information gathering in older Mexican American males. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 older Mexican American males aged 65-80 years. Based on language preference, interviews were conducted in either Spanish or English. A standardized moderator's guide was used to examine the participant's perceptions of health, maintenance of health, gender influences on health, and sources of men's health information and health promotion programs. Data were collected, organized, and analyzed following the methodology of transcendental phenomenology and the social ecological model. Two major themes related to health-seeking behaviors and health information gathering emerged: (a) top external sources heeded include women, health care providers, and the Internet and (b) men regard inner prompts for self-determined self-care. Future research should consider these external sources and inner prompts when developing targeted health promotion interventions, such as physical activity programs, with older Mexican American males.
    • Level of personality functioning as a predictor of psychosocial functioning-Concurrent validity of criterion A

      Buer Christensen, Tore; Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Nysæter, Tor-Erik; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E; Selvik, Sara Germans; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Psychiat (EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION-AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, 2019-10-03)
      The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines personality functioning by assessment of impairment in Identity and Self-direction (Self component) and in Empathy and Intimacy (Interpersonal). These four domains constitute the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, a trans-diagnostic measure of PD severity. The association between the Level of Personality Functioning Scale and psychosocial impairment based on other previously established psychosocial functioning instruments has not been reported. A total of 317 individuals, including a representative clinical sample of 282 patients (192 with a personality disorder [PD] diagnosis), was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 AMPD Module I. Self-reported impairment was measured by the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and social and occupational impairment was assessed by the functioning score of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-F). WSAS and GAF-F both correlated significantly with mean LPFS scores and the sum of DSM-IV PD criteria. For both measures, the mean LPFS was a stronger predictor for psychosocial impairment than the sum of DSM-IV PD criteria. Within the LPFS, the Self component was a better predictor than the Interpersonal component for both WSAS and GAF-F. For the four domains, the results diverged, with Identity as the strongest predictor by far for WSAS. Empathy was the only significant predictor for impairment evaluated by GAF-F, but its contribution to variance was not substantial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).