• Considering intergroup emotions to improve diversity and inclusion in the geosciences

      Perera, Viranga; Mead, Chris; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Stanley, Sabine; Angappan, Regupathi; MacKenzie, Shannon; Barik, Ankit; Buxner, Sanlyn; Department of Teaching, Learning, and Sociocultural Studies, University of Arizona (Informa UK, 2021-03-08)
      The future viability of the geosciences is challenged, since as a community we continue to lack demographic diversity representative of the wider population. Fundamentally, dominant cultural, historical, and socioeconomic factors contribute to the lack of diversity and those factors typically change slowly over generations. Proposals for more immediate changes have had some effect but have not led to large-scale changes in the demographics of the geosciences. In this commentary, we discuss the concept of intergroup emotions and recommend its use as a strategy for improving diversity and inclusion within the geosciences. Intergroup emotions are emotions that arise as a result of an individual’s identification with one or more social groups, which makes them particularly pertinent in the context of diversity and inclusion. While we call on the geoscience community to conduct discipline-based research in collaboration with educational and social psychologists, we argue that there is sufficient evidence to also begin implementing interventions in classrooms, laboratories, and in the field. We believe strategies based on intergroup emotions will make significant improvements in diversity and inclusion within the geosciences.
    • Kinetic Alfvénic cnoidal waves in Saturnian magnetospheric plasmas

      Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Kuldeep; Saini, N. S.; Department of Planetary Sciences-Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Informa UK, 2021-12-28)
      The characteristics of kinetic Alfvénic cnoidal waves (KACWs) in Saturn's magnetosphere plasma composed of two temperature superthermal electrons and inertial ions are presented. The Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and its cnoidal wave solution are derived by adopting reductive perturbation technique. Only positive potential kinetic Alfvénic cnoidal and solitary waves are evolved in Saturnian magnetospheric plasma. The influence of superthermality of cold electrons, concentration of hot electrons, plasma beta and angle of propagation of the wave with respect to the magnetic field has been analyzed on the characteristics of KACWs. The findings of this investigation may shed the light on the possible existence of KACWs and acceleration as well as energy transportation in space plasmas especially in Saturn's magnetosphere.
    • The subject, the other, and black political identities among Afro-Brazilians

      Silva, Antonio José Bacelar da; de Almeida, Alba Riva Brito; Center for Latin American Studies, University of Arizona (Informa UK, 2021-07-12)
      This study combines anthropology and psychoanalysis to explore the formation of black identities in Afro-Brazilians’ antiracist struggles. Using data from long-term ethnographic fieldwork among black activists in Salvador and current observations of social media, we explore how various antiracist struggles have become discursive microsystems that organize individual identities into collective processes. Beyond analyzing Afro-Brazilian activism as a collective force, it is important to account for the differences between individual black subjects. Since it is through the other that the subject continually experiences itself, we listen to the individual that is embedded in the social field to demonstrate that the struggle between sameness and difference is at the heart of antiracist activism among Afro-Brazilians. As Afro-Brazilians embrace antiracist activism, their black political identities become dialogized, or defined by their position in relation to the other and recognition of how others perceive them in a country where skin color, not ancestry, determines racial difference.